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Tomasi Dardo D National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, - - 2014
Cocaine, through its activation of dopamine (DA) signaling, usurps pathways that process natural rewards. However, the extent to which there is overlap between the networks that process natural and drug rewards and whether DA signaling associated with cocaine abuse influences these networks have not been investigated in humans. We measured ...
Yanfei Miao M School of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering - - 2014
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this work was to develop a controlled release of ziprasidone with no food effect by the osmotic release strategy. Methods: The solution of ziprasidone and poloxamer188 (P188) with different weight ratios was spray-dried to form solid dispersion of ziprasidone (SD-ZIP). The SD-ZIP was characterized using ...
Nakamichi Atsuko A School of Oral Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Full postal address: 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima, 770-8504, Japan; Department of Oral Health, Kobe Tokiwa Junior College, Full postal address: 2-6-2 Otani-cho, Kobe Nagata-ku, Hyogo, 653-0838, - - 2014
Modification of eating behavior in Japan is promoted to prevent overweight and obesity, but the effects of such modifications are unclear. This study aimed to clarify the inter- and intra-individual relationship between bite size and number of chews of food. Subjects comprised 50 young healthy Japanese women (mean age 19.5 ...
Arnason T T Marine Research Institute, P. O. Box 42, 240, Grindavík, - - 2014
Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus of the Hólar strain (mean ± s.e. body mass = 152·1 ± 3·1 g) were reared at four different salinity regimes at a constant temperature of 7·4° C. Two groups were given a three-month acclimation in salinity 18 before the salinity was increased to either 25 or 29 (groups called A25 and A29), ...
Yannakoulia Mary M Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University , Athens , - - 2014
Abstract Energy intake and appetite feelings after the consumption of two different types of breakfast, a high-fiber, traditional, Mediterranean-type breakfast and a low-fiber, Western-type breakfast were compared. Sixteen non-obese young men received the two treatments on separate days: the Mediterranean- and the Western-type breakfasts were isocaloric, similar in volume and ...
Bontrager Yoder Andrea B AB Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison , Madison, - - 2014
Abstract Background: The high overweight and obesity prevalence among US children is a well-established public health concern. Diet is known to play a causal role in obesity. Increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption to recommended levels is proposed to help reduce obesity, because their bulk and low energy density are ...
Laflamme Dottie D Nestlé Purina Research, Checkerboard Square, St. Louis, MO 63164, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Information and misinformation about pet nutrition and pet foods, including ingredients used in pet foods, is widely available through various sources. Often, this "information" raises questions or concerns among pet owners. Many pet owners will turn to their veterinarian for answers to these questions. One of the challenges that veterinarians ...
DeFulio Anthony A University of Florida; Johns Hopkins University School of - - 2014
Six pigeons were studied in a token economy in which tokens could be produced and exchanged for food on one side of an experimental chamber and for water on the opposite side of the chamber. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a token-production fixed ratio (FR) schedule. Responses ...
Potvin Kent Monique M Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, - - 2014
To evaluate the self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative pre- and post-implementation in terms of volume of marketing, marketing techniques, and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television. Data for 11 food categories for May 2006 and 2011 were purchased from Nielsen Media Research for two children's ...
Aprodu Iuliana I Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, Galati, Romania - - 2014
Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, ...
Kanzler Sonja S Department of Nutritional Sciences, 'Emerging Field Oxidative Stress and DNA Stability', University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, - - 2014
To assess the salt content of continental European convenience and ready meals. A multistage study in which, after laboratory analysis of the products' salt contents (n 32), new salt-reduced meals were developed through food reformulation. Additionally, a comprehensive survey of convenience meals from the Austrian market (n 572) was conducted ...
Stojadinovic Marija M University of Belgrade, Faculty of Chemistry, 11000 Belgrade, - - 2014
Cross-linking of proteins has been exploited by the food industry to change food texture and functionality but the effects of these manipulations on food allergenicity still remain unclear. To model the safety assessment of these food biopolymers, we created cross-linked bovine β-lactoglobulin (CL-BLG) by laccase treatment. Purpose of the present ...
Lisboa Maria Sol MS University of Maryland, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Research Energy Research Center, 1445 Animal Science/Ag Engineering Blgd., College Park, MD 20742, - - 2014
Studies have shown that including food waste as a co-digestion substrate in the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure can increase energy production. However, the type and inclusion rate of food waste used for co-digestion need to be carefully considered in order to prevent adverse conditions in the digestion environment. This ...
Rolls Barbara J - - 2014
Food volume could influence both the portions that people take and the amount that they eat, but these effects have had little investigation. The influence of food volume was tested by systematically reducing the flake size of a breakfast cereal so that the cereal was more compact and the same ...
Sugiyama Yukimaru Y Kyoto University Primate Research Institute, Inuyama, Japan, - - 2014
From the late 1960s to the early 1970s, many congenitally malformed infants were born into provisioned Japanese macaque troops. Although the exact cause of this problem was not determined, the occurrence of malformations decreased thereafter. We examined possible factors such as total population size, number of adult females, birth rate, ...
Privitera Gregory J GJ St. Bonaventure University. - - 2014
Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh ...
Furuya J J Department of Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, - - 2014
The key objective of mastication is to form a food bolus suitable for smooth swallowing. However, chewing is usually performed without a conscious effort. Poor bolus formation can cause pharyngeal residue and suffocation in elderly individuals with reduced swallowing function. Therefore, chewing with a conscious effort may help the bolus ...
Weber Katharina Susanne KS 1 Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, - - 2014
The development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is potentially influenced by nutrition. The aim of our study was to assess food and nutrient intakes of children at increased risk of T1D. Dietary intake of the last 4 weeks was assessed using a diet history interview. The daily nutrient and food ...
Van Meter Robin J RJ Marine Estuarine Environmental Sciences Program, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of - - 2014
Freshwater salinization is an emerging environmental filter in urban aquatic ecosystems that receive chloride road salt runoff from vast expanses of impervious surface cover. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of chloride contamination on urban stormwater pond food webs through changes in zooplankton community composition as well as ...
Siswantoro Joko J Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia ; Faculty of Engineering, University of Surabaya, Jl. Kali Rungkut, Surabaya 60293, - - 2014
Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based ...
Navia Beatriz B Departamento de Nutrición. Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. España. UCM Research Group VALORNUT (920030).. - - 2014
Introduction: Recent studies have indicated that diets rich in sodium may predispose to the development of obesity, either directly, or be associated with the consumption of foods that promote weight gain. Objetive: The aims of this study were to analyze the association between urinary sodium and the presence of excess ...
Hashem Kawther M KM Centre for Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, - - 2014
To investigate the salt (sodium chloride) content in cheese sold in UK supermarkets. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2012, including 612 cheeses available in UK supermarkets. The salt content (g/100 g) was collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of cheeses available in the top seven retailers. Salt ...
Parrish Audrey E AE Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Psychology Department, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
The context in which food is presented can alter quantity judgments leading to sub-optimal choice behavior. Humans often over-estimate food quantity on the basis of how food is presented. Food appears larger if plated on smaller dishes than larger dishes and liquid volumes appear larger in taller cups than shorter ...
Wang Jinsong - - 2013
Dietary guidelines suggest limiting daily sodium intake to <2,300 mg for the general population, and <1,500 mg/d for those with certain cardiovascular risk factors. Despite these recommendations, few Americans are able to achieve this goal. Identifying challenges in meeting these guidelines is integral for successful compliance. This analysis examined patterns ...
Jia Wenyan W 1 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2013
Accurate estimation of food portion size is of paramount importance in dietary studies. We have developed a small, chest-worn electronic device called eButton which automatically takes pictures of consumed foods for objective dietary assessment. From the acquired pictures, the food portion size can be calculated semi-automatically with the help of ...
Du Shufa S Department of Nutrition and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (SD, CB, and BMP); the Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Atlanta, GA (AN); and the National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China (HW, BZ, and - - 2014
Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China. We analyzed the patterns and trends of dietary sodium intake, potassium intake, and the ...
Hobin Erin - - 2013
To compare energy (calories), total and saturated fats, and Na levels for 'kids' menu' food items offered by four leading multinational fast-food chains across five countries. A content analysis was used to create a profile of the nutritional content of food items on kids' menus available for lunch and dinner ...
Andreyeva Tatiana - - 2013
In 2009, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented revisions to the composition and quantities of WIC-provided foods. New whole-grain products such as whole-wheat bread and allowable substitutes were added to encourage increased intake of whole grains and fiber among WIC ...
Lisboa Maria Sol - - 2013
Co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure is increasingly utilized to increase energy production and make anaerobic digestion more affordable; however, there is a lack of information on appropriate co-digestion substrates. In this study, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the suitability of four food waste substrates ...
Marciani L - - 2013
Background/objectives:The emptying of the gall bladder in response to feeding is pivotal for the digestion of fat, but the role of various food ingredients in contracting the gall bladder postprandially is not well understood. We hypothesized that different food ingredients, when consumed, will have a different effect on stimulating gall ...
Marqués-Iturria Idoia - - 2013
Obesity depends on homeostatic and hedonic food intake behavior, mediated by brain plasticity changes in cortical and subcortical structures. The aim of this study was to investigate cortical thickness and subcortical volumes of regions related to food intake behavior in a healthy young adult sample with obesity. Thirty-seven volunteers, 19 ...
Rudelt Amanda - - 2013
To examine changes in the Na content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at eight of the leading fast-food restaurants in the USA between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010. Menu offerings and nutrient composition information for the menu items were obtained from archival versions of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) Food ...
Faustina Dufie Wireko-Manu - - 2013
Yam is the third most important root and tuber crop in the tropics but few species are grown as health food and/or for medicinal purposes. To ascertain the potential health benefits and alternate usage of the species, 20 varieties of Dioscorea alata (water yam) were investigated for their total dietary ...
Anzid Karim - - 2013
To assess micronutrient intakes and the prevalence of inadequacy in a sample of high-school pupils in Ouarzazate, Morocco. Food records were compiled over three non-consecutive days by pre-trained pupils. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using the DIAL software, adapted to include foods commonly eaten in Morocco. The prevalence of inadequacy was ...
Eyles Helen - - 2013
In 2006 the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) introduced voluntary sodium reduction targets for more than 80 categories of processed food. Our aim was to determine the impact of these targets on the sodium content of processed foods in the UK between 2006 and 2011. Household consumer panel data (n>18,000 ...
Smith Dana G - - 2013
Loss of control over hedonically motivated actions is a defining component of impulse control disorders, such as drug dependence and the proposed 'food addiction' model of obesity. Devolution from goal-directed to compulsively maintained behaviors is partially attributed to abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex, an area critical in reward valuation. In ...
Brunner Thomas A - - 2013
Plenty of studies have demonstrated that effort influences food choice. However, few have been conducted to analyze the effect of effort on consumption volume. Moreover, the few studies that have measured consumption volume all have strong limitations. The goal of the present paper is to disentangle confounding variables in earlier ...
Crespi Erica J - - 2013
Exposure to adverse environmental conditions during early development can shape life-history traits and have lasting effects on physiological function in later life. Although findings within the biomedical literature have shown that environmentally induced elevations in glucocorticoids (GCs) during critical developmental windows can cause persistent carry-over effects (i.e., developmental programming), little ...
Pfeifer Gail - - 2013
A new report says yes, but not all agree with the findings.
Trevena Helen - - 2013
To assess the change in Na content of Australian pasta sauces between 2008 and 2011. A secondary objective was to project the mean Na content of these same products in 2014 using the Australian Food and Health Dialogue Na commitment and compare projections with the 2012 UK Na target for ...
Lin Biing-Hwan - - 2013
To examine how increasing vegetable consumption from foods prepared at home (FAH) and foods prepared away from home (FAFH) would impact energy, dietary fibre and Na (sodium) intakes in the USA. Using data from the 2003-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, dietary intake data from two separate days ...
Asami Mari - - 2013
The contributions of water to total levels of chlorate and perchlorate intake were determined using food and water samples from a market basket study from 10 locations in Japan between 2008 and 2009. Foods were categorized into 13 groups and analyzed along with tap water. The average total chlorate intake ...
Contreras Heidy L - - 2013
The foraging decisions of flower-visiting animals are contingent upon the need of an individual to meet both energetic and osmotic demands. Insects can alter their food preferences to prioritize one need over the other, depending on environmental conditions. In this study, preferences in nectar sugar concentrations (0, 12, 24 %) were ...
Hendriksen Marieke Ah - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To monitor the effectiveness of salt-reduction initiatives in processed foods and changes in Dutch iodine policy on Na and iodine intakes in Dutch adults between 2006 and 2010. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional studies among adults, conducted in 2006 and 2010, using identical protocols. Participants collected single 24 h urine samples ...
Jallier Vincent - - 2013
Access to high-grade micronutrients is a recurring challenge that often threatens the long-term sustainability of food fortification programs. To assess the efficiency of the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) Premix Facility in procuring quality, affordable vitamin A for fortification of edible oil in Indonesia. A global approach to procurement ...
Perrier E - - 2013
Background/objectives:In sedentary adults, hydration is mostly influenced by total fluid intake and not by sweat losses; moreover, low daily fluid intake is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to model the relation between total fluid intake and urinary hydration biomarkers.Subjects/methods:During 4 consecutive weekdays, 82 adults (age, 31.6±4.3 years; ...
Jacobson Michael F - - 2013
IMPORTANCE Excess consumption of sodium is an important cause of hypertension, a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The higher the level of consumption, the greater is a person's likelihood of developing hypertension. Numerous organizations have recommended reductions in sodium intake in the United States. Roughly 80% of ...
Andreyeva Tatiana T Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8369, USA. - - 2013
In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented revisions to the composition and quantities of WIC food packages. Juice allowances were reduced by approximately half. This report describes changes in purchases of 100% juice and other beverages among WIC participants after the WIC revisions. ...
Kittipongpatana Ornanong S - - 2013
Cross-linked carboxymethyl rice starches (CL-CMRSs) were prepared from reactions between native rice starch and varied concentrations (0.1-15%w/w, M-0.1 to M-15) of epichlorohydrin (ECH) in a simultaneous carboxymethylation-crosslinking reaction setup using methanol as the solvent. The degree of carboxymethyl substitution was between 0.24 and 0.28, while apparent amylose contents were lowered ...
McKinley Michael J - - 2013
Most ingested sodium is contained in food. The aim was to investigate whether sodium depletion, dehydration or DOCA alter intakes of salted and unsalted foods by rats given choices of 2 foods: salted (0.2-0.5% Na) and unsalted food containing either similar or different other dietary components. Diuretic-induced (furosemide or acetazolamide) ...
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