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Cirtwill Alyssa R AR School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New - - 2014
1.Previous analyses of empirical food webs (the networks of who eats whom in a community) have revealed that parasites exert a strong influence over observed food-web structure and alter many network properties such as connectance and degree distributions. It remains unclear, however, whether these community-level effects are fully explained by ...
Ryu Seungbo S Department of Biosystems and Biotechnology, Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, 136-713, Republic of - - 2014
Human norovirus is the leading cause of sporadic gastroenteritis, which is responsible for more than 90% of all non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. While norovirus infections typically cause mild and self-limiting symptoms lasting 24-48 h, chronic persistent infections can cause severe symptoms. Although recent advances have been made in understanding the molecular ...
Banerji Aabir A Institut für Evolutionsbiologie und Umweltwissenschaften, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zürich, CH, 8057, - - 2014
1.Despite growing interest in ecological consequences of parasitism in food webs, relatively little is known about effects of parasites on long-term population dynamics of non-host species or about whether such effects are density- or trait- mediated. 2.We studied a tri-trophic food chain comprised of: (i) a bacterial basal resource (Serratia ...
Quiroz-Santiago Carolina C Departamento de Microbiología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 11340 Mexico D.F., - - 2014
Rotaviruses are the principal cause of dehydration caused by diarrhea in children younger than 2 years of age. Although these viral infections have mainly been associated with ingestion of fecally contaminated food and water, few studies have addressed the presence of the virus in food that is consumed raw or ...
Sherman Michele B MB a Savannah State - - 2014
Abstract Probopyrus pandalicola is a bopyrid isopod that infects several palaemonid shrimp species, including the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. The parasite can have several negative effects on its host, including loss of hemolymph, reduced reproductive potential, and decreased molting frequency and growth. To date, there are conflicting reports on ...
Wang Jia-Zheng JZ Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of - - 2014
Yersinia enterocolitica, a cause of emerging enteric infections, is a food-borne pathogen with various enteric and systemic syndromes e.g., diarrhea, enteritis and enterocolitis.…
Chailleux Anaïs A French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, 400 Route des Chappes, 06903, Sophia Antipolis, France, - - 2014
Optimal habitat selection is essential for species survival in ecosystems, and interspecific competition is a key ecological mechanism for many observed species association patterns. Specialized animal species are commonly affected by resource and interference competition with generalist and/or omnivorous competitors, so avoidance behavior could be expected. We hypothesize that specialist ...
Fabbro Stephanie K SK Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Dermatology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 540 Officecenter Place St 240, Gahanna, OH, 43230, - - 2014
Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD), a cutaneous reaction that is a direct manifestation of systemic exposure to a known allergen in a sensitized individual, has been increasingly recognized as a cause of persistent cutaneous contact dermatitis that is refractory to conventional therapies. While SCD in response to drugs has been described ...
Guo Zhinan Z Xiamen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian, People's Republic of - - 2014
We investigated a diarrhea outbreak that occurred at a university in China to identify the etiological agent of the outbreak, source of infection, mode of transmission, and risk factors. In this case-control study, we compared the food sources and examined the food and water items consumed between the probable and ...
Maunsell Sarah C SC Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan campus, Kessels Road, QLD 4111, - - 2014
Gradients in elevation are increasingly used to investigate how species respond to changes in local climatic conditions. While many studies have shown elevational patterns in species richness and turnover, little is known about how food web structure is affected by elevation. Contrasting responses of predator and prey species to elevation ...
Fraulo Pasquale P Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Unità Operativa di Microbiologia Alimentare Sezione di Salerno, via delle Calabrie no 27, 84132 (Sa), Salerno, Italy, - - 2014
Anisakidae larvae belonging to the genera Anisakis and Pseudoterranova, are the most responsible for zoonosis transmitted by fish products (anisakidosis). Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, the anisakid larvae may cause pathogenic diseases like gastric or intestinal anisakiasis and gastro-allergic disorders. In accordance with ...
Mitman Gregg G From the Departments of Medical History and Bioethics, History of Science, and History, and the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of - - 2014
"Bush meat?" I asked. The food in front of me smelled delicious, but the mention of bush meat in the stew evoked a twinge of fear. Could it be fruit bat? Chimpanzee? Both can harbor Ebola virus. Our four-member team had just filmed a documentary in a remote rural village ...
Barros Flávio Bezerra - - 2014
In the Amazon rainforest, biodiversity is a significant resource for traditional communities, as it can be used as a relevant source of protein and it has a promising zootherapeutic potential. Studies on knowledge and ways how local peoples use the fauna are still incipient. This paper presents both the knowledge ...
- - 2014
Dispersal strategies and success of pests" natural enemies widely influence the efficiency of biological control. In this study, we compare two dispersal strategies among Aphidiinae parasitoids: eggs and larvae dispersal through winged aphid flight and active dispersal by adult parasitoids. Using a molecular method applied to a sample of >2,000 ...
Crait Jamie J University of Wyoming, University of - - 2014
Abstract Parasite prevalence in predatory mammals is influenced by numerous factors, including diet, sex, season, and habitat. We examined the effect of such factors on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park. Otters in this ecosystem have recently experienced ...
Binns Colin W CW School of Public Health and Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987 Perth, Western Australia 6845, Australia. - - 2014
In 2001 the World Health Assembly adopted the infant feeding strategy which included the recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age with continued breastfeeding while complementary foods are introduced. This recommendation has been endorsed by many national authorities, professional organisations and most countries in the Asia Pacific Region. ...
Bezerra Claudia Mendonça CM Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, - - 2014
The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with ...
Bezerra Claudia Mendonça CM Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, - - 2014
The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with ...
Serracca Laura L Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Sezione La Spezia, Marine Microbiology Laboratory, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus are pelagic fishes of notable economic and gastronomic importance in the northwest Mediterranean (Ligurian Sea, Italy). The consumption of thermally unprocessed or lightly processed, marinated or salted anchovies and sardines presents a potential risk to acquire anisakiasis, a fish-borne parasitic disease in humans. Prevalence and ...
Ding Guodong G Department of Pediatrics, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; MOE and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Environment Health, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, - - 2014
Childhood asthma prevalence worldwide has been increasing markedly over several decades. Various theories have been proposed to account for this alarming trend. The disease has a broad spectrum of potential determinants ranging from genetics to lifestyle and environmental factors. Epidemiological observations have demonstrated that several important lifestyle and environmental factors ...
Val Fernando Fonseca FF Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, AM, - - 2014
In the 1950s, the strategy of adding chloroquine to food salt as a prophylaxis against malaria was considered to be a successful tool. However, with the development of Plasmodium resistance in the Brazilian Amazon, this control strategy was abandoned. More than 50 years later, asexual stage resistance can be avoided ...
Kouhi Davoud D Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, - - 2014
Abstract The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the ...
Robinette Michelle L ML Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2014
Gastrointestinal motility causes movement of food during digestion through contractions of the gut smooth muscle. The enteric nervous system regulates these events, and Muller et al. now find that its interaction with the immune system, in concert with gut microbiota, provides an additional layer of regulation to this complex task.
Peralta Guadalupe - - 2014
Complementary resource use and redundancy of species that fulfill the same ecological role are two mechanisms that can respectively increase and stabilize process rates in ecosystems. For example, predator complementarity and redundancy can determine prey consumption rates and their stability, yet few studies take into account the multiple predator species ...
Lee T Kevin TK Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, - - 2014
The underlying cause of predisposition to obesity is complex but one marker is cortisol responsiveness. Selection of sheep for high (HR) or low (LR) cortisol responses to adrenocorticotropin shows that HR are more likely to become obese. Increased propensity to obesity is associated with reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. We sought ...
Hosseini Mehdi M Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Biological Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, - - 2014
The levels of mercury in tissues of Penaeus merguiensis from Musa estuary, northwest of the Persian Gulf, were investigated. This study assessed the relationship between mercury levels in hepatopancrea, gill, and muscle with sex, size, and season. The order of mercury concentrations in tissues of the shrimp P. merguiensis was ...
Jiang Jiang J a College of Food Science , Jiangnan University , Wuxi , Jiangsu , 214122 , - - 2014
Abstract Ready-to-eat (RTE) muscle foods refer to a general category of meat and poultry products that are fully cooked and consumable without reheating. These products, including whole and sliced pork, beef, turkey, chicken, and variety meats, in the forms of ham, roast, rolls, sausage, and frankfurter, are widely available in ...
Yokoyama Hiroshi H Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Since Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was indicated to cause food poisoning in humans, other Kudoa species are suspected to have pathogenic potential. Recently, a myxosporean possibly associated with food poisoning in humans consuming raw Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, was identified as K. neothunni. This is a ...
Johansson Anders Sixten AS Dept. of Integrative Medical - - 2014
Although splitting of food items between the incisors often requires high bite forces, rarely do the teeth harmfully collide when the jaw quickly closes after split. Previous studies indicate that the force-velocity relationship of the jaw closing muscles principally explains the prompt dissipation of jaw closing force. Here, we asked ...
Torres Paulo P CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório Associado, Pólo dos Açores - Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Açores. Rua Mãe de Deus, 58, 9500-801 Ponta Delgada, Açores, Portugal. Electronic address: - - 2014
Sharks are top marine predators vital in maintaining ecosystem health and food web structure. In order to assess tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus) trophic ecology, stable isotope ratios and trace metal concentrations in muscle tissue were determined, according to size and gender, for 124 individuals caught within the Mid-Atlantic region. Data ...
Grigoriadis A A Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, - - 2014
Jaw actions adapt to the changing properties of food that occur during a masticatory sequence. In the present study, we investigated how the time-varying activation profile of the masseter muscle changes during natural chewing in humans and how food hardness affects the profile. We recorded surface electromyography (EMG) of the ...
Liu Mei M Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, - - 2014
Obesity and eating disorders are prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is important to understand the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can cause a number of disorders in humans, such as Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We demonstrated here that ...
McGaw Iain J IJ Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University, 0 Marine Lab Road, St John's, NL, A1C 5S7, Canada, - - 2014
The effect of meal type on specific dynamic action was investigated in the green shore crab, Carcinus maenas. When the crabs were offered a meal of fish, shrimp, or mussel of 3 % of their body mass the duration of the SDA response and thus the resultant SDA was lower for ...
Kromin A A AA Department of Physiology, Tver State Medical Academy, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, - - 2014
A method for registration of the sniffing component of the search behavior in rabbits subjected to food deprivation is suggested. Pulsed activities of the muscles controlling the movements of the wings of the nostrils and the pressure in the nasal cavity are recorded simultaneously. The method allows accurate artifact-free registration ...
Bayat Roian - - 2014
Anaphylaxis, a form of IgE mediated hypersensitivity, arises when mast cells and possibly basophils are provoked to secrete mediators with potent vasoactive and smooth muscle contractile activities that evoke a systemic response. We report a case of IgE mediated anaphylaxis to peppermint (Mentha piperita) in a male shortly after sucking ...
Aksu Onder O Fisheries Faculty, University of Tunceli, 62000 Tunceli, - - 2014
Crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823) is the native crayfish species in Turkey. It was exported regularly to Western Europe. In this study, bioaccumulation and temporal trends of some trace elements (arsenic: As, cadmium: Cd, copper: Cu, mercury: Hg, lead: Pb, and zinc: Zn) in edible abdomen muscle of crayfish from ...
Sirotin Nicole N Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of - - 2014
Food insecurity, insufficient quality and quantity of nutritionally adequate food, affects millions of people in the United States (US) yearly, with over 18 million Americans reporting hunger. Food insecurity is associated with obesity in the general population. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease ...
Kumar Sumir S Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and - - 2014
Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that are beneficial to the host health when administered in adequate amounts. Probiotics do have an exciting concept in digestive functions, but these live microbes have wider applicability as evidenced by gut-brain-skin axis theory given 80years back. However, the details regarding use of probiotics ...
Grimm Verena V Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Ulm, 89068 Ulm, - - 2014
Bifidobacteria are one of the predominant bacterial groups of the human intestinal microbiota and have important functional properties making them interesting for the food and dairy industries. Numerous in vitro and preclinical studies have shown beneficial effects of particular bifidobacterial strains or strain combinations on various health parameters of their ...
Tefera Tamirat T Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Pathology, College Of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, - - 2014
As a result of urbanization, eating and drinking from food service establishments is becoming a common practice in developing countries like Ethiopia, which increases the chances of food borne diseases. The health status and hygiene practices of food handlers are the major determinants of food contamination. In developing countries where ...
Topper Timothy P TP Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, SE - 752 36 Uppsala, - - 2014
Ecological interactions, including symbiotic associations such as mutualism, parasitism and commensalism are crucial factors in generating evolutionary novelties and strategies. Direct examples of species interactions in the fossil record generally involve organisms attached to sessile organisms in an epibiont or macroboring relationship. Here we provide support for an intimate ecological ...
Emde Sebastian S Institute for Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, - - 2014
Freshwater ecosystems are increasingly impacted by alien invasive species which have the potential to alter various ecological interactions like predator-prey and host-parasite relationships. Here, we simultaneously examined predator-prey interactions and parasitization patterns of the highly invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the rivers Rhine and Main in Germany. A total ...
Ali Arif Maqsood - - 2014
Parasitic infestation is very common in developing countries. Major factors of worm infestation are poor socio-economic status, large family size, low educational level, and poor hygiene and sanitation. These parasites lead to nutritional deficiencies and various diseases. A few studies have been carried out in Pakistan and this study tries ...
Kouhi Davoud D Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran - - 2014
The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present ...
Egonyu James Peter JP International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology-African Insect Science for Food and Health, P.O. Box 30772, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya - - 2014
The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its ...
Sousa Mónica - - 2013
Abstract Exhaustive or unaccustomed intense exercise can cause exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and its undesirable consequences may decrease the ability to exercise and to adhere to a training programme. This review briefly summarises the muscle damage process, focusing predominantly on oxidative stress and inflammation as contributing factors, and describes how ...
Raitsos Dionysios E DE Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, - - 2013
Changes in phytoplankton dynamics influence marine biogeochemical cycles, climate processes, and food webs, with substantial social and economic consequences. Large-scale estimation of phytoplankton biomass was possible via ocean colour measurements from two remote sensing satellites - the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS, 1979-1986) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, ...
Dridi Sami - - 2013
Lines of evidence suggested that systems involved in the regulation of the stress responses and energy homeostasis are highly integrated. Because cerulenin, the natural antibiotic product of the fungus Cephalosporium ceruleans and a broad-spectrum fatty acid synthesis (FAS) inhibitor, has been shown to affect food intake and energy balance, and ...
Le Révérend Benjamin J D - - 2013
Mastication efficiency is defined as the efficiency of crushing food between the teeth and manipulating the resulting particles to form a swallowable food bolus. It is dependent on the orofacial anatomical features of the subject, the coordination of these anatomical features and the consistency of the food used during testing. ...
Deshazo Richard D - - 2013
To determine the contents of chicken nuggets from 2 national food chains. Chicken nuggets have become a major component of the American diet. We sought to determine the current composition of this highly processed food. Randomly selected nuggets from 2 different national fast food chains were fixed in formalin, sectioned ...
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