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Results 201 - 250 of 586
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Black E P - - 2007
AIMS: To elucidate the factors that determine the rate of germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with very high pressure (VHP) and the mechanism of VHP germination. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spores of B. subtilis were germinated rapidly with a VHP of 500 MPa at 50 degrees C. This VHP germination did ...
Yaeger Michael J - - 2007
Clostridium difficile infection in swine has most often been described in suckling pigs, where it has been associated with mesocolonic edema and typhlocolitis. This prospective study was designed to assess the correlation between the presence of C. difficile toxins (TCd) in the colon contents of neonatal pigs and a number ...
Rajkovic Andreja - - 2007
Computer Aided Semen Analysis (CASA) study of the boar semen motility has been demonstrated to be an appropriate assay for detection of cereulide (Bacillus cereus emetic toxin). Application of the boar semen bio-assay to detect cereulide directly in foods requires investigation of potential interference of food components, preservatives and other ...
Lee Sun-Young - - 2006
Fresh cooked rice cakes for retail sale are typically held at room temperature because refrigeration dramatically reduces their quality. Room temperature, high water activity, and a pH of > 4.6 provided an environment conducive to pathogen growth. To date, no studies have been published regarding survival and growth of foodborne ...
Matsumura Takuhiro T Laboratory for Infection Cell Biology, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 3-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, - - 2007
Botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type B is in the form of a complex of 12S and 16S toxins. Food-borne botulism is caused by these complex toxins which are ingested orally and absorbed from the digestive tract. Here, we show that the human milk SIgA binds to the type ...
Kreske Audrey C - - 2006
Many factors that are not fully understood may influence the effectiveness of sanitizer treatments for eliminating pathogens and spoilage microorganisms in food or detergent residues or in biofilms on food contact surfaces. This study was done to determine the sensitivities of Pseudomonas cells and Bacillus cereus cells and spores suspended ...
Rajkovic Andreja - - 2006
A real-time immunoquantitative PCR (iqPCR) method for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) was developed and evaluated using both pure cultures and foods. The assay consisted of immunocapture of SEB and real-time PCR amplification of the DNA probe linked to the detection antibody. iqPCR was compared to an in-house ...
Van der Auwera Géraldine A - - 2007
The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group is genetically very close and possesses a remarkable plasmid gene pool that encodes a variety of functions such as virulence and self-transfer capabilities. The potential for horizontal transfer among the various subspecies of this group, which includes the human opportunistic pathogens B. cereus sensu ...
Dreyer Beatriz - - 2006
The aim of this study was to reassess the use of autofluorescence for evaluating AM colonization in mycorrhizal roots in the light of criticisms of this method that affirmed that only metabolically inactive arbuscules autofluoresce. It was also investigated whether other mycorrhizal structures, such as hyphae, vesicles and spores, could ...
Casal Graça - - 2006
Myxobolus metynnis n. sp. (Phylum Myxozoa) is described in the connective subcutaneous tissues of the orbicular region of the fish, Metynnis argenteus (Characidae), collected in the lower Amazon River, near the city of Peixe Boi, Pará State, Brazil. Polysporic, histozoic plasmodia were delimited by a double membrane with numerous microvilli ...
Schollenberger Margit - - 2007
A total of 45 samples of soy food including whole beans, roasted soy nuts, flour and flakes, textured soy protein, tofu, proteinisolate including infant formulas and fermented products (soy sauce) were randomly collected in food and health food stores and analysed for Fusarium toxins. A spectrum of 13 trichothecenes of ...
Medina Marjorie B - - 2006
Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) is a highly heat resistant enteric toxin with a potential as a biothreat agent. A sensitive method for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins is needed for food safety and food defense monitoring. The objectives of this research were to develop a competitive fluorescent immunoassay with ...
Smith Juliette L - - 2006
Zooplankton accumulate microcystins (MC), a potent cyanobacteria toxin, and therefore may act as vectors of the toxin up the aquatic food web; however this transfer has not yet been quantified. In addition there is a lack of information regarding fish's ability to metabolize MC when administered a low dose over ...
Juneja Vijay K - - 2006
Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and oregano oil was evaluated during abusive chilling of cooked ground beef (75% lean) obtained from a local grocery store. Test substances were mixed into thawed ground beef at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% (wt/wt) along ...
MacIntosh David L - - 2006
Airborne fungal spores were measured in 44 office buildings in the summer and winter throughout the continental United States, as part of the Building Assessment, Survey and Evaluation (BASE) program. Six indoor air and two outdoor air samples were collected on a single day from each building. The cross-sectional and ...
Seol Branka - - 2006
Bacteriologic examination of an abscess found between blubber and musculature of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) found dead on 30 March 2002 in the Adriatic Sea, Croatia, was performed and an aerotolerant, nontoxogenic Clostridium tertium was isolated in pure culture. National Collections of Industrial Food and Marine Bacteria (NCIMB Ltd., ...
Strogyloudi E - - 2006
Accumulation of Nodularia spumigena toxins by Mytilus edulis was studied during laboratory and mesocosm experiments in order to investigate the possible pathways of nodularin in mussels and calculate toxin budgets. Mussels were exposed to 0.2-15.6 microg nodularin l(-1), fed for up to 5 days with Nodularia cells from culture, or ...
Alley Thomas R - - 2006
Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating ...
Shaw Ryan A - - 2006
In grazing systems, forage availability is a function of herbivore density, which can influence an animal's ability to be selective. In turn, the influence of food availability on selectivity has the potential to influence plant biodiversity. We hypothesized that the ability of herbivores to mix toxin-containing foods in their diets ...
Shaw Ryan A - - 2006
In grazing systems, forage availability is a function of herbivore density, which can influence an animal's ability to be selective. In turn, the influence of food availability on selectivity has the potential to influence plant biodiversity. We hypothesized that the ability of herbivores to mix toxin-containing foods in their diets ...
Desmond Eoin - - 2006
Intake of dietary sodium has been linked to hypertension and consequently increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The estimated cost of CVD to both the EU and US economies is €169B and $403B, respectively. Currently the daily sodium adult intake is approximately three times the recommended daily allowance (Ireland and ...
Rajkovic Andreja - - 2006
Potato puree and penne pasta were inoculated with cereulide producing B. cereus 5964a and B. cereus NS117. Static incubation at 28 degrees C proved these two foods to be a better substrate for higher cereulide production (4,080 ng/g in puree and 3,200 ng/g in penne were produced by B. cereus ...
Rivera Victor R VR U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA. - - 2006
Sensitive and specific electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays were used to detect Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins serotypes A, B, E, and F in undiluted human serum, undiluted human urine, assay buffer, and selected food matrices (whole milk, apple juice, ground beef, pastry, and raw eggs). These novel assays used paramagnetic bead-based electrochemiluminescent technology ...
Zigha A - - 2006
In the present study, a food-borne pathogen strain of Bacillus cereus (F4430/73) was anaerobically grown in controlled-batch conditions under low initial oxidoreduction potential (ORP=-148 mV) using hydrogen gas as reducing agent. Its physiological characteristics, including growth, glucose fermentation capacity and enterotoxin production, were compared with anaerobic conditions generated by nitrogen ...
Lindström Miia - - 2006
Group II (non-proteolytic) Clostridium botulinum poses a safety hazard in modern food processing, which consists of mild pasteurization treatments, anaerobic packaging, extended shelf lives and chilled storage. The high risk is reflected in the relatively large number of botulism cases due to group II C. botulinum in commercially produced foods ...
Asakawa Manabu - - 2006
As a part of our studies on the mechanism of uptake of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and the kinetics of its accumulation in bivalves, oysters Crassostrea gigas were experimentally contaminated with PSP by being fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. Temporal ...
Sharma Shashi K - - 2006
An amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Clostridium botulinum complex neurotoxins was evaluated for its ability to detect these toxins in food. The assay was found to be suitable for detecting type A, B, E, and F botulinum neurotoxins in a variety of food matrices representing liquids, ...
Shaheen Ranad - - 2006
Cereulide producing Bacillus cereus was isolated from randomly chosen commercial infant foods. The cereulide production in infant food formulas was investigated. When the reconstituted foods were inoculated with >10(5) cfu ml(-1) of cereulide producing B. cereus, 2 to 200 microg of cereulide per 100 ml of food accumulated during 24 ...
Hebestreit P - - 2006
Saponinum album, a mixture of saponins with an aldehyde function bound at C4 from Gypsophila species, increased the cytotoxicity of lectins like agrostin and saporin by enhancing its penetration through the cell membrane. The effect was attenuated by latrunculin, an inhibitor of endocytosis, and by bafilomycin, an inhibitor of transport ...
Oh, Mi Hwa
Bacillus cereus is the most prevalent pathogenic Bacillus species found in foods,&#13;causing food spoilage and two types of toxin-mediated food poisoning known as the&#13;diarrhoeal and emetic syndromes. Other Bacillus species, particularly B. subtilis, B.&#13;licheniformis, B. brevis, B. pumilus and B. thuringensis, have also been recognised as&#13;food poisoning bacteria of increasing ...
Hungerford James M - - 2006
In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated ...
Dittmann Elke - - 2006
Mass developments of cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae") in lakes and brackish waters have repeatedly led to serious concerns due to their frequent association with toxins. Among these are the widespread hepatotoxins microcystin (MC) and nodularin (NOD). Here, we give an overview about the ecostrategies of the diverse toxin-producing species and about ...
Cooper Robin M - - 2006
Dry milk powders and functional ingredients frequently contain high levels of viable bacterial spores, some of which may result in growth of toxigenic Bacillus spp. in reconstituted and temperature-abused foods. Samples from nonfat dry milk (NFDM), infant milk formula (IMF), coffee creamer, lecithin, and cocoa powder were subjected to a ...
Ciminiello P - - 2006
Molluscs of many sorts, which are high in protein and trace minerals, have always been a substantial portion of the human diet. A great variety of mollusc species are therefore of commercial importance throughout the world. Episodes of poisoning occasionally happen to the consumers of molluscs, the main hazard being ...
WojdyƂa A T - - 2006
Falcon 460 EC (167 g tebuconazole + 250 g spiroxamine + 43 g triadimenol per 1 dm3) at concentration 0.1%, applied as spray 4-times at 7-day intervals, was used in the control of Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae on rose. After 4 weeks of plants protection effectiveness of the tested product ...
Raju Deepa - - 2006
Clostridium perfringens type A food poisoning is caused by enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A isolates that typically possess high spore heat-resistance. The molecular basis for C. perfringens spore heat-resistance remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASPs) in heat-resistance of spores produced ...
García Carlos - - 2005
This paper describes for the first time a massive intoxication episode due to consumption of shellfish contaminated with 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1, named Dinophysistoxin-3 (DTX-3). 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1, a compound recently described in the literature, was found in shellfish samples collected in the Chilean Patagonia fjords. This compound does not inhibit Protein Phosphatases ...
Lowe Philippa L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxins have been proven effective for reducing facial lines. There are two commercial types of botulinum toxin type A available in many countries but no published comparison studies. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of Botox Cosmetic and Dysport 50 U in the treatment of glabellar lines ...
Ryu Jee-Hoon - - 2005
Biofilm formation by Bacillus cereus 038-2 on stainless steel coupons, sporulation in the biofilm as affected by nutrient availability, temperature, and relative humidity, and the resistance of vegetative cells and spores in biofilm to sanitizers were investigated. Total counts in biofilm formed on coupons immersed in tryptic soy broth (TSB) ...
Gessler Frank - - 2005
Botulinum neurotoxins belong to the most toxic substances in nature. Well-known as a food poisoning agent for almost two centuries, the beneficial aspects of this bacterial metabolite were rediscovered about 30 years ago. These toxins, which are produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are nowadays used to treat a ...
Ito Masahiro - - 2005
Bacillus subtilis has a single set of flagellar rotor proteins that interact with two distinct stator-force generators, the H+-coupled MotAB complex and the Na+-coupled MotPS complex, that energize rotation. Here, motility on soft agar plates and in liquid was assayed in wild-type B.subtilis and strains expressing only one stator, either ...
Sertkaya, Abdullah
Some yeasts secrete polypeptide toxins, which are lethal to other sensitive yeast cells, gram-positive pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Therefore these are designated as killer toxins. Killer toxins are suggested as potent antimicrobial agents especially for the protection of fermentation process against contaminating yeasts, biological control of undesirable yeasts in ...
Rosenquist Hanne - - 2005
Among 48,901 samples of ready-to-eat food products at the Danish retail market, 0.5% had counts of Bacillus cereus-like bacteria above 10(4) cfu g(-1). The high counts were most frequently found in starchy, cooked products, but also in fresh cucumbers and tomatoes. Forty randomly selected strains had at least one gene ...
Stringer Sandra C - - 2005
Knowledge of the distribution of growth times from individual spores and quantification of this biovariability are important if predictions of growth in food are to be improved, particularly when, as for Clostridium botulinum, growth is likely to initiate from low numbers of spores. In this study we made a novel ...
Sapsford Kim E - - 2005
Immunoassays were developed for the simultaneous detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B and botulinum toxoid A in buffer, with limits of detection of 0.1 ng/ml and 20 ng/ml, respectively. The toxins were also spiked and measured in a variety of food samples, including canned tomatoes, sweet corn, green beans, mushrooms, and ...
Singh Kavindra V - - 2005
An Enterococcus faecalis gelE insertion disruption mutant (TX5128), which produces neither gelatinase (GelE) nor the cotranscribed (in the wild type) serine protease (SprE), was found to be attenuated in a rat endocarditis model with a significant decrease in the endocarditis induction rate versus wild-type E. faecalis OG1RF (GelE(+), SprE(+)). TX5266, ...
Kort Remco - - 2005
This study is aimed at the development and application of a convenient and rapid optical assay to monitor the wet-heat resistance of bacterial endospores occurring in food samples. We tested the feasibility of measuring the release of the abundant spore component dipicolinic acid (DPA) as a probe for heat inactivation. ...
Sharma Shashi K - - 2005
The suitability and sensitivity of two in vitro lateral-flow assays for detecting Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) in an assortment of foods were evaluated. Toxin extraction and preparation methods for various liquid, solid, and high-fat-content foods were developed. The lateral-flow assays, one developed by the Naval Medical Research Center (Silver Spring, ...
Dubow Jordan J Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60025, - - 2005
Botulinum toxin type B (BTX-B) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cervical dystonia. However, as with botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) it has off-label uses, such as for hyperhidrosis, focal dystonias, spasticity, and facial wrinkles. BTX-B has also been shown to be a ...
Wein Lawrence M - - 2005
We developed a mathematical model of a cows-to-consumers supply chain associated with a single milk-processing facility that is the victim of a deliberate release of botulinum toxin. Because centralized storage and processing lead to substantial dilution of the toxin, a minimum amount of toxin is required for the release to ...
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