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Results 251 - 300 of 664
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Bau H M - - 2000
We briefly reviewed the effects of soybean germination on biologically active components, nutritive value of seed and biological characteristics in rats. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of soybean germination on nutritional values of seeds and the potential importance for the use of germinated soybeans, from ...
Julien N - - 2000
Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity varies temporally, with a peak being observed when this antibiotic is administered during the resting period and a trough when given during the activity period of rats. These nychthemeral variations are modified by fasting and by restricted feeding schedules. In this study, food and water intakes of adult ...
Faro C J - - 2000
Our aim was to investigate the cause-effect relationship between intestinal inflammation induced by infection with enteric stages of Trichinella spiralis and decreased host food intake. A suppression of food intake in T. spiralis-infected rats occurred within the first 24 h postinfection (PI) and was maximized by day 6 PI. Food ...
Shibata K - - 2000
L-tryptophan is a very important precursor of niacin in mammals. Food preparation in which proteins are exposed to an alkali and/or high temperature for a long period generate appreciable amounts of D-amino acids from racemization. The efficiency of D-tryptophan as niacin was thus investigated by using weanling rats. The availability ...
Martinková A - - 2000
The day-night variation of food intake and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was studied in the duodenum of rats neonatally treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG) and saline-treated (control) rats. The animals were kept under light-dark conditions (light phase from 09:00 h to 21:00 h) with free access to food. AP activity ...
Laviano A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Tumor growth in animals and humans is associated with the onset of anorexia and reduced food intake. We previously demonstrated that the ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus (VMN) plays a contributory role in mediating cancer anorexia. Because serotonin and interleukin-1 (IL-1) are putative mediators of cancer anorexia, we hypothesized that ...
Yamanaka A - - 1999
Orexins are recently identified neuropeptides, and have been shown to increase food intake when administered intracerebroventricularly. We examined the effects of chronic administration of orexin in rats by continuous intracerebroventricular administration by means of an osmotic minipump. Continuous administration of orexin-A (0.5 nmol/h) for 7 days in rats resulted in ...
Schultz L A - - 1999
Animals can meet energetic challenges by acquiring or conserving energy. In the present experiment, we pitted these strategies against each other by housing rats in a cold environment and requiring them to bar press for food pellets and for access to a heated nest. Our question was how rats would ...
Heil S H - - 1999
While prolactin (PRL) has been reported to increase food intake by virgin female rats, its effects on food intake by male rats are relatively unexplored. The present studies examined the possibility that PRL has sex-specific effects on food intake by rats. In the first study, intact female and male rats ...
Glass M J - - 1999
We assessed differences in food reinforced behavior between obese and lean Zucker rats with a progressive ratio schedule 3 (PR3) in which a subject emitted three additional lever-presses each time a reinforcer was delivered. The number of responses required for a reinforcer eventually exceeded its value, termed the "break point", ...
Dringenberg H C - - 1998
Unlesioned rats exploring a black-white two compartment box spent most of the time in the covered, black half of the box and only little time in the uncovered, white half (67 s/5 min). Large radio-frequency lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus did not alter this pattern of exploration, but rats ...
Shibasaki T - - 1998
The effects of fasting, restraint stress, and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of somatostatin on the growth hormone secretagogue, KP-102-induced stimulation of food intake were examined in rats. KP-102-induced stimulation of food intake was observed in freely-fed rats but not in 24-h starved rats. A 90 min period of restraint stress decreased ...
Schroeder H - - 1998
The present study was designed to investigate the consequences of a chronic diazepam (DZ) exposure (10 mg/kg/day) during the first 3 weeks of life on social behavior of adult male rats measured in a situation of restricted access to food, the diving-for-food model. The treatment had no long-term effects on ...
Ramaswamy C - - 1998
Adult albino rats of Wistar strain (200 to 250 g) were lesioned at the nucleus accumbens (Acb) either in the shell area (Acbsh) or in the core area (Acbc). The rats were offered a choice of water and 0.2 per cent saccharine or water and 12 per cent sucrose solution. ...
Lee K M - - 1998
The objective of the study reported here was to investigate three factors that may affect the amounts of water consumed and urine excreted by a rat in the metabolism cage: water dilution, housing, and food. Young F344/N rats (eight per group) were used for all experiments. Food was withheld from ...
Davidson A J - - 1998
The feeding-entrained circadian oscillator (FEO) organizes locomotor activity and other variables to anticipate daily timed meals. Whether the biological substrate for the FEO is in the central nervous system or in the periphery, there must be communication between the gut and the brain to result in a behavioral output. To ...
Levine Seymour - - 1998
Withholding of food overnight has been used for numerous experimental purposes, including to reduce errors of intraperitoneal injections by diminishing the size and weight of the gastrointestinal tract, to prepare for gavage or surgery, or to avoid the effects food in the gastrointestinal tract might exert on drugs or nutrients. ...
Ghiani C A - - 1998
Changes in the extracellular concentration of acetylcholine (ACh) were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of freely moving rats habituated for 35 days to consume their daily meal during a fixed 2-h period. During the 40 min immediately before presentation, ACh output increased by 49 and 55% in the ...
Wan H Z - - 1998
The GLUT2 glucose transporter, which may play a glucose-sensing role in hepatocyte and islet beta cells because of its low affinity and high Km for glucose, has been identified in some discrete brain areas that are related to feeding behavior and energy metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that brain GLUT2 ...
Browning J D - - 1998
Zinc deficiency in rats results in impaired growth accompanied by decreased and cyclic food intake. These signs are associated with decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a major mediator of growth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between decreased plasma IGF-I and the impairment of appetite ...
Graceffo T J - - 1998
THC is the active chemical component in marijuana. In humans, it is known to cause acute sedation, alterations of cognition, and to stimulate appetite. The goal of this study was to determine if THC would produce acute stimulation of the consumption of a highly-palatable food item in the rat. Separate ...
Whishaw I Q - - 1997
The Montoya Staircase Test has been designed as a simple objective way of measuring changes in skilled movements following motor system damage. In the test, rats reach from a central platform for food pellets located on adjacent staircases and the measure of success is the number of food pellets obtained. ...
Aubert A - - 1997
Experimental studies assessing the suppressing effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on feeding behavior have focused exclusively on the ingestive component of this behaviour without taking into account its appetitive component. The appetitive sequence of feeding behavior regroups activities animals engage in to gain access to food without necessarily eating it. The ...
Hall F S - - 1997
Isolation-reared rats exhibited enhanced behavioural responses to novelty, but only some aspects of such behavior was affected. In Experiment 1, environmental neophobia was enhanced but food neophobia was diminished in isolation-reared rats compared to socially reared rats. However, in Experiment 2, when subjects were not handled extensively prior to testing, ...
Koopmans H S - - 1997
Twenty-two inbred male Lewis rats were made into parabiotic pairs and 7 pairs had a further operation in which the small intestines of the 2 rats were connected so that one rat continually lost food into the upper small intestine and bloodstream of its partner. As a result, these rats ...
Azarashvili A A - - 1997
Rats were trained to make conditioned food reflex excursions in two states: in normal conditions and on a background of treatment with pharmacological agents producing dissociative states. A number of cholinergic substances were completely interchangeable in dissociative learning; anticholinergic compounds efficiently neutralized the ability of cholinergic substances to produce dissociative ...
Olazabal D E - - 1997
The rat maternal behavior consists of different pup-caring activities, such as retrieving, licking, and crouching. Mothers also build a nest, consume more food, are more aggressive, and show less fear behavior than in other stages of the reproductive cycle. It has been reported that oxytocin (OT) and the milk-ejection pathway ...
Gournis E - - 1997
Breastfeeding delays the resumption of ovulation in women, a phenomenon particularly important in less developed areas. Although human and animal studies indicate that undernutrition extends the period of lactational anestrus, the effect of improving nutritional status during lactation on this time of infecundability, however, is less clear. To assess the ...
Monda M - - 1997
The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of ventromedial hypothalamus lesions on the thermogenic changes that follow food intake. Four groups of six Sprague-Dawley male rats were used. Under anesthesia with pentobarbital, the animals in the first and second groups received lesions at the ventromedial hypothalamus, and ...
Meyer C - - 1997
A revolving food pellet (RFP) test is presented, measuring the ability of rats to eat food pellets suspended from a horizontal bar in their home cage. This easy to make and economical device evaluates the efficiency of bilateral front paw coordination while standing. During the beginning of a ten day ...
Rupp H - - 1997
To establish a psychological stress model, we characterized in rats the effects of chronic (5-6 wk) scheduled food pellet feeding (35 mg/80 s for 8 h/day). Because the scheduled intake of pellets required that rats have access to 80% of ad libitum intake, the effect of food restriction was also ...
Whishaw I Q - - 1997
Rats depleted unilaterally of dopamine (DA) with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) have contralateral sensorimotor deficits. These include pronounced impairments in using the contralateral limbs (bad limbs) for skilled movements in tests of reaching and bar pressing. There has been no systematic examination of the changes that take place in movements ...
Leal A M - - 1997
Food availability is an important synchronizer of the pituitary-adrenal axis and daytime restriction of food access phase-shifts the diurnal periodicity of plasma corticosterone (B) concentration in rats. However, little is known about the synchronizers of circulating androgens in male rats. We studied intact and castrated male rats with free access ...
Rao B S - - 1997
Water intake of schedule feeding rats was correlated to food intake through variations in calorie content of food. On intake time restriction (3 h) schedule, it was positively correlated while on amount restriction schedule (25% and 15% food) correlation was negative. Water-to-food ratio (W/F) of 3 hFW rats was decreased ...
Svec F - - 1997
The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administered as an acute intraperitoneal (IP) injection on food selection and levels of hypothalamic neurotransmitters of obese Zucker rats was investigated. Animals consumed a 'macronutrient selection' diet which consisted of three separate foodstuffs; they were nearly pure selections of fat, protein or carbohydrate. On the ...
Boyadjiev N - - 1997
In order to find how the aerobic capacity and the ultrastructure of the skeletal and heart muscle cells of endurance training rats change as a result of adding two dietary supplements with different compositions to their diet (our own dietary formula specially designed for endurance sports and Aufbau Konzentrat, a ...
Haq A U - - 1996
The reported studies were designed to examine relationships between whole-brain histamine receptors (H1) and food intake in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three different experiments were conducted. In each experiment, control rats were fed normal protein (25 g casein/100 g food) and normal metabolizable energy (16.21 kJ/100 g food) diets. Feeding low ...
Menani J V - - 1996
This study investigated the effects of an electrolytic lesion of the commissural subnucleus of the nucleus of the solitary tract (commNTS) on body weight, daily food and water intake, and plasma glucose and insulin in rats. In the first 6 days following brain surgery, commNTS lesioned rats reduced daily food ...
King B M - - 1996
Electrolytic lesions of the posterodorsal aspects of the medial division of the extended amygdala in female rats result in hyperphagia and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the effects of such lesions on plasma insulin, glucose, corticosterone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were assessed during a period of food restriction and ...
Martel P - - 1996
The mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MDS) has been shown to be activated by ingestive behaviors, and it has been suggested that this activation may be related to the rewarding properties of foods. Because rats eat more when given a more palatable diet, this study was undertaken to determine-the relationship between the ...
Brown M F - - 1996
Rats gathered pellets from the tops of 15.5-cm-tall poles. In a matrix of poles, bait was located on the tops of poles arranged in either a square (Experiment 1) or linear (Experiment 2) configuration. The specific locations of baited poles varied unpredictably from trial to trial. The data show that ...
Wang T - - 1996
Previous reports indicate rats with lesions of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (IPBN) or lesions of the area postrema (AP) and adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) consume abnormally large amounts of water after treatment with SC isoproterenol (ISOP) or angiotensin II. In the present study, we found that IPBN ...
Brown K J - - 1996
The present experiment examined food and water consumption under different housing conditions in 20 female and 20 male Wistar rats. Food and water consumption were measured for 6 h a day following an 18-h same-sex crowded or individual housing period for each of 6 days. All subjects were individually housed ...
Laviano A - - 1996
When total parenteral nutrition (TPN; containing glucose, fat, and amino acids; caloric ratio 50:30:20) providing 100% of the rat's daily caloric intake is given for 3-4 days, food intake rapidly decreases by approximately 85%. After stopping TPN, there is a lag period of 3-4 days before food intake returns to ...
Cherroret G - - 1996
Normal and uremic adult male rats were given a daily ip injection of 20 mg Al (Al chloride)/kg for 14 d. The results indicate that Al induces a significant decrease in food ingestion, weight gain, and total protein concentration in the plasma. Compared with control animals, very high increases in ...
Mardones J - - 1996
The effect of bromocriptine (stimulant of dopaminergic D2 receptors) on the daily consumption of 10% v/v ethanol solution, distilled water, and solid food, under free-choice conditions, was measured in nine genetically low (UChA) and six high ethanol consumer (UChB) adult female rats. Animals were housed in individual cages and maintained ...
Palencia G - - 1996
The incidence of epilepsy is high in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Although malnutrition is not a direct cause of seizures, chronic malnutrition may predispose the brain to seizures. In large undernourished human groups from Latin America, the most common sources of food are corn and corn derivatives. We ...
Whishaw I Q - - 1996
This study describes how rats use their paws and digits when handling a wide range of foodstuffs, including food pellets, grapes, sunflower seeds, shelled and unshelled peanuts, and different sized pastas, etc. Analysis of videorecordings show that the rats display digit postures that include variations in the spacing of the ...
Mathis C E - - 1996
In two experiments, rats living in a closed economy were offered continuous, concurrent access to four resources: food, water, a nest, and a running wheel. Costs of consuming food and water were imposed with bar-press requirements, and the price of either one or both resources was raised. As the consumption ...
Meguid M M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: With the onset of eating, the associated rise of dopamine in the lateral hypothalamus (LHA-DA) is thought to regulate quantity of food consumed per meal. Early release of LHA-DA induced by eating is facilitated by oronasal stimulation; we propose that the subsequent LHA-DA response induced by nutrients in the ...
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