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Bodenlos Jamie S - - 2007
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is now available as a treatment for epilepsy and treatment-resistant depression. The vagus nerve plays a central role in satiety and short-term regulation of food intake and research suggests a relationship between VNS and weight loss. The underlying mechanisms of this relationship are unknown. The purpose ...
Campbell Karen J - - 2007
The home food environment is central to the development of healthy eating behaviours, but associations between the home food environment and children's food choices are not yet fully understood. The aims of this study were to explore parents' views regarding factors that influence children's food choices and parents' decision-making regarding ...
Siwik Violet Perez - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study factors related to eating patterns, specifically whether certain food cravings were associated with frequency of meals eaten away from home. METHODS: Data were collected from 277 patients from a family medicine residency office in Arizona. The survey questionnaire included information about the respondents' demographics, ...
Ogden Jane - - 2007
Although many attempts to change health behaviour fail, some individuals do show successful behaviour change. This study assessed the role of behavioural intentions, motivations and attitudes to the target in explaining successful changes in diet with a particular focus on positive and negative intentions and positive and negative attitudes. Participants ...
Garemo Malin - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dietary habits founded early in life might influence development of welfare diseases. The aim was to analyse food choice, socio-economic characteristics and health by questionnaires in healthy 4-year olds. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty children were invited and 79% completed all questionnaires. Anthropometry was measured in 131 ...
Walsh Marianne C - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics in human nutrition research is faced with the challenge that changes in metabolic profiles resulting from diet may be difficult to differentiate from normal physiologic variation. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the extent of intra- and interindividual variation in normal human metabolic profiles and investigated the effect of standardizing diet ...
Pignatti R - - 2006
The present study addresses the issue of whether a "decision-making disorder" could account for the behavioral problems of severely obese patients (BMI score >34) who are not classified by traditional psychiatric Eating Disorder tests. The neuropsychological test employed, the Gambling Task (GT), is not directly related to the food domain, ...
Ward Camille - - 2007
We examined the ability of domestic dogs to choose the larger versus smaller quantity of food in two experiments. In experiment 1, we investigated the ability of 29 dogs (results from 18 dogs were used in the data analysis) to discriminate between two quantities of food presented in eight different ...
Devine Carol M - - 2006
Integrating their work and family lives is an everyday challenge for employed parents. Competing demands for parents' time and energy may contribute to fewer meals prepared or eaten at home and poorer nutritional quality of meals. Thus, work-family spillover (feelings, attitudes, and behaviors carried over from one role to another) ...
Chapman Kathy - - 2006
The aim of this study was to describe the nature and amount of sales promotion use on food packaging in selected Australian supermarkets, specifically those directed at children through the use of premium offers, such as giveaways and competitions, and cartoon and movie character promotions. The study also examined the ...
Urala Nina - - 2006
The associations of liking and perceived healthiness ratings between repeated food choices were studied in two experiments. Participants' snack bar (n=41, Experiment I) and beverage (n=60, Experiment II) choices among six product alternatives were monitored for 4 and 3 weeks, respectively. In Experiment I, participants were allowed to familiarise themselves ...
Odum Amy L AL Department of Psychology, 2810 Old Main Hill, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, United States. Amy.Odum@usu.edu - - 2006
Delay discounting research determines how the value of an outcome is affected by delay to its receipt. Research so far shows that consumable outcomes are discounted more steeply by delay than money. Prior studies, however, have used large amounts of the outcomes (e.g. 100 dollars worth) that would not typically ...
Vander Wal Jillon S - - 2007
A crucial problem in studies involving food cravings is the lack of a psychometrically sound measure for use among overweight and obese populations. The degree to which the Food Cravings Questionnaires-Trait (FCQ-T) and State (FCQ-S) evidenced acceptable psychometric properties among overweight and obese participants was assessed. In study 1, 109 ...
Baker Elizabeth A - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: The increase in obesity and disparities in obesity and related chronic diseases across racial and ethnic and income groups have led researchers to focus on the social and environmental factors that influence dietary intake. The question guiding the current study was whether all communities have equal access to foods ...
Spence Alexa - - 2006
This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the ...
Lee Daeyeol D Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, - - 2006
We investigated how lateralized choices of hand and target are influenced by previous behavior. Three monkeys retrieved food pellets following cues indicating the location of available food pellet targets, and the hand that could be used to acquire a target. In pseudo-randomized trials, the monkeys could retrieve food pellet targets ...
Jabs Jennifer - - 2006
Time scarcity, the feeling of not having enough time, has been implicated in changes in food consumption patterns such as a decrease in food preparation at home, an increase in the consumption of fast foods, a decrease in family meals, and an increase in the consumption of convenience or ready-prepared ...
Kriflik Lynda - - 2006
Public health practitioners interested in supporting consumers to make healthy, sustainable food choices need to understand consumer motivations to reduce food system risk. Increasingly food technologies that have enhanced access to food supply are being recognised as also impacting on the sustainability of the food system. This study explored the ...
Contento Isobel R - - 2006
PURPOSE: To understand from the adolescents' own perspective the decision-making processes they use to make food choices on an everyday basis and how they resolve their need for personal control over food choices with the values of family and peers. METHODS: A sample of 108 adolescents, aged 11-18 years, were ...
Jensen Keith - - 2006
Sensitivity to fairness may influence whether individuals choose to engage in acts that are mutually beneficial, selfish, altruistic, or spiteful. In a series of three experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could pull a rope to access out-of-reach food while concomitantly pulling another piece of food further away. In the first study, ...
Aikman Shelley N - - 2006
This research examined healthiness perceptions and how the information underlying food attitudes more generally relate to attitudes and behaviors. Participants completed attitudinal measures and various card-sorting tasks in which they rank ordered foods (pictures and/or nutrition labels) in terms of healthiness. Taste was found to be a stronger predictor of ...
Rozin Paul - - 2006
Telephone interviews of 6000 representative adults from France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, the UK, and the USA, included two items on attitudes to variety. One had to do with whether the respondent preferred a choice of 10 versus 50 ice cream flavors. Ten choices were preferred by a majority of respondents ...
Saher Marieke - - 2006
Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had ...
Zellner Debra A - - 2006
Two studies investigate the effect of stress on food choice. Experiment 1 demonstrates experimentally that stress causes changes in food choice away from healthy low fat foods (grapes) to less healthy high fat foods (M&Ms), confirming previous survey research. Experiment 2, a survey study, finds that more females than males ...
McClelland Andrew - - 2006
This study aimed to extend recent experimental work on the efficacy of visuo-spatial working memory-based techniques for reducing food cravings by adopting a more naturalistic methodology. Fifty undergraduate women formed images of their favorite foods while performing a visuo-spatial task across six successive trials. Vividness and craving intensity were rated ...
Harmon Alison H - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To design and pilot a questionnaire for assessing youth attitudes about the food system. DESIGN: Nutrition educators provided important topics for food system education through a survey using the Delphi method. The resulting questionnaire of attitude scales was piloted with high school students. SETTING: The Delphi survey of nutrition ...
Gilbert Paul E - - 2006
A delayed-match-to-sample for spatial location task was used to measure spatial pattern separation and working memory. On each trial, an object covered a baited food well in one of 15 spatial locations along a row of food wells perpendicular to the start box. Once the rat exited the start box, ...
Linwick Daniel C - - 2006
When Pavlovian stimuli activate representations of food, do these representations resemble memories of food consumed in the recent past or expectancies of food that is imminent? In Experiments 1A and 1B, this question was addressed by training pigeons on a symbolic matching-to-sample task involving different grains as memory cues or ...
Bryant Maria - - 2006
The importance of environment on food choices has recently received increased attention. One environment likely to be influential is the home food environment. This review examines 23 studies that used either researcher-conducted open inventories or self-report checklists to assess food availability in the home. Only three were open inventories (this ...
Verhulst Filip - - 2006
The present study examined whether the affective priming paradigm in the picture-picture naming task can be used to measure recently acquired food attitudes. Food (dis)likes were induced by an evaluative learning procedure in which real food items were contingently paired with sensory liking or expected consequences information. It was found ...
Epstein Leonard H - - 2006
One way to increase choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is to increase the cost of less healthy alternatives or reduce the cost of healthier alternatives. The influence of price on purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods was evaluated in two laboratory experiments. In Experiment 1, thirty-two 10- to 12-year-old ...
Martin Corby K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study examined food cravings during a primarily food-based low-calorie diet (LCD) and a supplement-based very-LCD (VLCD). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The Food Craving Inventory (FCI) was used to measure general cravings and cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high fats, carbohydrates/starches, and fast food fats). The FCI ...
Tucker Patricia - - 2006
PURPOSE: Preschoolers' dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. METHODS: A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ...
Sneijder Petra - - 2006
While identity has been a dominant topic in research on food choice, literature on identity in consumers' everyday life is scarce. In this article we draw on insights from discursive psychology to demonstrate how members of an online forum on food pleasure handle the hedonic appreciation of food in everyday ...
Steel Danielle - - 2006
The present study investigated the effects of hunger and visuo-spatial interference on imagery-induced food cravings. Forty-two women were randomly assigned to a hungry (no food for prior 4h) or not hungry condition. Participants were asked to form and maintain images of desired foods while looking at a blank computer screen ...
Silk Kami J - - 2005
Genetically modified (GM) foods are currently a controversial topic about which the lay public in the United States knows little. Formative research has demonstrated that the lay public is uncertain and concerned about GM foods. This study (N = 858) extends focus group research by using the Theory of Reasoned ...
Spence Alexa - - 2006
Past research on attitudes towards GM food has focused on measuring explicit attitudes. Here we compared implicit attitudes towards GM foods with explicit attitudes towards GM foods. We used the Go No-Go task to investigate context-free implicit evaluations of GM foods and compared these with evaluations made in the context ...
Fox Craig R - - 2005
The authors argue that people's tendency to diversify their allocations of money and consumption choices over alternatives gives rise to decisions that vary systematically with the subjective grouping of available options. These subjective groupings are influenced by subtle variations in the presentation of options or elicitation of preferences. Studies 1-4 ...
Bisogni Carole A - - 2005
Conceptual understanding of how management of food and eating is linked to life course events and experiences. Individual qualitative interviews with adults in upstate New York. Fourteen men and 11 women with moderate to low incomes. PHENOMENON: Food choice capacity. Constant comparative method. A conceptual model of food choice capacity ...
Preston Jesse - - 2005
People hold beliefs that vary not only in their perceived truth, but also in their value to the believer--their meaning, relevance, and importance. We argue that a belief's value is determined, at least in part, by its explanatory power. Highly valuable beliefs are those that can uniquely explain and organize ...
Schaik Paul Van - - 2005
Despite fast technological developments in virtual reality (VR), methodologies and guidelines for evaluating the design of virtual environments (VEs) are lacking. The theory of perceptual opportunities (POs) has previously been proposed as a basis of such a design methodology. This paper presents an empirical study investigating the effect of representation ...
Crites S L SL - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study explored whether nutrition knowledge interacted with evaluations of a food's healthiness to influence food attitudes (ie, global evaluations). Since attitudes guide behavior, understanding factors that impact food attitudes is one way to understand food selection and why factors such as nutrition knowledge have only a modest impact ...
Demarse Thomas B - - 2005
In this study, pigeons learned 2 separate one-to-many conditional discriminations in which they matched form samples to line and hue comparisons. Correct choices within each comparison dimension yielded differential (food vs. no-food) outcomes that were not predictable from the samples alone. At asymptote, latency to make a correct choice was ...
de Liver Yaël - - 2005
The present study investigates the structure of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A total of 431 respondents completed a questionnaire measuring their overall attitude, cognition and affect towards GM food. A model with distinct positive and negative, affective and cognitive components and a separate factor for perceived risk and ...
Gray Virginia B - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Assisting Hispanic immigrants in making culturally acceptable food choices may affect their health for generations. As a relatively new enclave of Hispanics, Scott County, Mississippi, was chosen to study dietary acculturation and health concerns of immigrants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research method consisted of interviews with community representatives (N=11), ...
Craeynest Mietje - - 2005
This study investigated differences in the explicit and implicit attitudes towards food and physical activities between children with obesity (n=38) and a matched control group (n=38). The implicit attitude was assessed using the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST; J. Exp. Psychol. (50) (2003) 77), a modified version of the Implicit ...
Patch Craig S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To identify the nature, strength, and relative importance of influences on intentions to consume foods that are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). DESIGN: A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: Community-based residents living in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. SUBJECTS: Two ...
Tiggemann M - - 2005
The study aimed to investigate the role of mental imagery in the experience of food cravings. A sample of 130 undergraduate students was first asked to recall and rate a previous food craving experience. Second, they were asked to imagine themselves eating their favourite food and to rate the involvement ...
Uher Rudolf - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex is implicated in craving for drugs and food. This study explores the effect of prefrontal cortex stimulation on food craving. METHODS: In a randomized double-blind parallel group study, 28 women, who reported frequent cravings for food were exposed to foods that typically elicit strong ...
Sneijder Petra - - 2005
While identity has been a dominant topic in research on food choice, literature on identity in consumers' everyday life is scarce. In this article we draw on insights from discursive psychology to demonstrate how members of an online forum on food pleasure handle the hedonic appreciation of food in everyday ...
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