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Results 251 - 300 of 649
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Davidson A J - - 1998
The feeding-entrained circadian oscillator (FEO) organizes locomotor activity and other variables to anticipate daily timed meals. Whether the biological substrate for the FEO is in the central nervous system or in the periphery, there must be communication between the gut and the brain to result in a behavioral output. To ...
Levine Seymour - - 1998
Withholding of food overnight has been used for numerous experimental purposes, including to reduce errors of intraperitoneal injections by diminishing the size and weight of the gastrointestinal tract, to prepare for gavage or surgery, or to avoid the effects food in the gastrointestinal tract might exert on drugs or nutrients. ...
Ghiani C A - - 1998
Changes in the extracellular concentration of acetylcholine (ACh) were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of freely moving rats habituated for 35 days to consume their daily meal during a fixed 2-h period. During the 40 min immediately before presentation, ACh output increased by 49 and 55% in the ...
Wan H Z - - 1998
The GLUT2 glucose transporter, which may play a glucose-sensing role in hepatocyte and islet beta cells because of its low affinity and high Km for glucose, has been identified in some discrete brain areas that are related to feeding behavior and energy metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that brain GLUT2 ...
Browning J D - - 1998
Zinc deficiency in rats results in impaired growth accompanied by decreased and cyclic food intake. These signs are associated with decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a major mediator of growth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between decreased plasma IGF-I and the impairment of appetite ...
Graceffo T J - - 1998
THC is the active chemical component in marijuana. In humans, it is known to cause acute sedation, alterations of cognition, and to stimulate appetite. The goal of this study was to determine if THC would produce acute stimulation of the consumption of a highly-palatable food item in the rat. Separate ...
Whishaw I Q - - 1997
The Montoya Staircase Test has been designed as a simple objective way of measuring changes in skilled movements following motor system damage. In the test, rats reach from a central platform for food pellets located on adjacent staircases and the measure of success is the number of food pellets obtained. ...
Aubert A - - 1997
Experimental studies assessing the suppressing effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on feeding behavior have focused exclusively on the ingestive component of this behaviour without taking into account its appetitive component. The appetitive sequence of feeding behavior regroups activities animals engage in to gain access to food without necessarily eating it. The ...
Hall F S - - 1997
Isolation-reared rats exhibited enhanced behavioural responses to novelty, but only some aspects of such behavior was affected. In Experiment 1, environmental neophobia was enhanced but food neophobia was diminished in isolation-reared rats compared to socially reared rats. However, in Experiment 2, when subjects were not handled extensively prior to testing, ...
Koopmans H S - - 1997
Twenty-two inbred male Lewis rats were made into parabiotic pairs and 7 pairs had a further operation in which the small intestines of the 2 rats were connected so that one rat continually lost food into the upper small intestine and bloodstream of its partner. As a result, these rats ...
Azarashvili A A - - 1997
Rats were trained to make conditioned food reflex excursions in two states: in normal conditions and on a background of treatment with pharmacological agents producing dissociative states. A number of cholinergic substances were completely interchangeable in dissociative learning; anticholinergic compounds efficiently neutralized the ability of cholinergic substances to produce dissociative ...
Olazabal D E - - 1997
The rat maternal behavior consists of different pup-caring activities, such as retrieving, licking, and crouching. Mothers also build a nest, consume more food, are more aggressive, and show less fear behavior than in other stages of the reproductive cycle. It has been reported that oxytocin (OT) and the milk-ejection pathway ...
Gournis E - - 1997
Breastfeeding delays the resumption of ovulation in women, a phenomenon particularly important in less developed areas. Although human and animal studies indicate that undernutrition extends the period of lactational anestrus, the effect of improving nutritional status during lactation on this time of infecundability, however, is less clear. To assess the ...
Monda M - - 1997
The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of ventromedial hypothalamus lesions on the thermogenic changes that follow food intake. Four groups of six Sprague-Dawley male rats were used. Under anesthesia with pentobarbital, the animals in the first and second groups received lesions at the ventromedial hypothalamus, and ...
Meyer C - - 1997
A revolving food pellet (RFP) test is presented, measuring the ability of rats to eat food pellets suspended from a horizontal bar in their home cage. This easy to make and economical device evaluates the efficiency of bilateral front paw coordination while standing. During the beginning of a ten day ...
Rupp H - - 1997
To establish a psychological stress model, we characterized in rats the effects of chronic (5-6 wk) scheduled food pellet feeding (35 mg/80 s for 8 h/day). Because the scheduled intake of pellets required that rats have access to 80% of ad libitum intake, the effect of food restriction was also ...
Whishaw I Q - - 1997
Rats depleted unilaterally of dopamine (DA) with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) have contralateral sensorimotor deficits. These include pronounced impairments in using the contralateral limbs (bad limbs) for skilled movements in tests of reaching and bar pressing. There has been no systematic examination of the changes that take place in movements ...
Leal A M - - 1997
Food availability is an important synchronizer of the pituitary-adrenal axis and daytime restriction of food access phase-shifts the diurnal periodicity of plasma corticosterone (B) concentration in rats. However, little is known about the synchronizers of circulating androgens in male rats. We studied intact and castrated male rats with free access ...
Rao B S - - 1997
Water intake of schedule feeding rats was correlated to food intake through variations in calorie content of food. On intake time restriction (3 h) schedule, it was positively correlated while on amount restriction schedule (25% and 15% food) correlation was negative. Water-to-food ratio (W/F) of 3 hFW rats was decreased ...
Svec F - - 1997
The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administered as an acute intraperitoneal (IP) injection on food selection and levels of hypothalamic neurotransmitters of obese Zucker rats was investigated. Animals consumed a 'macronutrient selection' diet which consisted of three separate foodstuffs; they were nearly pure selections of fat, protein or carbohydrate. On the ...
Boyadjiev N - - 1997
In order to find how the aerobic capacity and the ultrastructure of the skeletal and heart muscle cells of endurance training rats change as a result of adding two dietary supplements with different compositions to their diet (our own dietary formula specially designed for endurance sports and Aufbau Konzentrat, a ...
Haq A U - - 1996
The reported studies were designed to examine relationships between whole-brain histamine receptors (H1) and food intake in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three different experiments were conducted. In each experiment, control rats were fed normal protein (25 g casein/100 g food) and normal metabolizable energy (16.21 kJ/100 g food) diets. Feeding low ...
Menani J V - - 1996
This study investigated the effects of an electrolytic lesion of the commissural subnucleus of the nucleus of the solitary tract (commNTS) on body weight, daily food and water intake, and plasma glucose and insulin in rats. In the first 6 days following brain surgery, commNTS lesioned rats reduced daily food ...
King B M - - 1996
Electrolytic lesions of the posterodorsal aspects of the medial division of the extended amygdala in female rats result in hyperphagia and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the effects of such lesions on plasma insulin, glucose, corticosterone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were assessed during a period of food restriction and ...
Martel P - - 1996
The mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MDS) has been shown to be activated by ingestive behaviors, and it has been suggested that this activation may be related to the rewarding properties of foods. Because rats eat more when given a more palatable diet, this study was undertaken to determine-the relationship between the ...
Brown M F - - 1996
Rats gathered pellets from the tops of 15.5-cm-tall poles. In a matrix of poles, bait was located on the tops of poles arranged in either a square (Experiment 1) or linear (Experiment 2) configuration. The specific locations of baited poles varied unpredictably from trial to trial. The data show that ...
Wang T - - 1996
Previous reports indicate rats with lesions of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (IPBN) or lesions of the area postrema (AP) and adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) consume abnormally large amounts of water after treatment with SC isoproterenol (ISOP) or angiotensin II. In the present study, we found that IPBN ...
Brown K J - - 1996
The present experiment examined food and water consumption under different housing conditions in 20 female and 20 male Wistar rats. Food and water consumption were measured for 6 h a day following an 18-h same-sex crowded or individual housing period for each of 6 days. All subjects were individually housed ...
Laviano A - - 1996
When total parenteral nutrition (TPN; containing glucose, fat, and amino acids; caloric ratio 50:30:20) providing 100% of the rat's daily caloric intake is given for 3-4 days, food intake rapidly decreases by approximately 85%. After stopping TPN, there is a lag period of 3-4 days before food intake returns to ...
Cherroret G - - 1996
Normal and uremic adult male rats were given a daily ip injection of 20 mg Al (Al chloride)/kg for 14 d. The results indicate that Al induces a significant decrease in food ingestion, weight gain, and total protein concentration in the plasma. Compared with control animals, very high increases in ...
Mardones J - - 1996
The effect of bromocriptine (stimulant of dopaminergic D2 receptors) on the daily consumption of 10% v/v ethanol solution, distilled water, and solid food, under free-choice conditions, was measured in nine genetically low (UChA) and six high ethanol consumer (UChB) adult female rats. Animals were housed in individual cages and maintained ...
Palencia G - - 1996
The incidence of epilepsy is high in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Although malnutrition is not a direct cause of seizures, chronic malnutrition may predispose the brain to seizures. In large undernourished human groups from Latin America, the most common sources of food are corn and corn derivatives. We ...
Whishaw I Q - - 1996
This study describes how rats use their paws and digits when handling a wide range of foodstuffs, including food pellets, grapes, sunflower seeds, shelled and unshelled peanuts, and different sized pastas, etc. Analysis of videorecordings show that the rats display digit postures that include variations in the spacing of the ...
Mathis C E - - 1996
In two experiments, rats living in a closed economy were offered continuous, concurrent access to four resources: food, water, a nest, and a running wheel. Costs of consuming food and water were imposed with bar-press requirements, and the price of either one or both resources was raised. As the consumption ...
Meguid M M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: With the onset of eating, the associated rise of dopamine in the lateral hypothalamus (LHA-DA) is thought to regulate quantity of food consumed per meal. Early release of LHA-DA induced by eating is facilitated by oronasal stimulation; we propose that the subsequent LHA-DA response induced by nutrients in the ...
Weissenborn R - - 1996
The efflux of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) core during the acquisition of schedule-induced polydipsia (drinking in response to intermittent food presentation) was measured using rapid scan voltammetry. DA efflux increased throughout the SIP sessions, always reaching a peak after the session had terminated. There was, however, no ...
Burns L H - - 1996
The effects of bilateral excitotoxic lesions of 3 major sources of afferents to the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) were compared on an open field test of food neophobia allowing the choice between familiar and novel food. Whereas lesions of the basolateral amygdala and ventral subiculum had qualitatively similar effects to ...
Iossa S - - 1996
The regulatory and obligatory components of cephalic and gastrointestinal phases of the thermic effect of food (TEF) were measured in control and hypothyroid rats. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in regulatory and obligatory components of cephalic and gastrointestinal TEF, after either a control or energy-dense meal, was found in ...
Zylan K D - - 1996
Male and female rats were divided into two groups: stress (20 min of immobilization) and no stress. All animals were then given either one or three palatable foods for a 2 h test session. Each rat received both the single (one food) and variety (three foods) conditions twice, in a ...
Martel P P Département de Physiologie Humaine et Expérimentale, Faculté de Médecine/Université de Bourgogne, - - 1996
The mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MDS) has been shown to be implicated in feeding behaviors. The present experiment was conducted to examine the effects of the sensory properties of food ingested on MDS activity. Microdialysis coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was employed to measure the extracellular levels of ...
Wang J F - - 1995
Energy expenditure was measured in one-way crossed-intestine rats by use of indirect calorimetry to examine the role of energy metabolism in body weight control. The intestinal surgery was done according to Koopmans (Brain Res. Bull. 14: 595-603, 1985). The food-losing rats increased daily food intake from 70.8 to 126.3 g/day, ...
Sidlo J - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Rats have an extraordinary expressive circadian organization and prefer the dark as the optimal condition of its life environment. During darkness, the rhythm of its several parameters reaches the acrophase. MAIN PURPOSE: The aim was to establish the differences in the level of food-intake of laboratory rats of the ...
Ikeda H - - 1995
Antiobesity and antidiabetic actions of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor AO-128 were examined using genetically obese-diabetic rats, Wistar fatty. Ten-week-old, male fatty rats were kept on CE-2 diet containing 10 or 25 ppm of AO-128 for 4 weeks. The average drug intake was calculated to be 0.74 or 1.78 mg/kg/day from the ...
Mühlbauer R C - - 1995
Using the urinary excretion of [3H]-tetracycline from prelabeled rats to monitor bone resorption, we have previously shown that food intake is associated with a rapid and large increase in bone resorption. This increase is blunted when the daily intake is fractionated into 4 portions instead of being given at once. ...
Flynn F W - - 1995
Hypertonic saline (HS) administered intraperitoneally reduced the intake of sucrose solution infused intraorally in tube-fed decerebrate rats, as it did in control animals. Similarly, either intraperitoneal or intravenous HS markedly decreased the intake of laboratory chow by neurologically intact control rats. These observations complement recent findings that lesions of putative ...
Helder R - - 1995
The social behavior of outbred Long-Evans (LE) and Wistar (WI) rats was compared in a situation where access to food was particularly difficult (clearing an aquatic barrier, plus the necessity of carrying the food back to the home cage). In groups of either six WI or LE rats, only about ...
Fisler J S - - 1995
We have examined the effect of peripheral 3-hydroxybutyrate injections on food intake and the contribution of the vagus nerve in the resistance to dietary fat-induced obesity in a rodent model. S 5B/Pl rats, which are resistant to dietary-fat induced obesity, and Osborne-Mendel rats, which are sensitive, were adapted to reverse ...
Porter J R JR Department of Medicine, LSU Medical Center, New Orleans 70112, - - 1995
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) decreases body weight and food intake of the obese Zucker rat, a model of youth-onset obesity associated with hyperphagia. The effects of discontinuing DHEA treatment on these parameters, however, has not been investigated. This question was studied in rats that had been maintained on DHEA-supplemented (0.0%, 0.06%, 0.15%, ...
Hamm R J - - 1995
To investigate the function of the amygdala following traumatic brain injury (TBI), rats were tested on a gustatory neophobia task that is sensitive to amygdala and hippocampal damage. Rats were either injured at a moderate level of fluid percussion injury (2.1 atm) or surgically prepared but not injured (sham-injury). Seven ...
Santana P - - 1995
Corticosteroids stimulate and insulin inhibits energy acquisition (food intake); conversely, corticosteroids inhibit and insulin stimulates energy storage (body weight gain). Thus, together these hormones mediate long-term energy balance. This study tested whether the stimulatory action of corticosteroids on food intake was mediated by association with high affinity mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) ...
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