Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 550
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Fregni Felipe - - 2008
We aimed to assess whether modulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC) with noninvasive brain stimulation, namely transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), modifies food craving in healthy subjects. We performed a randomized sham-controlled cross-over study in which 23 subjects received sham and active tDCS (anode left/cathode right and anode right/cathode ...
Bodenlos Jamie S - - 2008
Recently, we conducted the first study to date on the effects of VNS on food cravings among depressed adults and concluded that VNS activation appears to acutely alter food cravings in depressed adults. Interestingly, we found that VNS device activation was associated with acute increases in cravings in some participants, ...
Whitfield Jacobson Pamela J - - 2007
Long-haul truckers are confined, by parking regulations and other constraints, to dining at truck-stop restaurants. Objectives were to (a) compare truckers' anthropometrics with recommended guidelines; and (b) assess eating/exercise habits, importance of healthful food choices, and attitudes about restaurants' provision of healthful options. Hypotheses were: (a) overweight/obese drivers will place ...
Hillhouse Joel - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To identify indoor tanning patterns with relevance for health screening and prevention efforts. DESIGN: We collected data on indoor tanning patterns from January 17, 2006, through April 14, 2006. By cluster analysis, 4 patterns of indoor tanning were identified: special event, spontaneous or mood, mixed, and regular year-round tanning. ...
Sun Yu-Hua Christine - - 2008
This study addresses how various health concerns might influence not only consumers' food choice motives but also consumers' subsequent attitudes toward healthy eating. This study expects that those consumers with greater health concerns would have different food choice motives and better attitudes toward healthy eating. A self-completion questionnaire was used ...
Czyzewska Maria - - 2008
The study compared implicit and explicit attitudes to three types of foods (high-calorie non-sweet HCNS, high-calorie sweet HCS and low-calorie LC) among females varying in BMI status. Eight three participants completed an affective priming task (implicit attitudes), followed by explicit rating of food images. The results of ANOVA showed a ...
Genty Emilie E Department of Ecology, Physiology, and Ethology, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Centre National de la Recherche - - 2007
When presented a choice between two food-type arrays of equivalent size under a reverse-reward contingency, black (Eulemur macaco) and brown (Eulemur fulvus) lemurs transposed their self-control abilities, acquired in a previous experiment, to significantly select the less-desired food item in order to gain access to the more desired one. However, ...
Gibson E L - - 2008
In a recent research report, [Bodenlos et al. 2007. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) acutely alters food craving in adults with depression. Appetite, 48, 145-153] concluded that, in depressed patients, acute activation of a device for VNS caused a significant change in cravings specifically for sweet foods. We argue that there ...
Bava Christina M - - 2008
The present research explores food provisioning practices within women's lives. By drawing upon French social scientist Pierre Bourdieu's notions of habitus, cultural capital and field, a conceptual framework of the complex process leading to food provisioning practices is developed and investigated. To this end, repeated semi-structured interviews, participant observation, diaries ...
Risvas Grigoris - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To measure factors affecting food choice in a sample of Greek schoolchildren attending 5th and 6th grade. DESIGN: Three self-administered questionnaires were distributed to the participants - one on nutritional knowledge, one on self-efficacy and social support for dietary change and a food-frequency questionnaire. SETTING: One hundred Greek primary ...
Biljana Skrbić - - 2008
Data on occurrence of six marker polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 35 composite samples of some crop products (wholegrain wheat flour, edible sunflower oil and white sugar) and by-products of food processing industry (bran, dried sugar beet pulp and molasses) were collected and combined with food consumption data to assess the ...
Kyonka Elizabeth G E - - 2007
Pigeons were trained on a concurrent-chains procedure in which the initial link associated with the shorter terminal-link delay to food changed unpredictably across sessions. In the minimal-variation condition, delays were always 10 s and 20 s, whereas in the maximal-variation condition delays were generated pseudorandomly for each session. On some ...
Arvola A - - 2008
This study examined the usefulness of integrating measures of affective and moral attitudes into the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-model in predicting purchase intentions of organic foods. Moral attitude was operationalised as positive self-rewarding feelings of doing the right thing. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Italy (N=202), Finland ...
Komatsu Sakura - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to develop a preliminary version of the Food Craving Inventory for Japanese (FCI-J) and to investigate the phenomenon of food craving among Japanese females. One hundred and eighty-five female college students completed newly developed FCI-J. Factor analysis yielded conceptual factors that were interpreted ...
Brosnan Sarah F SF Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. - - 2007
Human behavior is not always consistent with standard rational choice predictions. Apparent deviations from rational choice predictions provide a promising arena for the merger of economics and biology [1-6]. Although little is known about the extent to which other species exhibit these seemingly irrational patterns [7-9], similarities across species would ...
White Katherine M - - 2007
Promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors is an important aspect of interventions designed to improve the management of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present study used Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior as a framework to examine beliefs amongst adults diagnosed with these conditions who do ...
Ree M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. SUBJECTS: Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian ...
Lawrence J M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Lower birth weight, often found in infants from minority ethnic groups, may be partly because of the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority groups in low-income areas. To develop an intervention, to improve the nutritional intake of young women from populations at risk of low-birth-weight babies, which would be culturally ...
Rolls Edmund T - - 2007
To examine the neural circuitry involved in food craving, in making food particularly appetitive and thus in driving wanting and eating, we used fMRI to measure the response to the flavour of chocolate, the sight of chocolate and their combination in cravers vs. non-cravers. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses showed ...
Richards Rickelle - - 2007
In-depth interviews were conducted with homeless children (n=56, aged 6-13 years) in an urban center in Minnesota, USA, to determine factors influencing food choice, food access, and weight status, with interview questions developed using the Social Cognitive Theory. Interview transcripts were coded and then evaluated both collectively and by weight ...
Prato-Previde E - - 2008
This study investigates the influence of owners on their dogs' performance in a food choice task using either different or equal quantities of food. Fifty-four pet dogs were tested in three different conditions. In Condition 1 we evaluated their ability to choose between a large and small amount of food ...
Zellner Debra A - - 2007
This study investigates the effect of stress on food choice among men. Two groups of men were given either solvable (no-stress) or unsolvable (stress) anagrams to solve. Four bowls of snack foods-two healthy (peanuts and grapes) and two unhealthy (potato chips and M&M chocolate candies)-were available and subjects were invited ...
Blanck Heidi M - - 2009
There is growing interest in the usefulness of the workplace as a site for promotion of healthful food choices. The authors therefore analyzed data of U.S. adults (N = 1,918) who reported working outside the home and eating lunch. The majority (84.0%) of workers had a break room. About one ...
Dixon Helen G - - 2007
Television (TV) food advertising has attracted criticism for its potential role in promoting unhealthy dietary practices among children. Content analyses indicate junk food advertising is prevalent on Australian children's TV; healthy eating is rarely promoted. This paper presents (a) a cross-sectional survey examining associations between children's regular TV viewing habits ...
Lea Emma - - 2008
The aim of this study was to examine Australians' food-related environmental beliefs and behaviours. Questionnaires were posted to 500 randomly selected adults, with 223 questionnaires completed (58% response rate). Decreased use of packaging by food manufacturers was viewed as being the most important item to help the environment, while lower ...
Spence Alexa - - 2007
The predictive validity of implicit and explicit attitudes is a central question in social psychological research with important theoretical and empirical ramifications. Three main patterns of combining implicit and explicit attitudes to predict behaviour have been postulated. They are, double dissociation (in which implicit and explicit attitudes predict spontaneous and ...
Shepherd R - - 2007
Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for ...
Fiates Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck - - 2008
This study reports the results of 12 focus group interviews with primary school students (7-10 years old, n=57) in Florianópolis, Brazil, regarding their food choices, television (TV) viewing, and physical activity habits. In 2005, an average Brazilian child aged 4-11 years watched TV almost 5 h per day. Intensive TV ...
Toll Benjamin A BA Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 1 Long Wharf Drive-Box 18, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. - - 2008
Weight gain associated with smoking cessation impedes attempts to quit smoking and may lead to obesity. One factor that might contribute to weight gain is cravings for sweet or rich foods. To date, no reliable measure exists for evaluating these cravings. The purpose of the current study was to validate ...
Glanz Karen - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Increased away-from-home eating is associated with lower diet quality, and may contribute to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity. Healthier food choices in restaurants may help mitigate the rise in obesity and improve diet quality. This study sought to understand the views of executives at major U.S. restaurant ...
Hill Andrew J - - 2007
Cravings are hedonic responses to food, characterised by their intensity and their specificity. Food cravings are extremely common, reported by the majority of young adults. They are closely associated with liking but not synonymous with increased intake. Structured interviews and prospective incident accounts of food cravings have succeeded in revealing ...
Giskes K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that lower socioeconomic groups purchase foods that are less consistent with dietary recommendations. The price and availability of foods are thought to be important mediating factors between socioeconomic position and food purchasing. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relative contribution of the perceived and objectively measured price and ...
Perry Christina M - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food Choices. The scores on ...
Forman Evan M - - 2007
The present study utilized an analog paradigm to investigate the effectiveness of two strategies for coping with food cravings, which was theorized to be critical to the maintenance of weight loss. Ninety-eight undergraduate students were given transparent boxes of chocolate Hershey's Kisses and instructed to keep the chocolates with them, ...
Scheibehenne Benjamin - - 2007
Research on food decision making is often based on the assumption that people take many different aspects into account and weight and add them according to their personally assessed importance. Yet there is a growing body of research suggesting that people's decisions can often be better described by simple heuristics-rules ...
Kemps Eva - - 2008
The study investigated the relative effectiveness of thought suppression and the working memory-based method of dynamic visual noise as techniques for reducing food cravings. Twenty dieting women on the weight-loss programme prescribed by weight watchers and 20 non-dieting controls formed images of their most craved food and then suppressed thoughts ...
Aikman Shelley N - - 2007
Recent research by Aikman, Crites, and Fabrigar [(2006). Beyond affect and cognition: Identification of the informational bases of food attitudes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 340-382] suggests that food attitudes are comprised of five distinct informational bases: positive affect (e.g., calm, comforted), negative affect (e.g., guilty, ashamed), abstract cognitive ...
Osberg Timothy M - - 2008
This article reports the development and validation of a measure of Irrational Food Beliefs (IFB), defined as cognitively distorted and unhealthy attitudes and beliefs pertaining to food, which is proposed to be a factor that undermines success at weight loss and maintenance. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that the Irrational ...
Adams Leen - - 2007
An experiment was conducted to examine the effect on adolescents of different health appeals (healthy versus unhealthy) in ads for healthy and unhealthy perceived foods. The results did not reveal a main effect of product or slogan, but indicated a significant interaction effect between slogan and product. The healthy slogan ...
Mustonen Sari - - 2007
The association between liking and choices of six cheeses was examined. Particular attention was in hedonic flexibility, i.e. the range of liking ratings, within an individual, leading to a choice. Second, the ability of respondents to predict their future liking and choices was studied. Respondents (62 females, 20-64 years) initially ...
Rodríguez Sonia - - 2007
English and Spanish versions of the FCQ-T [Cepeda-Benito, A., Gleaves, D. H., Williams, T. L., & Erath, S. A. (2000). The development and validation of the state and trait food-cravings questionnaires. Behavior Therapy, 31, 151-173] were adapted to create the food chocolate-craving questionnaire trait (FCCQ-T). Female college students from England ...
Trewin Shae A - - 2007
Robert Yerkes developed a multiple-choice method to study ideational behavior in animals and humans using specially designed multiple-choice apparatuses. One example ofYerkes' apparatus, used for testing human subjects, now resides in the Historical Scientific Instruments Collection at the Peabody Museum of Natural History of Yale University. Yerkes introduced the apparatus ...
Shimotsu Scott T - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument) was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. METHODS: Two ...
Hartz Ingeborg - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A previous study has shown that variations in threshold and intensity (lipid goal attainment) of statins for primary prevention contribute to regional differences in overall consumption of statins in Norway. Our objective was to explore how differences in prevalences of use, dosing characteristics, choice of statin and continuity of ...
Liu Liqun - - 2007
This paper follows previous economic studies on bodyweight by looking at bodyweight as individuals' choices in response to changes in income and food prices. However, it goes one step further to add another relevant choice under individual control: food quality. It shows that the upward trend of bodyweight caused by ...
Gottschall-Pass Kathy - - 2007
PURPOSE: To assess adults' knowledge of dietary recommendations, food sources of key nutrients, food choices, and diet-disease relationships. METHODS: A previously validated survey, designed to assess nutrition knowledge, was adapted for use in Prince Edward Island and mailed to a random sample of 3,500 adults (aged 18 to 74). Dillman's ...
Februhartanty Judhiastuty - - 2007
Conflicting arguments and partial truths on genetically modified (GM) foods have left confusion. Although studies of consumer acceptance of GM foods are numerous, the study of scientists is limited. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of scientists towards GM foods. The study was a ...
Nijs Ilse M T - - 2007
In the present study, the multidimensional Trait and State Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQ-T and FCQ-S), as developed by Cepeda-Benito, Gleaves, Williams, and Erath, [2000. The development and validation of the State and Trait Food Cravings Questionnaires. Behavior Therapy, 31, 151-173], were modified in order to construct an index of general ...
Poortinga Wouter - - 2006
Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by ...
Ishiwata T - - 2007
To provide useful information on how to moderate posthandling stress, the attractiveness of different conditions to beef cattle just after release from restraint was determined. Angus heifers were individually allowed to enter a choice area after 2 min of restraint in a squeeze chute and to choose between 2 pens. ...
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