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Wyness Laura A - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To describe the UK Food Standards Agency's (FSA) salt reduction programme undertaken between 2003 and 2010 and to discuss its effectiveness. DESIGN: Relevant scientific papers, campaign materials and evaluations and consultation responses to the FSA's salt reduction programme were used. SETTING: Adult salt intakes, monitored using urinary Na data ...
Goto Daisuke - - 2011
Responses in feeding ecology of a benthic forage fish, mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus), to altered prey resources were investigated in chronically polluted salt marshes (the Arthur Kill-AK, New York, USA). The diet niche breadth of the AK populations of mummichogs was significantly lower than that of the reference population, reflecting reduced ...
Nicklas Theresa A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effects of self-perceived lactose intolerance as it relates to ...
Gracias Kiev S - - 2011
Although many strains of Bacillaceae are considered nonpathogenic, Bacillus cereus is recognized worldwide as a bacterial pathogen in a variety of foods. The ability of B. cereus to cause gastroenteritis following ingestion of contaminated food is due to the production of enterotoxins. The ubiquity of this genus makes it a ...
Edgar J A - - 2011
Contamination of grain with 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs) and their N-oxides is responsible for large incidents of acute and subacute food poisoning, with high morbidity and mortality, in Africa and in central and south Asia. Herbal medicines and teas containing dehydroPAs have also caused fatalities in both developed and developing ...
Brewster L M - - 2011
To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university hospitals. A standard hot meal collected from ...
Carruthers Jean - - 2010
Since its initial approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 20 years ago for the treatment of strabismus, hemifacial spasm, and blepharospasm in adults, botulinum toxin (BTX) has become one of the most frequently requested products in cosmetic rejuvenation around the world. After years of clinical success and ...
Rasooly Reuven R Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, California 94710, United - - 2010
Foodborne botulism is caused by the ingestion of foods containing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). To study the heat stability of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins, we needed to measure and compare the activity of botulinum neurotoxins, serotypes A and B, under various pasteurization conditions. Currently, the only accepted assay to detect active C. ...
Paredes-Sabja Daniel - - 2010
The hallmark of bacterial spore germination is peptidoglycan cortex hydrolysis by cortex-lytic enzymes. In spores of Clostridium perfringens wild-type strain SM101, which causes food poisoning, the sole essential cortex-lytic enzyme SleC is activated by a unique serine protease CspB. Interestingly, the non-food-borne wild-type strain F4969 encodes a significantly divergent SleC ...
Devers Kelly G - - 2010
In the United States, foodborne botulism is most commonly associated with home-canned food products. Between 1950 and 2005, 405 separate outbreaks of botulism were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Approximately 8% of these outbreaks were attributed to commercially produced canned food products. Overall, 5-10% of ...
Tichadou Lucia - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Ostreopsis ovata and Ostreopsis siamensis are tropical unicellular algae that have been found recently in the Mediterranean. Both of these dinoflagellates produce palytoxin (PTX)-like toxins that are powerful vasoconstrictors in mammals. Since 2003, Ostreopsis blooms in Italy and Spain have been accompanied by reports of respiratory problems and skin/mucosa ...
Sachdeva Amita - - 2010
Our laboratory tested water samples used for cooling low-acid canned foods at a canning facility under investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with digoxigenin-labeled antibodies (DIG-ELISA) and real-time PCR as screening methods and confirmed the presence of neurotoxin-producing Clostridium botulinum in the ...
Biesta-Peters Elisabeth G - - 2010
Bacillus cereus produces the emetic toxin cereulide, a cyclic dodecadepsipeptide that can act as a K(+) ionophore, dissipating the transmembrane potential in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Because pure cereulide has not been commercially available, cereulide content in food samples has been expressed in valinomycin equivalents, a highly similar cyclic potassium ...
Tang Dianping D Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety (Ministry of Education and Fujian Province), Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, - - 2010
A new sandwich-type electrochemical immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in food was developed using horseradish peroxidase-nanosilica-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HRPSiCNTs) for signal amplification. Rabbit polyclonal anti-SEB antibodies immobilized on the screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and covalently bound to the HRPSiCNTs were used as capture antibodies and ...
Campbell A K - - 2010
Lactose and food intolerance cause a wide range of gut and systemic symptoms, including gas, gut pain, diarrhoea or constipation, severe headaches, severe fatigue, loss of cognitive functions such as concentration, memory and reasoning, muscle and joint pain, heart palpitations, and a variety of allergies (Matthews and Campbell, 2000; Matthews ...
Leishman Oriana N - - 2010
Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that ...
Schwake-Anduschus C - - 2010
For the Fusarium trichothecene mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2, a combined (T-2 + HT-2) temporary tolerable daily intake (tTDI) of 0.06 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was proposed at the European level in 2001 (Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food). In the near future, maximum levels for these trichothecenes will ...
Jilcott Stephanie B - - 2010
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine motivations for use of food venues among 23 urban and rural women from eastern North Carolina. Women were eligible if they cared for children, were non-Hispanic black or white, and were English speakers. Interviews elicited participants' decisions for food venue use. ...
Peck Michael W - - 2010
The highly potent botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease. Strains of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum form neurotoxins of types B, E, and F and are the main hazard associated with minimally heated refrigerated foods. Recent developments in quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) and food safety objectives (FSO) ...
Martínez-Blanch Juan Francisco - - 2010
A procedure based on quantitative real-time PCR was evaluated for the detection and quantification of Bacillus cereus spores. Several methods for DNA isolation, such as various heat treatments and germination solutions, were evaluated on spore suspensions of representative strains of the B. cereus group. Overall, the commercially available DNeasy tissue ...
Li Jihong - - 2010
Clostridium perfringens type A food poisoning is the second most commonly identified bacterial food-borne illness. Sporulation contributes to this disease in two ways: (i) most food-poisoning strains form exceptionally resistant spores to facilitate their survival of food-associated stresses, and (ii) the enterotoxin (CPE) responsible for the symptoms of this food ...
Woo Gye-Hyeong - - 2010
Over a 6-day period beginning on 15 October 2008, 93 dead or sick wild waterfowl, including Mallards, Spotbills, and teal species, were found along the shore of a branch stream of the Hangang River, which flows through Seoul, Korea, and were submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service ...
Postollec Florence - - 2010
The presence of psychrotrophic or highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria in food and feedstuff responsible for food poisoning and spoilage raises major safety and economical issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of a ready-to-use PCR assay (alternative method) in comparison with the standard microbiological plating method ...
Garber Eric A E - - 2010
Detection of proteinaceous toxins in complex heterogeneous mixtures requires highly specific and sensitive methods. Multiplex technology employing multiple antibodies that recognize different epitopes on a toxin provides built-in confirmatory analysis as part of the initial screen and thereby increases the reliability associated with both presumptive positive and negative results. Polyclonal ...
Rasooly Reuven - - 2010
In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity of the bacterial toxin Stx2 produced ...
Natividad-Bonifacio Iván - - 2010
No reports on the incidence of Clostridium perfringens in popularly-consumed food from Mexico City have been published; neither are there any reports that have analyzed food consumed in popular markets and less established restaurants. Therefore, this study is aimed at providing data to evaluate the relevance of C. perfringens as ...
Banerjee Pratik - - 2010
Development and validation of a mammalian cell-based biosensor for application in food defense and food safety was investigated. Three prototypes of the biosensor capable of handling different sample types were developed and tested with food and beverages. The sensing element is a B lymphocyte Ped-2E9 cell-line, encapsulated in collagen matrix ...
Rasooly Reuven - - 2010
The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and ...
Pflug Irving J - - 2010
The incidence of botulism in canned food in the last century is reviewed along with the background science; a few conclusions are reached based on analysis of published data. There are two primary aspects to botulism control: the design of an adequate process and the delivery of the adequate process ...
Kim Jung-Beom - - 2010
Bacillus cereus can cause diarrheal and emetic types of food poisoning but little study has been done on emetic type of food poisoning in Korea. The objective of this study was to report on the emetic type of food poisoning associated with B. cereus in Korea. The toxin gene profile, ...
Fangio Maria Florencia - - 2010
Samples of butternut squash, potatoes, rice, and wheat flour were analyzed. Bacillus spp. and related species belonging to Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus genera were found in 96% of the samples. In butternut squash, predominant species were Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus polymyxa together with other Bacillus spp. species (B. cereus, B. licheniformis, ...
Vinayaka A C - - 2010
Water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles with narrow, very specific, stable emission spectra. Therefore, the bioconjugation of these QDs for biological fluorescent labeling may be of interest due to their unique physical and optical properties as compared to organic fluorescent dyes. These intrinsic properties of QDs have been ...
Fach P P French Food Safety Agency, Laboratory for Study and Research on Food Quality and Processes, 23 Av du Général De Gaulle, Fr-94706 Maisons-Alfort, France. - - 2011
Rapid and specific detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) producing Clostridia is a priority for public health authorities, in case of both natural and intentional botulism outbreaks. This study reports on the evaluation of a detection system based on the GeneDisc Cycler designed for simultaneously testing the bont/A, bont/B, bont/E and ...
Lindstr?m Miia - - 2010
The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption ...
Leishman Oriana N - - 2010
The objectives of this study were to characterize the hydrophobic properties of three strains of Bacillus anthracis using the microbial adherence to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay and determine the recovery of spores by hexadecane extraction from water, milk and orange juice using a modified version of this assay. In water mixtures, ...
Huang Yang - - 2010
Reduction in water activity (a(w)) is used as a microbiological hurdle to prevent food spoilage. To minimize the levels of salt and sugar, which are commonly used to reduce a(w), the potential of food structure as a microbiological hurdle needs to be assessed. The concept of matric potential (Psi(m)) is ...
Shiota Mitsutaka - - 2010
Bacillus cereus is recognized as a major pathogenic bacterium that causes food poisoning and produces gastrointestinal diseases of 2 types: emetic and diarrheal. The emetic type, which is often linked to pasta and rice, arises from a preformed toxin, cereulide, in food. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for this emetic ...
Hexsel Doris - - 2010
The injection of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxins is among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures, both in the U.S. and worldwide. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a new botulinum neurotoxin type A in April 2009 (BoNT-A, Dysport, Medicis, Scottsdale, AZ-hereafter referred to as "Dysport") has ...
Bauer Tobias - - 2010
An increasing number of severe food borne intoxications are caused by a highly stable depsipeptide, named cereulide, which is produced by emetic Bacillus cereus strains. As cereulide poses a health risk to humans, the development of an appropriate method for the analysis of this toxin is mandatory. Therefore, the reference ...
Meneely Julie P - - 2010
A rapid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) screening assay has been developed for the combined detection of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in naturally contaminated cereals using a sensor chip coated with an HT-2 toxin derivative and a monoclonal antibody. The antibody raised against HT-2 displayed high cross-reactivity with T-2 toxin while ...
Kempf Michael - - 2010
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant constituents that comprise about 400 different structures and occur in two major forms, a tertiary form and the corresponding N-oxide. PAs containing a 1,2-double bond are pre-toxins and metabolically activated by the action of hepatic P-450 enzymes to toxic pyrroles. Besides the acute toxic ...
Lezar Sabine - - 2010
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites which are produced by numerous fungi and pose a continuous challenge to the safety and quality of food commodities in South Africa. These toxins have toxicologically relevant effects on humans and animals that eat contaminated foods. In this study, a diagnostic DNA microarray was developed for ...
Ramos Vítor - - 2010
Palytoxin (PTX) is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of ...
Vasconcelos Vítor - - 2010
Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, ...
Hill Brenna J - - 2010
Clostridium botulinum, an obligate anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, produces seven antigenic variants of botulinum toxin that are distinguished serologically and termed "serotypes". Botulinum toxin blocks the release of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions resulting in flaccid paralysis. The potential lethality of the disease warrants a fast and accurate means of diagnosing suspected ...
Swaan C M CM Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), the - - 2010
In June 2008, three Dutch tourists participating in a mini-cruise in Turkey needed urgent repatriation for antitoxin treatment because of symptoms of botulism. Because there was a shortage of antitoxin in the Netherlands, an emergency delivery was requested from the manufacturer in Germany. An outbreak investigation was initiated into all ...
Etheridge Stacey M - - 2010
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne illness associated with the consumption of seafood products contaminated with the neurotoxins known collectively as saxitoxins (STXs). This family of neurotoxins binds to voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby attenuating action potentials by preventing the passage of sodium ions across the membrane. Symptoms include tingling, ...
Ankolekar Chandrakant - - 2010
All 47 food-borne isolates of Bacillus cereus sensu stricto, as well as 10 of 12 food-borne, enterotoxigenic isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis, possessed appendages. Spores were moderately to highly hydrophobic, and each had a net negative charge. These characteristics indicate that spores of food-associated B. thuringiensis and not only B. cereus ...
Panneerseelan Leenalitha - - 2009
Enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce a variety of heat-stable staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) that are a prevalent cause of food poisoning in the United States and other countries. Many immunological and biochemical assays often work well in buffer systems but are hindered when tested in the complex chemical environment of ...
Roubos-van den Hil P J - - 2010
Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 based on optical density and viable count measurements. This growth inhibition was manifested ...
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