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Luckas B - - 2005
The frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) appear to be on the rise globally. There is also evidence of the geographic spreading of toxic strains of these algae. Consequently, methods had to be established and new ones are still needed for the evaluation of possible hazards caused by ...
Murindamombe Gervas Y - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological safety and quality of street foods sold in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 148 point-of-sale composite street food samples were bought and analyzed between June 2001 and May 2002. The analysis focused on the level of contamination of various street ...
Normanno G - - 2005
Staphylococcus aureus is a very common organism capable of producing several enterotoxins (SEs) that cause intoxication symptoms of varying intensity in humans when ingested through contaminated food. This paper reports the results of an investigation on the presence of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococci (CPS) and S. aureus in several food products marketed ...
Schollenberger Margit - - 2005
A total of 219 samples of foodstuffs of plant origin, consisting of grain-based food, pseudocereals and gluten-free food as well as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and nuts, were randomly collected during 2000 and 2001 in food and health food stores. A spectra of 13 trichothecene toxins including diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol (MAS), ...
Kawamura-Sato Kumiko - - 2005
An emetic toxin cereulide, produced by Bacillus cereus, causes emetic food poisonings, but a method for quantitative measurement of cereulide has not been well established. A current detection method is a bioassay method using the HEp-2 cell vacuolation test, but it was unable to measure an accurate concentration. We established ...
Yoon So-Yeon - - 2005
The TaqMan real-time PCR method for the quantitative detection of C. botulinum type A was developed based on sequence-specific hybridization probes. The validity of this assay was verified by using 10 genera of 20 strains, including reference strains of C. botulinum types A, B, C, D, E and F. The ...
De Gussem Kris - - 2005
Fungi are important organisms in ecosystems, in industrial and pharmaceutical production and are valuable food sources as well. Classical identification is often time-consuming and specialistic. In this study, Raman spectroscopy is applied to the analysis of fungal spores of Lactarius, an economically and ecologically important genus of Basidiomycota. Raman spectra ...
Ehling-Schulz Monika - - 2004
Bacillus cereus is the causative agent of two distinct forms of gastroenteritic disease connected to food-poisoning. It produces one emesis-causing toxin and three enterotoxins that elicit diarrhea. Due to changing lifestyles and eating habits, B. cereus is responsible for an increasing number of food-borne diseases in the industrial world. In ...
Del Torre M - - 2004
Sales and consumption of refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs) have increased many-fold in Europe over the last 10 years. The safety and quality of these convenient ready-to-eat foods relies on a combination of mild heat treatment and refrigerated storage, sometimes in combination with other hurdles such as mild ...
Plomp Marco - - 2005
The capability to image single microbial cell surfaces at nanometer scale under native conditions would profoundly impact mechanistic and structural studies of pathogenesis, immunobiology, environmental resistance, and biotransformation. Here, using in vitro atomic force microscopy, we have directly visualized high-resolution native structures of bacterial endospores, including the exosporium and spore ...
Lindström Miia - - 2004
The largest reported outbreak of type C botulism in fur production animals is described. Epidemiological investigation of 117 out of 157 (response rate, 74.5%) farms revealed that 44,130 animals died or were euthanized, while 8,033 animals with milder symptoms recovered. The overall death rate in all animals at risk was ...
Jääskeläinen E L - - 2004
Factors influencing the production of cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus in food and laboratory media were investigated, using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and sperm motility inhibition bioassay for detection and quantitation. Oxygen was essential for production of the emetic toxin by B. cereus. When beans, rice or ...
Francisco Gerard E - - 2004
In the United States, the popularity of botulinum toxins as agents to treat muscle hypertonia has grown significantly over the last decade, despite lack of approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the indication of spasticity. Botox (botulinum toxin type A) and Myobloc (botulinum toxin type B) are Food ...
Moreno Isabel M - - 2004
The presence of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins) in waters and food increases the risk of toxicity to animal and human health. These toxins can degrade in the human gastrointestinal tract before they are absorbed. To evaluate this possible degradation, water samples spiked with known concentrations of microcystins MC-LR, MC-RR, and MC-YR, ...
Launay F M - - 2004
There is currently little information concerning the prevalence of zeranol and taleranol in animal urine following metabolism of the naturally occurring Fusarium spp. toxins. An epidemiological study is described which involves four European Union control laboratories in which 8008 urine samples were screened for the presence of zeranol using a ...
James K J - - 2004
Azaspiracid poisoning (AZP) is a recently discovered toxic syndrome that was identified following severe gastrointestinal illness from the consumption of contaminated mussels (Mytilus edulis). The implicated toxins, azaspiracids, are polyethers with unprecedented structural features. Studies toward total toxin synthesis revealed that the initial published structures were incorrect and they have ...
Beuchat Larry R - - 2004
Chlorine, ClO2, and a commercial raw fruit and vegetable sanitizer were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus cereus and spores of Bacillus thuringiensis. The ultimate goal was to use one or both species as a potential surrogate(s) for Bacillus anthracis in studies that focus ...
Meehan Patrick J - - 2004
Autonomous detection systems (ADSs) are under development to detect agents of biologic and chemical terror in the environment. These systems will eventually be able to detect biologic and chemical hazards reliably and provide approximate real-time alerts that an agent is present. One type of ADS that tests specifically for Bacillus ...
Hwang J Y - - 2004
We tested the activity of 11 main compounds identified from Pinus plants on the growth of Dictyostelium discoideum NC4. Four concentrations (1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 microg/microl) of each compound were tested using a disk volatilization technique following germination of D. discoideum NC4 spores. Photographs of D. discoideum NC4 fruiting bodies ...
Smith Sarah - - 2004
Proper temperature control is essential in preventing Clostridium perfringens food poisoning. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service cooling guidelines offer two options for the cooling of meat products: follow a standard time-temperature schedule or validate that alternative cooling regimens result in no more than a 1-log ...
Cherington Michael - - 2004
Botulism is both an old and an emerging disease. Over 100 years ago, the classic food-borne type was found to be caused by ingesting contaminated food containing the toxin produced by a bacteria. In the first half of the 20th century a second form, wound botulism, was discovered. Three additional ...
Daubenspeck James M - - 2004
Spores of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, are enclosed by a prominent loose fitting layer called the exosporium. The exosporium consists of a basal layer and an external hairlike nap. The filaments of the nap are composed of a highly immunogenic glycoprotein called BclA, which has a long, ...
Frean John - - 2004
Although wildfowl and domestic livestock botulism has been recognized as a problem in southern Africa, very few human cases have ever been described in the region. In late February 2002, two siblings aged eight and 12 years developed acute flaccid paralysis and died. Mouse bioassays revealed the presence of type ...
Collado J - - 2004
The heat resistance of a wild strain of Bacillus cereus spores isolated from liquid egg was characterized, and the effect of the nutritional germinant inosine on the spore population was then studied, considering different factors such as germination temperature, inosine concentration, and age of spore culture. The heat resistance clearly ...
Oikawa Hiroshi - - 2004
Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin in two shore crab species, Telmessus acutidens and Charybdis japonica, were compared with the toxin in the prey mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and causative dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense, all having been collected at Onahama, Fukushima Prefecture, in the northern part of Japan. When the toxicities were detected in ...
Louzao M C - - 2004
Marine toxins such as brevetoxins and ciguatoxins are produced by dinoflagellates and can accumulate in seafood. These toxins affect humans through seafood consumption. Intoxication is mainly characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disorders and, in most severe cases, by cardiovascular problems. To prevent the consumption of food contaminated with these toxins, ...
Flynn Timothy Corcoran TC Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA. - - 2004
Myobloc is the currently available commercial formulation of type B botulinum toxin. Released in the United States in 2000, it is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cervical dystonia. The most commonly used botulinum toxins, the type A toxins (Botox and Dysport), affect the SNAP-25 ...
Carlin Frédéric - - 2004
Food raw materials used in refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs) manufactured in France were surveyed for Clostridium botulinum types A, B and E using PCR-Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) and mouse bioassay for detection respectively of cells and toxins in enrichment broth. Portions of 25 to 50 g of ...
Stommel Elijah W. - - 2004
Fish and shellfish account for a significant portion of food-borne illnesses throughout the world. In general, three classes of diseases result from seafood consumption--intoxication, allergies, and infections. In this review, the authors discuss several seafood-borne toxins, including domoic acid, which acts on the central nervous system. In addition, the authors ...
Erbguth Frank J - - 2004
Food-borne botulism probably has accompanied mankind since its beginning. However, we have only few historical sources and documents on food poisoning before the 19th century. Some ancient dietary laws and taboos may reflect some knowledge about the life-threatening consumption of poisoned food. One example of such a dietary taboo is ...
Vernozy-Rozand C - - 2004
AIMS: Immunologically based assays for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins are numerous. These techniques include radio immunosorbent assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), some of which are available as commercial kits. The purpose of this study was to compare the performances of three commercial immunoassays. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two automated ...
Østensvik Ø - - 2004
AIMS: To investigate the presence and numbers of Bacillus spp. spores in surface waters and examine isolates belonging to the B. cereus and B. subtilis groups for cytotoxicity, and to discuss the presence of cytotoxic Bacillus spp. in surface water as hazard identification in a risk assessment approach in the ...
Whalon Mark E - - 2003
The insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) represent a class of biopesticides that are attractive alternatives to broad-spectrum "hard" chemistries. The U.S. Food Quality Protection Act and the European Economic Council directives aimed at reducing the use of carbamate and organophosphate insecticides were expected to increase the use of narrowly ...
Hexsel Dóris - - 2003
The use of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for facial rejuvenation was first systematically developed by Carruthers and Carruthers on the upper aspect of the face. In the early 1990s, the first studies of the cosmetic use of BTX-A were published. BTX-A was only approved in 2002, however, by the ...
Kalluri Pavani - - 2003
Foodborne botulism is caused by potent neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum. We investigated a large outbreak of foodborne botulism among church supper attendees in Texas. We conducted a cohort study of attendees and investigated the salvage store that sold the implicated foods. We identified 15 cases of botulism (40%) among 38 ...
Brett Moira M - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent times the number of blooms of algae that produce toxins has increased in frequency, intensity and geographical distribution. This review describes some of the illnesses caused by fish and shellfish contaminated with toxins produced by marine algae and by bacteria. RECENT FINDINGS: The increase in ...
Shriver-Lake Lisa C - - 2003
Contamination of food with infectious agents, intentional or not, is a global concern with far-reaching economic and social impact. Staphylococcal enterotoxins are a major cause of food poisoning, but most methods for the identification of these agents in food require extensive pretreatment or concentration of the sample prior to analysis. ...
Jääskeläinen E L - - 2003
The in vitro boar spermatozoon test was compared with the LC ion trap MS analysis for measuring the cereulide content of a pasta dish, implemented in serious emetic food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus. Both assays showed that the poisonous food contained approximately 1.6 microg of cereulide g(-1) implying the ...
Kitamoto Noritoshi - - 2003
In this study, the bactericidal effects of Japanese alkaline foods on food-poisoning bacteria were evaluated. Konjac is an alkaline food soaked in calcinated calcium (the pH of konjac fluid ranges from 11.42 to 12.53). Konjac fluids completely inactivated Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 and E. coil O26:H9, Salmonella Enteritidis, ...
Anlar O - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Food-borne botulism is an acute form of poisoning that results from ingestion of a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism toxin causes its major effect by blocking neuromuscular transmission in autonomic and motor nerve terminals. METHODS: In this study, we present the features of eleven cases of food-borne botulism ...
Wolken Wout A M - - 2003
Many organisms have the ability to form spores, a remarkable phase in their life cycles. Compared with vegetative cells, spores have several advantages (e.g. resistance to toxic compounds, temperature, desiccation and radiation) making them well suited to various applications. The applications of spores that first spring to mind are bio-warfare ...
Hallen Heather E - - 2003
Conocybe lactea was examined as part of a larger study on the distribution of amatoxins and phallotoxins in fungi, and the taxonomic relationships between these fungi. As amatoxins are present in the congener C. filaris, the locally abundant C. lactea was examined using HPLC and mass spectroscopy. Amatoxins were not ...
Costa Pedro R - - 2003
The swimming crab Polybius henslowii may play an important role in the movement of the amnesic shellfish toxin, domoic acid (DA), through the marine food chain. High DA concentrations have been determined in crab samples harvested along the Portuguese coast during the summer of 2002, reaching a level of 323.1 ...
La Ragione Roberto M - - 2003
Cost effective control of avian diseases and food borne pathogens remains a high priority for all sectors of the poultry industry with cleansing and disinfection, vaccination and competitive exclusion approaches being used widely. Previous studies showed that Bacillus subtilis PY79(hr) was an effective competitive exclusion agent for use in poultry ...
Furey Ambrose - - 2003
Azaspiracid Poisoning (AZP) is a new toxic syndrome that has caused human intoxications throughout Europe following the consumption of mussels (Mytilus edulis), harvested in Ireland. Shellfish intoxication is a consequence of toxin-bearing microalgae in the shellfish food chain, and these studies demonstrated a wide geographic distribution of toxic mussels along ...
Lürling Miquel - - 2003
In the current study, the role of microcystin(MC)-LR in inhibiting Daphnia growth was examined. Somatic growth, time to first reproduction, number of newborns, mortality, and population growth were measured in Daphnia fed mixtures of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (with and without microcystin) with a high quality green algal food (Scenedesmus ...
Jääskeläinen Elina L - - 2003
A method for the direct quantitative analysis of cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus, in bakery products was developed. The analysis was based on robotized extraction followed by quantitation of cereulide by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and an assay of toxicity by the boar sperm motility inhibition test. The bioassay ...
Bowen David J - - 2003
Proteases play a key role in the interaction between pathogens and their hosts. The bacterial entomopathogen Photorhabdus lives in symbiosis with nematodes that invade insects. Following entry into the insect, the bacteria are released from the nematode gut into the open blood system of the insect. Here they secrete factors ...
Orwin Paul M - - 2003
Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of diseases. Major virulence factors of this organism include enterotoxins (SEs) that cause both food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. Recently, a novel SE, tentatively designated SEL, was identified in a pathogenicity island from a bovine mastitis isolate. The toxin had a molecular weight ...
Schijven J F - - 2003
In a field study on the efficiency of dune recharge for drinking water production, bacteriophage MS2 was shown to be removed 8 log(10) by passage through the dune sand. The question of whether pathogenic viruses would be removed as much as MS2 was studied by comparing complete breakthrough curves of ...
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