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Millett Christopher - - 2012
The UK introduced an ambitious national strategy to reduce population levels of salt intake in 2003. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strategy on salt intake in England, including potential effects on health inequalities. Secondary analysis of data from the Health Survey for England. ...
Galgano Fernanda - - 2012
Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous substances considered to be bioregulators of numerous cell functions; they take part in cell growth, division, and differentiation. These biogenic amines are also involved in tissue repair and in intracellular signaling; in fact, because of their polycationic character, they interact to a large extent with membrane ...
Kaiyala Karl J KJ Department of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of - - 2012
Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to ...
Tayab Tabassum T Senior Lecturer, Department of Pedodontics, MR Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India e-mail: - - 2012
The aim was to evaluate the salivary pH reversal phenomenon by chewing paneer and processed cheese after a chocolate challenge. Thirty caries-free children were randomly selected and divided into 2 groups: Control group was given processed cheese (Amul) and the experimental group was given paneer (Amul) after a chocolate challenge. ...
Dyble Julianne - - 2011
Fish consumption is a potential route of human exposure to the hepatotoxic microcystins, especially in lakes and reservoirs that routinely experience significant toxic Microcystis blooms. Understanding the rates of uptake and elimination for microcystins as well as the transfer efficiency into tissues of consumers are important for determining the potential ...
Smith Chery - - 2011
Explore how urban and rural Minnesotans access the food system and to investigate whether community infrastructure supports a healthful food system. Eight (4 urban and 4 rural) focus groups were conducted. Eight counties with urban influence codes of 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 10. Fifty-nine (urban, n = 27; ...
Johner Simone A - - 2011
Worldwide, the iodisation of salt has clearly improved iodine status. In industrialised countries, iodised salt added to processed food contributes most to iodine supply. Yet it is unclear as to what extent changes in the latter may affect the iodine status of populations. Between 2004 and 2009, 24-h urinary iodine ...
Askar Kasim Abass - - 2011
This study investigated correlations between modified Ellman and Michel assay methods for measuring cholinesterase (ChE) activities. It also established a foundation for the applicability of measuring ChE activities in food animal species as biochemical biomarkers for evaluating exposure to and effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Measuring ChE activities in ...
Beaulieu John C - - 2011
Previous research examined sanitation treatments on cut cantaloupe tissue to deliver germicidal and food safety effects. However, an apparent compromise between volatile loss and treatment/sampling efficacy appeared. Subsequently, a physiological and volatile reassessment of thinly sliced tissue against cubes was performed in cantaloupe tissue. Thin sliced cantaloupe L* decreased 27.5%, ...
Green Benjamin C - - 2011
Adult and juvenile fish utilise salt marshes for food and shelter at high tide, moving into adjacent sublittoral regions during low tide. Understanding whether there are high levels of site fidelity for different species of coastal fish has important implications for habitat conservation and the design of marine protected areas. ...
Wyness Laura A - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To describe the UK Food Standards Agency's (FSA) salt reduction programme undertaken between 2003 and 2010 and to discuss its effectiveness. DESIGN: Relevant scientific papers, campaign materials and evaluations and consultation responses to the FSA's salt reduction programme were used. SETTING: Adult salt intakes, monitored using urinary Na data ...
Goto Daisuke - - 2011
Responses in feeding ecology of a benthic forage fish, mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus), to altered prey resources were investigated in chronically polluted salt marshes (the Arthur Kill-AK, New York, USA). The diet niche breadth of the AK populations of mummichogs was significantly lower than that of the reference population, reflecting reduced ...
Nicklas Theresa A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effects of self-perceived lactose intolerance as it relates to ...
Gracias Kiev S - - 2011
Although many strains of Bacillaceae are considered nonpathogenic, Bacillus cereus is recognized worldwide as a bacterial pathogen in a variety of foods. The ability of B. cereus to cause gastroenteritis following ingestion of contaminated food is due to the production of enterotoxins. The ubiquity of this genus makes it a ...
Edgar J A - - 2011
Contamination of grain with 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs) and their N-oxides is responsible for large incidents of acute and subacute food poisoning, with high morbidity and mortality, in Africa and in central and south Asia. Herbal medicines and teas containing dehydroPAs have also caused fatalities in both developed and developing ...
Brewster L M - - 2011
To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university hospitals. A standard hot meal collected from ...
Carruthers Jean - - 2010
Since its initial approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 20 years ago for the treatment of strabismus, hemifacial spasm, and blepharospasm in adults, botulinum toxin (BTX) has become one of the most frequently requested products in cosmetic rejuvenation around the world. After years of clinical success and ...
Rasooly Reuven R Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, California 94710, United - - 2010
Foodborne botulism is caused by the ingestion of foods containing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). To study the heat stability of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins, we needed to measure and compare the activity of botulinum neurotoxins, serotypes A and B, under various pasteurization conditions. Currently, the only accepted assay to detect active C. ...
Paredes-Sabja Daniel - - 2010
The hallmark of bacterial spore germination is peptidoglycan cortex hydrolysis by cortex-lytic enzymes. In spores of Clostridium perfringens wild-type strain SM101, which causes food poisoning, the sole essential cortex-lytic enzyme SleC is activated by a unique serine protease CspB. Interestingly, the non-food-borne wild-type strain F4969 encodes a significantly divergent SleC ...
Devers Kelly G - - 2010
In the United States, foodborne botulism is most commonly associated with home-canned food products. Between 1950 and 2005, 405 separate outbreaks of botulism were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Approximately 8% of these outbreaks were attributed to commercially produced canned food products. Overall, 5-10% of ...
Tichadou Lucia - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Ostreopsis ovata and Ostreopsis siamensis are tropical unicellular algae that have been found recently in the Mediterranean. Both of these dinoflagellates produce palytoxin (PTX)-like toxins that are powerful vasoconstrictors in mammals. Since 2003, Ostreopsis blooms in Italy and Spain have been accompanied by reports of respiratory problems and skin/mucosa ...
Sachdeva Amita - - 2010
Our laboratory tested water samples used for cooling low-acid canned foods at a canning facility under investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with digoxigenin-labeled antibodies (DIG-ELISA) and real-time PCR as screening methods and confirmed the presence of neurotoxin-producing Clostridium botulinum in the ...
Biesta-Peters Elisabeth G - - 2010
Bacillus cereus produces the emetic toxin cereulide, a cyclic dodecadepsipeptide that can act as a K(+) ionophore, dissipating the transmembrane potential in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Because pure cereulide has not been commercially available, cereulide content in food samples has been expressed in valinomycin equivalents, a highly similar cyclic potassium ...
Tang Dianping D Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety (Ministry of Education and Fujian Province), Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, - - 2010
A new sandwich-type electrochemical immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in food was developed using horseradish peroxidase-nanosilica-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HRPSiCNTs) for signal amplification. Rabbit polyclonal anti-SEB antibodies immobilized on the screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and covalently bound to the HRPSiCNTs were used as capture antibodies and ...
Campbell A K - - 2010
Lactose and food intolerance cause a wide range of gut and systemic symptoms, including gas, gut pain, diarrhoea or constipation, severe headaches, severe fatigue, loss of cognitive functions such as concentration, memory and reasoning, muscle and joint pain, heart palpitations, and a variety of allergies (Matthews and Campbell, 2000; Matthews ...
Leishman Oriana N - - 2010
Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that ...
Schwake-Anduschus C - - 2010
For the Fusarium trichothecene mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2, a combined (T-2 + HT-2) temporary tolerable daily intake (tTDI) of 0.06 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was proposed at the European level in 2001 (Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food). In the near future, maximum levels for these trichothecenes will ...
Jilcott Stephanie B - - 2010
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine motivations for use of food venues among 23 urban and rural women from eastern North Carolina. Women were eligible if they cared for children, were non-Hispanic black or white, and were English speakers. Interviews elicited participants' decisions for food venue use. ...
Peck Michael W - - 2010
The highly potent botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease. Strains of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum form neurotoxins of types B, E, and F and are the main hazard associated with minimally heated refrigerated foods. Recent developments in quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) and food safety objectives (FSO) ...
Martínez-Blanch Juan Francisco - - 2010
A procedure based on quantitative real-time PCR was evaluated for the detection and quantification of Bacillus cereus spores. Several methods for DNA isolation, such as various heat treatments and germination solutions, were evaluated on spore suspensions of representative strains of the B. cereus group. Overall, the commercially available DNeasy tissue ...
Li Jihong J University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, - - 2010
Clostridium perfringens type A food poisoning is the second most commonly identified bacterial food-borne illness. Sporulation contributes to this disease in two ways: (i) most food-poisoning strains form exceptionally resistant spores to facilitate their survival of food-associated stresses, and (ii) the enterotoxin (CPE) responsible for the symptoms of this food ...
Woo Gye-Hyeong - - 2010
Over a 6-day period beginning on 15 October 2008, 93 dead or sick wild waterfowl, including Mallards, Spotbills, and teal species, were found along the shore of a branch stream of the Hangang River, which flows through Seoul, Korea, and were submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service ...
Postollec Florence - - 2010
The presence of psychrotrophic or highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria in food and feedstuff responsible for food poisoning and spoilage raises major safety and economical issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of a ready-to-use PCR assay (alternative method) in comparison with the standard microbiological plating method ...
Garber Eric A E - - 2010
Detection of proteinaceous toxins in complex heterogeneous mixtures requires highly specific and sensitive methods. Multiplex technology employing multiple antibodies that recognize different epitopes on a toxin provides built-in confirmatory analysis as part of the initial screen and thereby increases the reliability associated with both presumptive positive and negative results. Polyclonal ...
Rasooly Reuven - - 2010
In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity of the bacterial toxin Stx2 produced ...
Natividad-Bonifacio Iván - - 2010
No reports on the incidence of Clostridium perfringens in popularly-consumed food from Mexico City have been published; neither are there any reports that have analyzed food consumed in popular markets and less established restaurants. Therefore, this study is aimed at providing data to evaluate the relevance of C. perfringens as ...
Banerjee Pratik - - 2010
Development and validation of a mammalian cell-based biosensor for application in food defense and food safety was investigated. Three prototypes of the biosensor capable of handling different sample types were developed and tested with food and beverages. The sensing element is a B lymphocyte Ped-2E9 cell-line, encapsulated in collagen matrix ...
Rasooly Reuven - - 2010
The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and ...
Pflug Irving J - - 2010
The incidence of botulism in canned food in the last century is reviewed along with the background science; a few conclusions are reached based on analysis of published data. There are two primary aspects to botulism control: the design of an adequate process and the delivery of the adequate process ...
Kim Jung-Beom - - 2010
Bacillus cereus can cause diarrheal and emetic types of food poisoning but little study has been done on emetic type of food poisoning in Korea. The objective of this study was to report on the emetic type of food poisoning associated with B. cereus in Korea. The toxin gene profile, ...
Fangio Maria Florencia - - 2010
Samples of butternut squash, potatoes, rice, and wheat flour were analyzed. Bacillus spp. and related species belonging to Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus genera were found in 96% of the samples. In butternut squash, predominant species were Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus polymyxa together with other Bacillus spp. species (B. cereus, B. licheniformis, ...
Vinayaka A C - - 2010
Water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles with narrow, very specific, stable emission spectra. Therefore, the bioconjugation of these QDs for biological fluorescent labeling may be of interest due to their unique physical and optical properties as compared to organic fluorescent dyes. These intrinsic properties of QDs have been ...
Fach P P French Food Safety Agency, Laboratory for Study and Research on Food Quality and Processes, 23 Av du Général De Gaulle, Fr-94706 Maisons-Alfort, France. - - 2011
Rapid and specific detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) producing Clostridia is a priority for public health authorities, in case of both natural and intentional botulism outbreaks. This study reports on the evaluation of a detection system based on the GeneDisc Cycler designed for simultaneously testing the bont/A, bont/B, bont/E and ...
Lindstr?m Miia - - 2010
The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption ...
Leishman Oriana N - - 2010
The objectives of this study were to characterize the hydrophobic properties of three strains of Bacillus anthracis using the microbial adherence to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay and determine the recovery of spores by hexadecane extraction from water, milk and orange juice using a modified version of this assay. In water mixtures, ...
Huang Yang - - 2010
Reduction in water activity (a(w)) is used as a microbiological hurdle to prevent food spoilage. To minimize the levels of salt and sugar, which are commonly used to reduce a(w), the potential of food structure as a microbiological hurdle needs to be assessed. The concept of matric potential (Psi(m)) is ...
Shiota Mitsutaka - - 2010
Bacillus cereus is recognized as a major pathogenic bacterium that causes food poisoning and produces gastrointestinal diseases of 2 types: emetic and diarrheal. The emetic type, which is often linked to pasta and rice, arises from a preformed toxin, cereulide, in food. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for this emetic ...
Hexsel Doris - - 2010
The injection of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxins is among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures, both in the U.S. and worldwide. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a new botulinum neurotoxin type A in April 2009 (BoNT-A, Dysport, Medicis, Scottsdale, AZ-hereafter referred to as "Dysport") has ...
Bauer Tobias - - 2010
An increasing number of severe food borne intoxications are caused by a highly stable depsipeptide, named cereulide, which is produced by emetic Bacillus cereus strains. As cereulide poses a health risk to humans, the development of an appropriate method for the analysis of this toxin is mandatory. Therefore, the reference ...
Meneely Julie P - - 2010
A rapid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) screening assay has been developed for the combined detection of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in naturally contaminated cereals using a sensor chip coated with an HT-2 toxin derivative and a monoclonal antibody. The antibody raised against HT-2 displayed high cross-reactivity with T-2 toxin while ...
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