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Yang Minghui - - 2008
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a major cause of food-borne diseases, traditionally SEs assayed immunologically with ELISA. Carbon nanotubes' (CNT) unique mechanical and electronic properties combined with a large specific surface area make them attractive for biosensing. To investigate whether CNT could improve the sensitivity of ELISA assays, we developed an ...
Okahisa Naoki - - 2008
The risk of food poisoning and growth of spoilage bacteria in Awa-Uirou, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste, was evaluated. Toxin-producing bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus are the main causes of food poisoning linked to this kind of food. The water activity in this ...
Rasooly Reuven - - 2008
The World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have labeled botulinum toxins as a high priority biological agent that may be used in terrorist attacks against food supplies. Due to this threat there is an increased need to develop fast and effective methods to ...
Stenfors Arnesen Lotte P - - 2008
Bacillus cereus is widespread in nature and frequently isolated from soil and growing plants, but it is also well adapted for growth in the intestinal tract of insects and mammals. From these habitats it is easily spread to foods, where it may cause an emetic or a diarrhoeal type of ...
Khreich Nathalie - - 2008
Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) is one of several toxins produced by the gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. SEB is a major cause of food poisoning and represents a significant biological threat with regard to bioterrorism. A rapid, sensitive, and specific method is required to monitor food and water in cases ...
Bevilacqua A - - 2008
For a long period the thermal processing has been considered as the only way to reduce the initial spore number of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and prevent the spoilage of acidic beverage. New methods, however, were proposed by the literature to control spore germination both in laboratory media and in real systems. ...
Wloch-Salamon Dominika M - - 2008
The ecological role of interference competition through toxin production is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear under what conditions the benefits of toxic killing outweigh the metabolic costs involved. A killer advantage has been suggested to rely on local competitive interactions where the benefits of killing accrue to ...
Mansfield M A - - 2008
Toxins produced by Penicillium species are reported in maize silage and have been associated with health problems in cattle. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence and dynamics of patulin (PAT), mycophenolic acid (MPA), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and roquefortine C (ROC) in fresh and ensiled maize. To achieve these objectives ...
Black D G - - 2008
Although commercial sanitizers can inactivate bacterial spores in food processing environments, relatively little data exist as to the decontamination of products and surfaces by consumers using commercial household products. Should a large scale bioterrorism incident occur in which consumer food products were contaminated with a pathogenic sporeformer such as Bacillus ...
McKernan Lauralynn Taylor - - 2008
The primary objective of this study was to compare airborne fungal concentrations onboard commercial passenger aircraft at various in-flight times with concentrations measured inside and outside airport terminals. A secondary objective was to investigate the use of mixed-effects modeling of repeat measures from multiple sampling intervals and locations. Sequential triplicate ...
Rhee Hyun-Woo - - 2008
We have developed the first selective fluorescent chemosensor (PyDPA) for (p)ppGpp, a bacterial and plant alarmone. By using pyrene-excimer fluorescence, PyDPA shows very good selectivity for (p)ppGpp from among other nucleotides in water. PyDPA was used for the real-time detection of in vitro ppGpp synthesis by bacterial ribosomal complexes.
Molenda J - - 2008
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are emetic toxins causing food poisoning in humans, because of their biological activity and structural relatedness They have been classified as members of the pyrogenic exotoxin superantigen family Among them nine major antigenic types of emetic enterotoxins were recognized In recent years several newly detected SEs were ...
Hensley Donna M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effectiveness of five disinfectants: A33, 10% bleach, 1% bleach, SPOROX, and 3% H2O2, on military NATO and DECON litters. DESIGN: Suspensions of Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and spore-enhanced Bacillus subtilis, with five percent albumin, were inoculated onto litters and dried overnight. The litters were saturated ...
Ibelings Bas W - - 2008
This paper reviews the rapidly expanding literature on the ecological effects of cyanobacterial toxins. The study employs a qualitative meta-analysis from the literature examining results from a large number of independent studies and extracts general patterns from the literature or signals contradictions. The meta-analysis is set up by putting together ...
Mohan Srinidi - - 2008
When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds ...
Cohen Marc - - 2007
There is no question that the world is becoming increasingly toxic, with worldwide dissemination of industrial chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals and radioactive elements. Many of these toxins have demonstrated harmful effects including cancer, reproductive, metabolic, and mental health effects. It is also known that many toxins undergo bioaccumulation through the ...
Magnusson M - - 2007
To increase the understanding of how different factors affect the bacterial growth in deep sawdust beds for dairy cattle, the microbiological status of Bacillus cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust-bedded free stalls was investigated over two 14-d periods on one farm. High counts of B. cereus and coliforms were found ...
Yang I-Chen - - 2007
Members of the Bacillus cereus group may produce diarrheal enterotoxins and could be potential hazards if they enter the food chain. Therefore, a method capable of detecting all the species in the B. cereus group rather than B. cereus alone is important. We selected nhe as the target and developed ...
Head D S - - 2008
To examine the effect of processing with superheated steam (SS) on Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 10149 spores. Two inoculum levels of spores of G. stearothermophilus were mixed with sterile sand and exposed to SS at 105-175 degrees C. The decimal reduction time (D-value) and the thermal resistance constant (z-value) were calculated. ...
Clavel T - - 2007
AIMS: To determine the effects of porcine bile (PB) on Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Haemolysin BL (HBL) enterotoxin production in reconstituted small intestine media (IM). METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of PB on the growth of B. cereus vegetative cells in reconstituted IM at PB concentrations ranging between 0 ...
Oberhaus, Laura
The role of zooplankton in the control of cyanobacterial blooms and the transfer of cyanotoxins to higher trophic levels are of great importance to the management of water resources. Many studies have focused on the cyanobacterium Microcystis, but few have examined the interactions between zooplankton and filamentous cyanobacteria. In this ...
Akbas Meltem Yesilcimen - - 2008
The effect of ozonation as a method to reduce Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus cereus spores in dried figs was investigated. Dried figs were sprinkle inoculated with E. coli, B. cereus and B. cereus spores in sterile bags at a level of 10(7)microorganism g(-1), mixed and allowed to dry ...
Alvarez Zadkiel - - 2007
Spore germination is the first step in establishing Bacillus and Clostridium infections. Germination is triggered by the binding of small molecules by the resting spore. Subsequently, the activated spore secretes dipicolinic acid and calcium, the spore core is rehydrated and spore structures are degraded. Inhibition of any of the germination-related ...
Brzezinski Jennifer L - - 2007
The potential use of ricin as a biological weapon in food highlights the necessity for the development of food-specific detection methods. Current methods for the detection of ricin consist of various immunoassays, which detect only one subunit of the ricin toxin and therefore may not be indicative of a biologically ...
Faille C - - 2007
This study was designed to evaluate the occurrence of Bacillus cereus spores with a damaged exosporium and the consequences of such damages on spore adhesion. The analysis of nine strains sporulated under optimal conditions (Spo8-agar, 30 degrees C) revealed that damaged exosporia were systematically found in one strain (B. cereus ...
Ahn Soohyoun - - 2008
Microbiological contamination of foods continues to be a major concern in public health. Biological toxins are one class of important contaminants that can cause various human diseases. Outbreaks related to contamination by biological toxins or toxin-producing microorganisms have made it extremely important to develop rapid (approximately 20 min), sensitive and cost-effective ...
Hilgren J - - 2007
Biocide inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores in the presence of food residues after a 10-min treatment time was investigated. Spores of nonvirulent Bacillus anthracis strains 7702, ANR-1, and 9131 were mixed with water, flour paste, whole milk, or egg yolk emulsion and dried onto stainless-steel carriers. The carriers were exposed ...
Xia Yu - - 2007
A new food-grade expression system was constructed for Bacillus subtilis based on replicative food-grade expression plasmids and auxotrophic complementation. The food-grade B. subtilis host FG01 was created by knockout of the dal locus from the chromosome of B. subtilis 168. Two food-grade expression plasmids pXFGT03 and pXFGT05 were constructed by ...
Tan Zhi-Jun - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study the transfer of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) using four simulated marine food chains: dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense --> Artemia Artemia salina --> Mysid shrimp Neomysis awatschensis; A. tamarense --> N. awatschensis; A. tamarense --> A. salina --> Perch Lateolabrax japonicus; and A. tamarense --> L. japonicus. METHODS: The ...
Magnusson M - - 2007
The contamination of raw milk with Bacillus cereus spores was studied during the indoor confinement of dairy cattle. The occurrence of spores in fresh and used bedding material, air samples, feed, feces, and the rinse water from milking equipment was compared with the spore level in bulk tank milk on ...
Song Jun - - 2007
The effect of the natural volatile hexanal was studied as an antifungal agent on the major postharvest fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The antifungal effect of hexanal vapor was dependent on concentration and treatment duration, but sensitivity of the pathogens varied. All ...
Bacciottini Lucia - - 2007
Within the past several years, the relation between diet and health has been accepted by the mainstream nutrition community and in this connection interest in the physiological role of bioactive compounds present in plants has dramatically increased over the last decade.The phytoestrogens are bioactive molecules present as nutritional constituents of ...
Arritt Fletcher M - - 2007
Packaging fishery products under vacuum atmosphere packaging (VAC) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions can significantly extend the shelf life of raw, refrigerated fish products. There is considerable commercial interest in marketing VAC and MAP refrigerated (never frozen) raw fish fillets. The objective of this study was to determine if ...
Erbguth F J - - 2008
Botulinum toxin poisoning has afflicted mankind through the mists of time. However, the first incident of food-borne botulism was documented as late as the 18th century, when the consumption of meat and blood sausages gave rise to many deaths throughout the kingdom of Württemberg in South Western Germany. The district ...
Jedrzejewski Szymon - - 2007
This study demonstrated that fresh food produce, such as berries, sprouts, and green-leafed vegetables, sold at the retail level can contain potentially viable microsporidian spores of human-virulent species, such as Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi, at quantities representing a threat of food-borne infection.
Brown Gary S - - 2007
Vacuum filter socks were evaluated for recovery efficiency of powdered Bacillus atrophaeus spores from two non-porous surfaces, stainless steel and painted wallboard and two porous surfaces, carpet and bare concrete. Two surface coupons were positioned side-by-side and seeded with aerosolized Bacillus atrophaeus spores. One of the surfaces, a stainless steel ...
Yildirim Ismet - - 2007
Fungal activities of food additives, potassium sorbate, methylparaben, sodium benzoate, propylparaben, sorbic acid and plant activators harpin-protein and potassium dioxide were comparatively examined with ipradion in vitro conditions on two isolates of Botrytis cinerea obtained from strawberry fruits. Food additives and plant activators showed inhibitory effect at different levels on ...
Natsis K - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to correlate the four types of acromial shape with the existence of enthesophytes, which together comprise two important parameters for subacromial impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tears. In addition, a review of the literature was carried out. Four hundred twenty-three dried scapulas were studied ...
Choo Euiyoung - - 2007
Bacillus cereus is a foodborne spore-forming bacterial pathogen that is ubiquitous in the natural environment. Infections with this pathogen manifest as diarrheal or emetic types of food poisoning. In this study, 140 samples of dried red pepper purchased in Korea were assayed for the presence of B. cereus according to ...
From C - - 2007
Bacillus subtilis and the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis have periodically been suggested to play a role in the aetiology of food poisoning despite the fact that the organisms do not possess the genes associated with enteropathogenicity in Bacillus cereus. We show here that Bacillus mojavensis, an ...
Barnes Charles S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Methods for assessing and controlling fungi in the indoor environment have been well documented, but the role of fungal allergen avoidance and respiratory disease control is just beginning to be studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate indoor fungal spore levels to determine if remediation produced reduction of these levels. METHODS: The ...
Leusden FM van
A hazard identification and characterisation, including a preliminary dose response assessment, of sporeforming pathogens in cooked chilled food containing vegetables was performed according to the structure and principles for a quantitative microbiological risk assessment as described by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In cooked chilled food containing vegetables Clostridium (C.) botulinum ...
Martins Luciano Moura - - 2007
Recently, a cytotoxin named vacuolating cytotoxic factor (VCF) in Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was described. We have now purified this factor using ion metallic affinity chromatography. The VCF is a nonhemolytic enterotoxin that acts as a serine protease. The toxin can be partially neutralized by serum antiaerolysin ...
Cohen Joel L - - 2007
Idiopathic localized hyperhidrosis, called for hyperhidrosis, affects almost 3% of the US population. The most frequent anatomic sites of involvement include the axillae, palms, soles, and face. For those affected, this condition can be extremely socially debilitating and interfere with work activities. Until recently, frequently ineffective topical regimens or problematic ...
King Nicola J - - 2007
Dehydrated potato contains Bacillus cereus at a prevalences of 10 to 40% and at numbers usually less than 10(3) CFU g(-1). B. cereus in dehydrated potato is likely to be present as spores that are able to survive drying of the raw vegetable and may represent a significant inoculum in ...
Wei Suzhen - - 2007
The toxicities of Mtx1 toxin against dipteran and lepidopteran species have been evaluated in this study. It was shown that Mtx1 has little or no toxicity to the tested lepidopteran species, but has moderate-level toxicity to Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) and high-level toxicity to both susceptible and binary toxin-resistant ...
Fricker Martina - - 2007
Cereulide-producing Bacillus cereus can cause an emetic type of food-borne disease that mimics the symptoms provoked by Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the recently discovered genetic background for cereulide formation, a novel 5' nuclease (TaqMan) real-time PCR assay was developed to provide a rapid and sensitive method for the specific detection ...
Wijnands LM
The consumption of food contaminated with the bacterium Bacillus cereus may lead to diarrhoea. Investigation of characteristics of the bacterium and the pathogenesis increased knowledge regarding the onset of disease. Strains of Bacillus cereus were categorised according to specific characteristics. Besides artificial media to determine the growth characteristics of the ...
Takahashi, Eri
Algal toxins can have a significant impact on human and ecological health as the toxins accumulate in the food chain and are consumed by both humans and marine organisms. This study focussed on the following marine algal toxins that were present at the study sites: okadaic acid (OA), domoic acid ...
Carruthers Alastair - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Because well-controlled studies examining the efficacy and safety of various dilutions of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) have not been performed, dilutions used in clinical practice are chosen at the discretion of the clinician. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine the most effective BTX-A dilution for the glabellar region, ...
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