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Meneely Julie P - - 2010
A rapid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) screening assay has been developed for the combined detection of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in naturally contaminated cereals using a sensor chip coated with an HT-2 toxin derivative and a monoclonal antibody. The antibody raised against HT-2 displayed high cross-reactivity with T-2 toxin while ...
Kempf Michael - - 2010
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant constituents that comprise about 400 different structures and occur in two major forms, a tertiary form and the corresponding N-oxide. PAs containing a 1,2-double bond are pre-toxins and metabolically activated by the action of hepatic P-450 enzymes to toxic pyrroles. Besides the acute toxic ...
Lezar Sabine - - 2010
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites which are produced by numerous fungi and pose a continuous challenge to the safety and quality of food commodities in South Africa. These toxins have toxicologically relevant effects on humans and animals that eat contaminated foods. In this study, a diagnostic DNA microarray was developed for ...
Ramos Vítor - - 2010
Palytoxin (PTX) is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of ...
Vasconcelos Vítor - - 2010
Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, ...
Hill Brenna J - - 2010
Clostridium botulinum, an obligate anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, produces seven antigenic variants of botulinum toxin that are distinguished serologically and termed "serotypes". Botulinum toxin blocks the release of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions resulting in flaccid paralysis. The potential lethality of the disease warrants a fast and accurate means of diagnosing suspected ...
Swaan C M CM Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), the - - 2010
In June 2008, three Dutch tourists participating in a mini-cruise in Turkey needed urgent repatriation for antitoxin treatment because of symptoms of botulism. Because there was a shortage of antitoxin in the Netherlands, an emergency delivery was requested from the manufacturer in Germany. An outbreak investigation was initiated into all ...
Etheridge Stacey M - - 2010
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne illness associated with the consumption of seafood products contaminated with the neurotoxins known collectively as saxitoxins (STXs). This family of neurotoxins binds to voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby attenuating action potentials by preventing the passage of sodium ions across the membrane. Symptoms include tingling, ...
Ankolekar Chandrakant - - 2010
All 47 food-borne isolates of Bacillus cereus sensu stricto, as well as 10 of 12 food-borne, enterotoxigenic isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis, possessed appendages. Spores were moderately to highly hydrophobic, and each had a net negative charge. These characteristics indicate that spores of food-associated B. thuringiensis and not only B. cereus ...
Panneerseelan Leenalitha - - 2009
Enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce a variety of heat-stable staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) that are a prevalent cause of food poisoning in the United States and other countries. Many immunological and biochemical assays often work well in buffer systems but are hindered when tested in the complex chemical environment of ...
Roubos-van den Hil P J - - 2010
Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 based on optical density and viable count measurements. This growth inhibition was manifested ...
Bradshaw Marite M Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1550 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, - - 2010
Clostridium botulinum produces the most poisonous natural toxin known and is a perennial concern to the food industry and to regulatory agencies due to the potential threat of food-borne botulism. To ensure the botulinal safety of foods, rigorous food challenge testing to validate food-processing conditions and food formulations has been ...
Ekman Jaakko - - 2009
Food packaging papers are not sterile, as the manufacturing is an open process, and the raw materials contain bacteria. We modeled the potential transfer of the Bacillus cereus spores from packaging paper to food by using a green fluorescent protein-expressing construct of Bacillus thuringiensis Bt 407Cry(-) [pHT315Omega(papha3-gfp)], abbreviated BT-1. Paper ...
Rohm Barbara - - 2010
Mould fungi are not only well known for food spoilage through toxin formation but also for the production of fermented foods. In Asian countries, the fermentation of soy beans and tofu for tempe and sufu production with various Rhizopus strains is widespread. Here we report the finding of toxinogenic bacteria ...
Rasooly Reuven - - 2010
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli have been associated with food-borne illnesses. Pasteurization is used to inhibit microbial growth in milk, and an open question is whether milk pasteurization inactivates Shiga toxins. To answer this question we measured Shiga toxin's inhibition effect on Vero cell dehydrogenase activity and protein synthesis. Our data ...
Carruthers Jean - - 2009
Since its initial approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 20 years ago for the treatment of strabismus, hemifacial spasm, and blepharospasm in adults, botulinum toxin (BTX) has become one of the most frequently requested products in cosmetic rejuvenation around the world. After years of clinical success and ...
Pauly Diana - - 2009
Proteotoxins such as ricin, abrin, botulinum neurotoxins type A and B (BoNT/A, BoNT/B) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are regarded as potential biological warfare agents which could be used for bioterrorism attacks on the food chain. In this study we used a novel immunisation strategy to generate high-affinity monoclonal and ...
De Medici Dario - - 2009
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most toxic substance known, is produced by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum and, in rare cases, also by some strains of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii. The standard procedure for definitive detection of BoNT-producing clostridia is a culture method combined with neurotoxin detection using a standard ...
Paredes-Sabja Daniel - - 2009
Clostridium perfringens type A isolates carrying a chromosomal copy of the enterotoxin (cpe) gene are involved in the majority of food poisoning (FP) outbreaks, while type A isolates carrying a plasmid-borne cpe gene are involved in C. perfringens-associated non-food-borne (NFB) gastrointestinal diseases. To cause diseases, C. perfringens spores must germinate ...
Reboreda Antonio - - 2010
Harmful algal blooms cause important economical losses due to the accumulation of toxins in shellfish. Natural detoxification occurs but this mechanism is very slow in most cases. The achievement of a method for the rapid detoxification of commercial bivalves would be very interesting for the shellfish harvesting sector in order ...
Berry John P - - 2010
Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems, including both direct (e.g., drinking water) and indirect (e.g., bioaccumulation in food webs) routes, is emerging as a potentially significant threat to human health. We investigated cyanobacterial toxins, specifically cylindrospermopsin (CYN), the microcystins (MCYST) and the "paralytic shellfish toxins" (PST), in Lago Catemaco ...
Heidinger Joelle C - - 2009
A quantitative microbial risk assessment was constructed to determine consumer risk from Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin in raw milk. A Monte Carlo simulation model was developed to assess the risk from raw milk consumption using data on levels of S. aureus in milk collected by the University of California-Davis ...
Martínez-Blanch J F - - 2009
A highly sensitive real-time PCR (qPCR) procedure, targeting the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C gene (pc-plc), was developed for specific detection and quantification of strains belonging to Bacillus cereus group. The target region was selected based on the enterotoxigenic profiles of 75 Bacillus strains. The inclusivity and exclusivity of the RTi-PCR assay ...
Friedrich Loretta M - - 2009
The prevalence of Alicyclobacillus spp. and other spore-forming spoilage organisms in food handling and processing environments presents a sanitation challenge to manufacturers of products such as juices and beverages. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in killing Alicyclobacillus spores in ...
Ifesan Beatrice O T - - 2009
Crude ethanolic extract from the bulb of Eleutherine americana was investigated for its inhibitory activities against lipase and protease enzymes and enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus. Eleven isolates that demonstrated high enzyme activity with three reference strains were selected to study the effect of extract on enzyme production. Exposure of ...
Sinclair Haydn R - - 2009
We have studied 'food grade' sialyloligosaccharides (SOS) as anti-adhesive drugs or receptor analogues, since the terminal sialic acid residue has already been shown to contribute significantly to the adhesion and pathogenesis of the Vibrio cholerae toxin (Ctx). GM1-oligosaccharide (GM1-OS) was immobilized into a supporting POPC lipid bilayer onto a surface ...
Antony-Babu Sanjay - - 2009
The ability of ozone gas to reduce food spoilage is relatively well documented, but the developmental effects of the gas on food spoilage fungi are not well known. In this study two model aspergilli, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus were used to study the effects of ozone on spore germination, ...
Weese J Scott - - 2009
Recent studies have identified Clostridium difficile in food animals and retail meat, and concern has been raised about the potential for food to act as a source of C. difficile infection in humans. Previous studies of retail meat have relied on enrichment culture alone, thereby preventing any assessment of the ...
Yang Minghui - - 2009
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are major cause of foodborne diseases, so sensitive detection (<1 ng/ml) methods are needed for SE detection in food. The surface area, geometric and physical properties of gold nanoparticles make them well-suited for enhancing interactions with biological molecules in assays. To take advantage of the properties of ...
Paredes-Sabja Daniel - - 2009
Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens has been recognized as a ubiquitous human pathogen owing to, at least in part, three important characteristics. First, this bacterium undergoes asymmetric cell division or sporulation under nutritionally deprived conditions. Second, during sporulation growth it produces C. perfringens enterotoxin, an important virulence factor for food poisoning and ...
Luksiene Z - - 2009
AIMS: The study was focused on the possibility to inactivate food pathogen Bacillus cereus by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) - based photosensitization in vitro and after adhesion on the surface of packaging material. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacillus cereus was incubated with ALA (3-7.5 mmol l(-1)) for 5-60 min in different environment ...
Rasooly Reuven - - 2009
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a leading cause of food poisoning and have two separate biological activities; it causes gastroenteritis and functions as a superantigen that activates large numbers of T cells. In vivo monkey or kitten bioassays were developed for analysis of SEs emetic activity. To overcome the inherent limitations ...
Fernandes João C - - 2009
Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that is widely distributed in nature. Its intrinsic thermal resistance coupled with the extraordinary resistance against common food preservation techniques makes it one of the most frequent food-poisoning microorganisms causing both intoxications and infections. In order to control B. cereus growth/sporulation, and hence ...
Bowens Priscilla - - 2009
Type A trichothecenes (primarily T-2 and HT-2 toxins) are common fungal metabolites found in a wide range of grains and other field crops grown in temperate climatic zones. By acting as potent inhibitors of protein synthesis, T-2 and HT-2 exert adverse effects particularly against rapidly proliferating tissues, including the bone ...
Agoston Réka - - 2009
Deliberate or accidental contamination of foods such as milk, soft drinks, and drinking water with infectious agents or toxins is a major concern to health authorities. There is a critical need to develop technologies that can rapidly and efficiently separate and concentrate biothreat agents from food matrices. A key limitation ...
Hornstra Luc M - - 2009
Bacterial spores are the ultimate (stress) 'survival capsules'. They allow strains from the Bacillus and Clostridium species to survive harsh environmental conditions. In addition to the decision to enter sporulation the decision to do the reverse (germinate) is also a decisive event after which there is no return. Generally it ...
Apetroaie-Constantin C - - 2009
AIM: To screen and characterize toxic, heat-stable substances produced by food borne strains from Bacillus subtilis group. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the boar sperm motility inhibition assay, six isolates from two outbreaks, out of the 94 isolates from 26 foods, were found to produce ethanol-soluble heat-stable substances that were toxic ...
Van Leeuwen M R - - 2009
To investigate the differences in membrane permeability and the effect on endocytosis of the polyene antimycotics nystatin, filipin and natamycin on germinating fungal conidia. The model system was Penicillium discolor, a food spoilage fungus. Filipin resulted in permeabilization of germinating conidia for the fluorescent probes TOTO-1 and FM4-64, but not ...
Dantigny Philippe - - 2009
In predictive mycology, most of the studies have been concerned with the influence of some environmental factors on fungal growth and production of mycotoxins, at steady-state. However, fluctuating conditions, interactions between organisms, and the physiological state of the organisms may also exert a profound influence on fungal responses in food ...
Vandekinderen I - - 2009
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a strong oxidizing agent that can be applied in solution as well as in the gaseous state. It has bactericidal, fungicidal and viricidal properties. Several food-related microorganisms, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, mould spores and Bacillus cereus spores were tested for their susceptibility to 0.08 ...
Indra Alexander - - 2009
Clostridium difficile is mainly considered a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalized patients. Austrian hospitals reported 2761 cases of C. difficile infection (including 277 lethal outcomes) in 2007, compared with 777 cases (including 54 lethal outcomes) in 2003. The occurrence of community-acquired C. difficile infection is ...
Tavakoli H R - - 2009
This study aimed to determine the rate of Clostridium botulinum contamination in some traditional Iranian food products (cheese, kashk and salted fish) and evaluate the efficacy of the mouse bioassay method in detection of C. botulinum toxins in these foods. A total of 131 samples (57 cheese, 11 kashk and ...
Stolze-Rybczynski Jessica L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Spore discharge in the majority of the 30,000 described species of Basidiomycota is powered by the rapid motion of a fluid droplet, called Buller's drop, over the spore surface. In basidiomycete yeasts, and phytopathogenic rusts and smuts, spores are discharged directly into the airflow around the fungal colony. Maximum ...
Udo Edet E - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of food poisoning due to their ability to produce enterotoxins which if ingested in sufficient amounts results in sickness. Food handlers carrying enterotoxin-producing S. aureus in their noses or hands can contaminate food leading to food poisoning. We characterized 200 S. aureus obtained ...
Ferrer Carmen - - 2009
A study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effect of olive powder on Bacillus cereus. Microorganism spores were inoculated in nutrient broth containing different olive powder concentrations and incubated at 32 degrees , 20 degrees , and 7 degrees C. Results indicated that this food ingredient had a bacteriostatic ...
Perkowski Juliusz - - 2008
Oat plants, similar to other cereals, are susceptible to invasion by fungal pathogens and saprophytes, but the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of fungal growth depend to a considerable degree on environmental conditions. This study aimed to analyse the dependence of ergosterol and trichothecene production in oat grain ...
Begum Mariam - - 2009
The effect of ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm, UVC) on Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium corylophilum and Eurotium rubrum was investigated using three different exposure techniques. Survival was determined for spores suspended in liquid medium after 1, 2 and 3 min UVC exposure at 4644 J/m(2)/min. The same UVC dose was ...
Zhang H - - 2008
AIMS: To study the antifungal activities of a prepared food-grade dilution-stable microemulsion against Aspergillus niger. METHODS AND RESULTS: Results from the antifungal activity on solid medium by agar dilution method showed that the microemulsion caused complete growth inhibition at 2000 ppm, and at 1000 ppm, showed 55% growth inhibition after ...
Pal Sudeshna - - 2009
Electrically active polyaniline coated magnetic (EAPM) nanoparticle-based biosensor has been developed for the detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores in contaminated food samples. The 100 nm-diameter EAPM nanoparticles are synthesized from aniline monomer (made electrically active by acid doping) coating the surface of gamma iron oxide cores. The magnetic, electrical, and ...
Phillips R W - - 2008
Clostridum species produce seven serotypes (A-G) of botulinum toxin, four of which (A, B, E, and F) are normally associated with human illness. To date, the most reliable test for botulinum toxin is the mouse bioassay. The authors' laboratory has been exploring the use of an antibody-based assay similar to ...
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