Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 589
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Bezirtzoglou E - - 1994
Clostridium perfringens and especially its spores, which are more tolerant to various physiochemical effects than the other fecal indicator bacteria, could serve as a useful indicator in ecosystems with stress factors. In order to determine the numbers of Clostridium perfringens in waters of rural North-West Greece, we utilised a new ...
Bennett R W - - 1994
Selected foods containing 4-10 ng each of a mixture of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin serotypes A-E were tested by 15 collaborators. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) was used with polyvalent antisera to these serotypes in a polyclonal antibody double "sandwich" configuration. Controls were free of toxin. Foods (25 g test samples) ...
Lawrence J F - - 1994
The hepatopancreases from lobsters (Homarus americanus) obtained from two locations in eastern Canada (Gaspé and Bay of Fundy) were analysed for paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) before and after the shellfish were cooked by boiling or steaming. Forty-five lobsters from each location were divided into three groups of 15. Two of ...
Fach P - - 1993
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for the detection of Clostridium botulinum type A, a cause of human botulism. A two primer set and an oligonucleotide detection probe were used to specifically detect Cl. botulinum type A neurotoxin gene (BoNT/A). After 40 cycles of amplification, detection of a 798 ...
Uchimura M - - 1993
A total of 17 isolates of Vibrio mimicus from patients, 29 from environment and 2 from food was examined for toxigenicity. Sixteen (94%) clinical isolates and one (50%) from food produced TDH-like toxin, whereas none of the environmental isolates did so. The food from which V. mimicus with TDH-like toxin ...
Williams N D - - 1993
Spores of Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236 were treated with glutaraldehyde, Lugol's iodine, polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I), sodium hypochlorite or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC). After exposure survivors were enumerated on nutrient agar containing potential revival agents (subtilisin, lysozyme, calcium dipicolinate, calcium lactate). Of these, only calcium lactate had any significant enhancing effect and then ...
Wieneke A A - - 1993
Between 1969 and 1990 strains of Staphylococcus aureus from 359 outbreaks and sporadic cases of staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom were examined in the PHLS Food Hygiene Laboratory for the production of enterotoxin. In a number of instances the incriminated foods were also examined for the presence of ...
Ali S M - - 1993
Two types of man-made ditches were selected for carrying out this experiment; one polluted with nitrogenous matters (sewage water) and second filled with accumulated irrigated clear non-chlorinated water. No phages were detected in samples collected from both types of ditches. However, phage(s) specific to only B. sphaericus was (were) detected ...
Endean R - - 1993
Two myotoxins (T1 and T2) with mol. wts of approximately 600,000 and 150,000, respectively, and a haemolysin (T3) with a mol. wt of approximately 70,000 were isolated from the crude nematocyst venom of C. fleckeri by the use of Sephadex G-200 chromatography. A neurotoxic fraction (T4) and a haemolytic fraction ...
Tranter H S - - 1993
The presence of low concentrations (0.1% w/v) of oleuropein, a phenolic compound extracted from olives, delayed the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in NZ amine A and brain heart infusion media modified by the addition of growth factors and glucose (NZA+ and BHI+), as indicated by changes in conductance, whilst higher ...
Gill J M - - 1993
About 150 rare, adult, yellow-eyed penguins died over a short period during the summer of 1989-1990 on the Otago Peninsula. These were from a total mainland population estimated at 240 breeding pairs. Penguin chicks and non-breeding birds were not affected, but there were indications of shortages in feed supply for ...
Schnürer J - - 1993
To evaluate the effectiveness of steps taken to reduce the growth of molds in food and feed, methods that can accurately quantify the degree of fungal contamination of solid substrates are needed. In this study, the ergosterol assay has been evaluated by comparing the results of this assay with spore ...
Ueno Y - - 1993
Biotoxins derived from bacteria, fungi and algae in food play an important role for development of diseases of unknown aetiology. Furthermore, dietary components modulate their toxicity and carcinogenicity. Current progress on their mode of action postulated the contribution of cytochrome P-450 system as well as oxygen radicals, and phosphoprotein phosphatases ...
Mead G C - - 1992
The clostridia are a group of anaerobic bacteria that vary considerably in their biochemical and physiological properties. Not surprisingly, attempts to develop a single isolation medium for all species that occur in foods have not been entirely successful, and the problem is compounded by the need to recover both vegetative ...
Notermans S - - 1991
A reference material for staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), was produced by spray-drying the toxin in milk. With this procedure the SEA was distributed homogeneously in the material. For ease of handling the reference material was encased in gelatin capsules, each containing 405 ng of SEA. Simply dissolving the milk powder ...
McCroskey L M - - 1991
Type F botulism was confirmed in a 54-year-old male with signs compatible with botulism who reported to the emergency unit of a hospital. Botulinal neurotoxin was detected in the patient's serum and fecal specimens, and a neurotoxigenic organism whose physiologic characteristics correspond to those of Clostridium baratii was isolated. The ...
Nagahama M - - 1991
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with antibodies specific to beta, epsilon and iota ib toxins of Clostridium perfringens was developed to detect beta, epsilon and iota ib toxins, respectively. The ELISA was sensitive enough to detect as little as 1.0 ng/ml of purified beta and iota ib toxins and 0.1 ...
Pereira J L - - 1991
The goal of this investigation was to determine whether staphylococcal strains producing enterotoxins at nanogram levels per milliliter in laboratory medium, not detectable by gel diffusion methods, could produce sufficient enterotoxin in foods to result in food poisoning. Three low-enterotoxin D (SED)-producing strains were selected for this research because this ...
Bergdoll M S - - 1991
The analytical methods for the detection of the staphylococcal enterotoxins can be divided into 2 categories: (1) methods for detection of enterotoxin-producing staphylococcal strains; (2) methods for detection of enterotoxin in foods. Gel diffusion methods (Ouchterlony, microslide), in which the enterotoxin produced by any given strain is compared to one ...
Labbé R G - - 1991
In the United States and Canada, Clostridium perfringens remains a leading cause of bacterial food poisoning in humans. It has been primarily associated with meat and poultry products prepared in food service establishments. Fecal spore levels of 10(6) or more per g are considered indicative of a food poisoning outbreak. ...
Barrett D H - - 1991
Clinical features are described for 35 cases of endemic food-borne botulism managed at a single medical center over 14 years. Important diagnostic findings included dryness of mucous membranes (90%), weakness (84%), and abnormal pupillary reaction (79%). Sensory examination was normal. Dizziness, dyspnea, and weakness of the extremities were significantly more ...
Shinagawa K - - 1991
A mouse lethal toxin (MLT) produced by Bacillus cereus isolated in vomiting-type food poisoning was purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. Purified MLT possessed a molecular weight of 33,000-34,000. It showed mouse lethality and hemolytic (HL) activity on sheep and rabbit erythrocytes; the ...
Saito M - - 1991
The excretion in the feces of Clostridium perfringens producing enterotoxin by 48 patients in 3 cases of food poisoning was studied during the illness and 1 and 3 months after the onset. Patients in the first outbreak excreted such strains mostly in the form of spores. In the second outbreak, ...
Cudjoe K S - - 1991
A simple, rapid and sensitive immunoassay, based on immunomagnetic particles (Dynabeads M-280) was developed for detection and quantitation of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin from faecal and food extracts. The assay had a detection limit of 2.5 ng/ml enterotoxin in homogenates of faeces and inoculated meat extracts. The specificity was ...
Sokari T - - 1991
Out of 880 samples of commonly consumed meat, fish and vegetable ready-to-eat foods from eastern Nigeria examined, 552 (62%) yielded coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, with 269 (48%) of the strains being enterotoxigenic. Two cowpea-based foods, akara and moin moin, whose methods of preparation and sale involve little or no post-processing hand ...
Rantio-Lehtimäki A - - 1991
Pollen and spore counts from Burkard traps for routine pollen and spore sampling placed at 15 m above ground and at ground level were compared. Daily counts of most pollen types were higher on the ground than at roof level, but the counts were significantly correlated. The ratios of pollen ...
Nikai T - - 1991
1. Ac1-Proteinase from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus was isolated in a homogeneous form by a previously published method. 2. Ac1-Proteinase possessed lethal, hemorrhagic, caseinolytic, azocaseinolytic, azoalbumin hydrolytic and hide powder azure hydrolytic activities. 3. The toxin also hydrolyzed the oxidized B chain of insulin and fibrinogen. The cleavage sites ...
Lund B M - - 1990
It has been reported that non-proteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum will grow at 3.3 degrees C, and they are therefore of concern in relation to certain chilled foods. The effects of combinations of inhibitory factors may be used to reduce the risk of growth of these bacteria in foods. The ...
Johnson G R - - 1990
The cultured mussel industry of Prince Edward Island had never experienced a toxic disease problem until November of 1987. With the successful use of the long-line culture system, the yearly production of fresh mussels to the gourmet food market had risen to close to 3.2 million pounds (1.46 million kg) ...
Baker D A - - 1990
Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh fish is used to market high quality products in some European countries. The potential risk of C. botulinum growth in these extended shelf-life foods is still a concern; especially since toxigenesis may precede organoleptic spoilage. This paper will present toxigenic data from rockfish, salmon and ...
Critchley E M - - 1990
The survival of Clostridium botulinum spores in improperly processed foods varies considerably with pH and temperature. The greatest risk arises from commercial or home-prepared condiments, vegetables, non-acid fruits and preserved raw fish. Clinical problems with botulism arise from the rapidity of development, unexpected manifestations involving the autonomic nervous system, including ...
Shinagawa K - - 1990
Bacillus cereus can give rise to two distinct forms of foodborne disease, the emetic and the diarrhoeal syndromes. The emetic syndrome is believed to be associated with an emetic toxin pre-formed in food. Cooked rice is the most common vehicle, and the symptoms are similar to those of Staphylococcus aureus ...
Abalaka J A - - 1990
The effect of metabisulphite on spore formation and alkaline phosphatase activity/production in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus was investigated both in liquid and semi-solid substrates. While supplementary nutrient broth (SNB) and sporulation medium (SM) were used as the liquid growth media, two brands of powdered milk were used as the ...
Phanichyakarn P - - 1989
A 15-year survey of atmospheric pollen and mold spores was carried out in Bangkok, Thailand, from January 1973 to December 1987 by Durham's standard gravity slide sampler. The pollen and mold spore counts were presented. The peak of the pollen and mold spores occurred during the time of the year ...
Fekete S - - 1989
Feed containing sublethal T-2 toxin concentrations (12.5 and 25 ppm) was fed to adult rabbits. The animals ate 60-70% less toxin-containing food. The dry matter content of their feces decreased significantly (on an average by 10%). The nutrient digestibility of the feed containing 12.5 ppm T-2 toxin, was increased by ...
Payment P - - 1989
Poliovirus, coliphages, Giardia lamblia cysts, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Legionella pneumophila were concentrated simultaneously in a single pass by sequential filtration of large volumes of drinking water through 3- and 1-micron wound electronegative fiberglass cartridge filters (25.4 cm). Filtration was performed under acidic conditions (pH 3.5) in the presence of ...
Putnam M R - - 1989
Because a significant number of toxins affect food animal reproduction, the investigating clinician should be aware of their presence and action. If the clinician is confronted with infertility and abortions, the biotoxins, plant estrogens, nitrates, fescue, and selenium-accumulating plants should be considered. The region of the country will limit the ...
Power E G - - 1989
Spores of Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236 were exposed to 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde and subsequently subjected to various treatments in an attempt to revive injured spores. Treatment with alkali (sodium or potassium hydroxide or, to a lesser extent, sodium bicarbonate) proved to be most successful. Some revival was achieved after thermal ...
Jackson S G - - 1989
A fluorescent immunodot assay has been developed for rapid, specific detection of B. cereus enterotoxin. None of the other Bacillus species tested showed cross-reactivity in the assay with antiserum to purified B. cereus enterotoxin. The assay can detect greater than or equal to 50 ng of purified enterotoxin. Using this ...
Chengappa M M - - 1989
Toxicosis caused by Anabaena spiroides was diagnosed in 7 of 26 finishing hogs in a farrow-to-finish operation in Kentucky. Several sick pigs in the herd had the following clinical signs: vomiting, dull appearance, lethargy, anorexia, muscle tremors, frothing at the mouth, coughing, sneezing, dyspnea, and bloody diarrhea. Of the 7 ...
Chabasse D - - 1989
In order to appreciate the pathogenicity of several geophilic Chrysosporium species (including Anixiopsis stercoraria, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, C. tropicum, C. pannorum, C. state Arthroderma curreyi, C. state of A. multifidum, and C. state of A. tuberculatum), the authors have realized two series of experimental infestations. Inoculation of these fungi on the ...
Windemann H - - 1989
A highly sensitive amplified ELISA in microtitre plates for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins compared favourably with a commercially available kit. The amplified ELISA demonstrated a reduced effect of the food sample matrix and an ease of handling. Using the amplified ELISA, the influence of different parameters (pH, time, temperature, ...
Nout M J - - 1988
During tempe manufacture, Staphylococcus aureus was able to survive in newly started soya-bean soaks (final pH 4.7), whereas it died during soaks with accelerated souring (final pH 4.0). No S. aureus were detected after subsequent heat treatment of soaked beans. S. aureus strain S6 could produce enterotoxins A and B ...
Holzapfel W H - - 1988
In an ecological study only low numbers of Sporolactobacillus were found in habitats such as the faeces of herbivores, the rumen of cattle and the final waste water of an abattoir. Their presence in the final waste water of an abattoir indicates their possible association with food, and, more specifically, ...
Brand C J - - 1988
An epizootic of type E botulism (Clostridium botulinum) occurred among common loons (Gavia immer) along the Lake Michigan shore of Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA) during October and November 1983. An estimated 592 dead loons washed ashore along the Garden Peninsula. Type E botulinal toxin was demonstrated in blood samples and ...
Cutten A E - - 1988
Ganoderma fungal spores are a major component of the Auckland air-spora. Previous studies of ganoderma involvement in allergic asthma and rhinitis were extended by locating the sporophores (fruiting bodies) in the Auckland area and systematically collecting the ejected spores. Maximum production by one sporophore was 5 gram dry weight of ...
Fink R - - 1988
Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were used to determine the exposure time for formaldehyde decontamination of biological safety cabinets. Formaldehyde contact times less than 3 hr were insufficient for sterilization. A contact time of 4 hr or more resulted in a reproducible killing of the spore strips placed inside the ...
McCroskey L M - - 1988
There was laboratory evidence of intestinal colonization in four cases of adult botulism confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control. No performed toxin was detected in available foods, but Clostridium botulinum was isolated from foods in two instances. Botulinal toxin was detected in the sera of all four patients, in ...
Ewald S - - 1988
Two ELISA kits were employed to detect staphylococcal enterotoxin A, B, C and D in foods to which enterotoxin had been added or which had been artificially contaminated with enterotoxin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The sensitivity was satisfactory, and enterotoxins were detected by both ELISA kits in all positive samples. ...
Deák T - - 1988
Bacillus spp. are among the main spoilage organisms in food due to their versatile metabolism and heat-resistant spores. Except for B. cereus, no specific identification method is available, although information about Bacillus spp. would be useful in monitoring good manufacturing practice. A simplified identification scheme for aerobic spore-formers for routine ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >