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Baumann Leslie L Department of Dermatology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. - - 2003
Crow's feet develop with age and are one of the earliest signs of the normal aging process. Botulinum toxin type A, approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of glabellar wrinkles in April 2002, has been used off-label to treat facial wrinkles since 1981. Botulinum toxin type ...
Kobayashi Hiroshi - - 2003
We encountered a 12-year-old girl, who had contracted food-borne botulism, and subsequently suffered from obstinate constipation for more than half a year. Even on hospital day 122, Clostridium botulinum and its toxin were detected in her stool specimens. The potency of the toxin of the blood serum sampled before treatment ...
Erickson M C - - 2003
In this article, information related to anthrax and its etiologic agent, Bacillus anthracis, in food is reviewed. The major topics discussed include the taxonomic relationship of B. anthracis to other Bacillus species, methods used for the recovery of the organism from surfaces and foods, routes of infection, the pathogenesis of ...
Hwang Pai-An - - 2003
The toxins in the new gastropods Oliva miniacea, O. mustelina and O. nirasei implicated in a food paralytic poisoning incident in South Taiwan in February 2002 were studied. It was found that the three species of gastropods contained moderate amounts of toxin in edible portion only, and the highest toxicity ...
Lin Yuan-Tong - - 2003
Clostridium perfringens is a leading cause of bacterial food-borne illness in countries where consumption of meat and poultry is high. For example, each year in the United States, this organism is the second or third most common cause of confirmed cases of food-borne illness. Surveys of the incidence of this ...
Ito Katsutoshi - - 2003
Assays were made for paralytic toxicity of marine invertebrates inhabiting at the coasts of Hiroshima Bay, where the infestation of bivalves such as cultured oysters with paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) has been occurred. The starfish Asterina pectinifera collected at the estuary of Nikoh River, Hiroshima Bay, was found to contain ...
Taleb Hamid - - 2003
A monitoring program for bivalve molluscs contaminated by algal toxins was established in 1992 at different stations along the Atlantic Moroccan shore. The presence of toxicity in bivalve molluscs commercially exploited was tested fortnightly using the mouse bioassay method. Results obtained from this surveillance indicate paralytic shellfish poisoning is responsible ...
Kozlowsky-Suzuki, B
Feeding, reproduction and accumulation of cyanobacterial toxins by the calanoid copepods Acartia bifilosa and Eurytemora affinis were studied during a cruise in the northern Baltic Sea. The experiments were carried out using both mixtures of natural plankton communities, mixtures containing the toxic Nodularia spumigena, and diets containing only the toxic ...
Pei Ming H - - 2003
The mycoparasite Sphaerellopsis filum (teleomorph Eudarluca caricis) was applied simultaneously with Melampsora larici-epitea on to willow leaf discs using eight concentrations of conidia. Inoculum densities were quantified and the numbers of uredinia of the rust, pycnidia and conidia of S. filum and rust spores produced per leaf disc were measured ...
Kreitner Michaela - - 2003
A new method for sanitation based on the photodynamic effect is introduced. Photosensitisers are compounds that generate cytotoxic oxygen species and free radicals after excitation with appropriate visible light. The cell killing efficacy is due to their chemical structure, to the actual environment and therefore also to their degree of ...
Jagannath A - - 2003
AIMS: The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis 168 spores subjected to the combined stress of pH, temperature and sodium chloride in a buffer system was modelled. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacillus subtilis 168 spore suspension in 50 mmol l-1 potassium phosphate buffer was heated in an open system using a block heater. ...
Mendez-Eastman Susan K - - 2003
BOTOX cosmetic is proving to be an affordable alternative for thousands of people looking to enhance their appearance without the cost, risks and downtime associated with surgical procedures. Botulinum toxin is a neuromuscular blocking agent produced by Clostridium Botulinum, an anaerobic bacterium. When first discovered BOTOX was pinpointed as the ...
Cooper K M - - 2002
Zeranol, an oestrogenic growth promoter in food animals, is banned within the European Union (EU). However, commercially available immunoassay kits for zeranol cross-react with toxins formed by naturally occurring Fusarium spp. fungi, leading to false-positive screening results. This paper describes the validation of a specificity enhanced, rapid dry reagent time-resolved ...
Fach Patrick - - 2002
The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F was determined in 214 fresh fish and environmental samples collected in Northern France. A newly developed PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used in this survey detected more than 80% of samples inoculated with fewer than 10 C. botulinum spores per ...
Llewellyn L E - - 2002
After ingestion of a specimen of the crab Zosimus aeneus (Xanthidae), an East Timorese adult male died within several hours. Xanthid crabs are known to harbour paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), tetrodotoxin and palytoxin. A post-mortem examination did not find any obvious pathological abnormalities. This absence of pathologies is more often ...
Ferdin M E - - 2002
Blooms of domoic acid (DA) synthesizing diatoms (Pseudo-nitzschia spp.) have been associated with the death and injury of hundreds of marine shorebirds and mammals, exposed humans to potentially serious health risks, and threatened to significantly impact coastal fisheries and commerce dependent on marine resources. While indicator organisms are widely utilized ...
Pourshaban Manoocheher - - 2002
Several micro-organisms capable of producing botulinum neurotoxin type E, though phenotypically similar to Clostridium butyricum (a normally non-neurotoxigenic organism), have recently been isolated in Italy and China. Some of these micro-organisms had been implicated in food-borne botulism, a serious neuroparalytic disease. The taxonomic identity of the type E botulinum toxin-producing ...
Guinebretière Marie-Hélène - - 2002
The enterotoxigenic profiles of 51 B. cereus food-related strains were compared to those of 37 B. cereus food-poisoning strains. cytK and association of hbl-nhe-cytK enterotoxin genes were more frequent among diarrheal strains (73 and 63%) than among food-borne strains (37 and 33%). Unlike diarrheal strains, food-borne strains showed frequent nhe ...
te Giffel M C - - 2002
Spore-forming bacteria can survive food-processing treatments. In the dairy industry, Bacillus and Clostridium species determine the shelf-life of a variety of heat-treated milk products, mainly if the level of post-process contamination is low. In order to minimize problems caused by bacterial spores in foods and food production processes a chain ...
Harvey Sydney M - - 2002
Botulism results from consumption of preformed toxin or in vivo toxin elaboration in wounds or intestine. Of U.S. food-borne botulism cases since 1950, the majority were due to toxin A, but a significant number of suspect cases were never confirmed by culture or toxin detection. We report here a possible ...
Tsukiyama Ryo-Ichi - - 2002
Licochalcone A was isolated from the roots of licorice, Glycyrrhiza inflata, which has various uses in the food and pharmaceutical industries; isolation was followed by extraction with ethanol and column chromatography with silica gel. In this study, the activities of licochalcone A against some food contaminant microorganisms were evaluated in ...
Power A J - - 2002
The red whelk Neptunea antiqua (family Buccinidae) is a sublittoral species of marine prosobranch mollusc that occurs in the cold temperate waters of the Eastern Atlantic Boreal Region. A clearly defined seasonal cycle was revealed in the concentration of the whelk's salivary gland neurotoxin, tetramine, ranging from undetectable levels to ...
Stewart Cynthia M - - 2002
The formulation of shelf-stable intermediate-moisture products is a critical food safety issue. Therefore, knowing the precise boundary for the growth-no-growth interface of Staphylococcus aureus is necessary for food safety risk assessment. This study was designed to examine the effects of various humectants and to produce growth boundary models as tools ...
Agata N - - 2002
To determine the role of Bacillus cereus as a potential pathogen in food poisoning, the production of an emetic toxin (cereulide) by B. cereus was quantified in various food sources. The amount of emetic toxin in 13 of 14 food samples implicated in vomiting-type food poisoning cases ranged from 0.01 ...
Martins Luciano Moura - - 2002
One hundred and ninety four Aeromonas isolates (99 from food and 95 from clinical sources) were analyzed as to the species involved and the toxins produced. Of the clinical isolates of Aeromonas, 29.4% were enterotoxigenic, 43.1% were hemolytic and 89% were cytotoxigenic. Among the food isolates, 18.2% were enterotoxigenic, 17.1% ...
Augustynowicz E - - 2002
Two sets of primers designed to detect Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (plc) and enterotoxin (cpe) genes in a single PCR reaction were applied to a collection of 64 predominantly food poisoning-related C. perfringens isolates. In-vitro enterotoxin synthesis was tested serologically after inducing sporulation. Of the 64 isolates, 26 were clearly ...
Schollenberger Margit - - 2002
A total of 60 samples of wheat flour were collected during the first 6 months of 1999 from mills and food stores in an area in southwest Germany. Samples included whole-grain and two types of white flour with these three groups characterized by a high, medium and low ash content. ...
González José C - - 2002
The natural contamination of shellfish with diarrheic shellfish toxins (DSP) has important public health implications. To avoid the economic effects of toxic episodes on shellfish farmers and the related industry, research on artificial methods alternative to the natural detoxification of shellfish is needed. Because the usual thermal processes are not ...
Cobb S P - - 2002
A large outbreak of suspected botulism occurred on a dairy farm. The affected animals were listless and showed signs ranging from hindlimb unsteadiness to lateral recumbency, although the most common presentation was sternal recumbency with an apparent hindlimb weakness when stimulated to rise. Postmortem examinations revealed no conclusive gross pathology ...
Suzuki Tetsuya - - 2002
Electrolyzed anodic NaCl solutions [EW+], prepared by the electrolysis of 0.1% NaCl, have been shown to instantly inactivate most pathogens that cause food-borne disease. Elimination of food-borne pathogens does not necessarily guarantee food safety because enterotoxins produced by pathogens may remain active. We have tested whether EW+ can inactivate Staphylococcal ...
Holecková Beata - - 2002
Gastroenteritis is one of the most frequent microbial diseases, which is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with staphylococcal enterotoxins. In our study, the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B (SEA, SEB) and the presence of respective staphylococcal enterotoxin genes were investigated in the field S. aureus isolates obtained ...
Vale Paulo - - 2002
Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) were confirmed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection both in extracts of digestive glands and edible parts of Portuguese shellfish. No dinophysistoxin-1 was found even in highly contaminated samples examined. However, only in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) were these two parent toxins commonly ...
Warriner K - - 2002
AIMS: To determine the recovery of Bacillus subtilis spores loaded onto preformed cartons and irradiated with u.v.-excimer laser (248 nm) light. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacillus subtilis spores irradiated with u.v.-excimer laser light retained phase brightness, but were blocked at various stages of germination. In the presence of germinant, the majority ...
Dantigny P - - 2002
Spore germination requires microscopic observation whereas fungal growth results in a macroscopic examination. This paper aims at establishing a relationship between the percentage of germinated spores and parameters easily available from visible development. About 225 spores of Mucor racemosus were inoculated on PDA medium and incubated at 15 degrees and ...
Atluri J B - - 2002
Agricultural practices such as harvesting of crops cause the pathogens to disseminate in abundance and may cause diseases, like skin and respiratory allergies in an epidemic form. Also the farm workers were likely to be exposed repeatedly to high doses of fungal spore allergens from crop harvesting operations. At Srikakulam, ...
Lindsay D - - 2002
AIMS: Daily exposure to 100 p.p.m. chlorine dioxide of single species and binary biofilms of dairy-associated Bacillus cereus DL5 and Pseudomonas fluorescens M2, attached to stainless steel surfaces in a laboratory flow system, was studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Surfaces were sampled daily before and after sanitizer treatment and cells and ...
Landers Margo M Biopsychology Program, Hunter College, CUNY, NewYork, NY 10021, - - 2002
Studies of sensorimotor systems such as the whisking system of rodents have suggested that associations between body movements and their sensory consequences during development may make an important contribution to the functional organization of the system. In the present study we have explored the possible utility of Botulinum toxin for ...
Khadre - - 2001
Elimination of contaminating spores on packaging materials and food-contact surfaces remains a challenge to the food industry. Hydrogen peroxide and chlorine are the most commonly used sanitizers to eliminate these contaminants, and ozone was recommended recently as an alternative. Hence, we compared the sporicidal action of ozone and hydrogen peroxide ...
Villatte F - - 2002
Anatoxin-a(s) is a hazardous toxin released by cyanobacteria during bacterial blooms. A simple and fast method to detect this hazardous compound using a biosensor based on the electrochemical detection of the activity of acetylcholinesterase was developed. Among several acetylcholinesterases, electric eel enzyme was found to be the most sensitive to ...
Lindström M - - 2001
Botulism is diagnosed by detecting botulinum neurotoxin and Clostridium botulinum cells in the patient and in suspected food samples. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F in food and fecal material was developed. The method employs four new ...
Becker K - - 2001
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) caused by enterotoxigenic staphylococci is one of the main food-borne diseases. In contrast to Staphylococcus aureus, a systematic screening for the enterotoxins has not yet been performed on the genomic level for the coagulase-positive species S. intermedius. Therefore, the enterotoxigenic potential of 281 different veterinary (canine, ...
Collier R J - - 2001
Diphtheria toxin is one of the most extensively studied and well understood bacterial toxins. Ever since its discovery in the late 1800's this toxin has occupied a central focus in the field of toxinology. In this review, I present a chronology of major discoveries that led to our current understanding ...
Madsen J M - - 2001
Toxins are toxic chemical compounds synthesized in nature by living organisms. Classifiable by molecular weight, source, preferred targets in the body, and mechanism of action, they include the most potent poisons on the planet, although considerations of production, weaponization, delivery, environmental stability, and host factors place practical limits on their ...
Suominen I - - 2001
Forty-four B. pumilus isolates of food poisoning, clinical, environmental and industrial origins were investigated for toxin production using the boar spermatozoan motility assay, previously shown to be a sensitive method for detecting non-protein toxins from B. cereus and B. licheniformis. The three toxic isolates originated from live tree, indoor air ...
Steele F M - - 2001
The potential for Clostridium perfringens spores to germinate and grow in cooked, ready-to-eat turkey products was evaluated to determine a safe cooling rate within the critical temperatures of 48.9 C (120 F) through 12.8 C (55 F). Raw turkey deli breast roasts were inoculated with a cocktail of C. perfringens ...
Lindström M M Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. - - 2001
The safety of refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs) with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum is under continuous evaluation. In the present study, mild (P7.0(85.0) values 0 to 2 min [P, pasteurization value; z-value 7.0 degrees C; reference temperature 85.0 degrees C]) and increased (P7.0(85.0) values 67 to 515 ...
Malone L A - - 2001
Newly emerged adult bees were fed with Nosema apis spores subjected to various treatments, and their longevity, proportions of bees infected, and spores per bee recorded. Spores lost viability after 1, 3, or 6 months in active manuka or multifloral honey, after 3 days in multifloral honey, and after 21 ...
Eneroth A - - 2001
The contamination of pasteurized milk by Bacillus cereus during the filling process was studied in two dairy plants. Samples of pasteurized milk were taken at four different sites along the production line. The samples were stored at 7 degrees C for 7 d, or at 10 degrees C for 5 ...
Le Louarn C - - 2001
Our improved understanding of the functional anatomy of the face and of the action of the botulinum toxin A leads us to determine a new injection procedure which consequently decreases the risk of eyebrow and eyelid ptosis, and increases the toxin injection's possibilities and efficiencies. Variable toxin injection concentrations adapted ...
Moroño A - - 2001
The accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins by bivalves is a serious threat to public health all over the world. However, very little is known about the uptake kinetics of these toxins and the environmental factors that may modify this process. We have studied the effect of mussel size, ...
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