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Results 101 - 150 of 625
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Rinaman Linda - - 2007
We previously reported that noradrenergic (NA) neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) are necessary for exogenous CCK octapeptide to inhibit food intake in rats. To determine whether NST NA neurons also are necessary for lithium chloride (LiCl) to inhibit food intake and/or to support conditioned avoidance behavior, ...
Nakao Reiko - - 2007
Several specific locations in brain, including pyriform cortex and hypothalamus, are associated with regulation of food intake. Although lesions of these locations significantly alter food intake, their involvement in the selection of macronutrients is not well characterized. In this study, we examined distinct effects of anterior pyriform cortex (APC) and ...
Mahía J J Psicobiología, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Cartuja, Granada, 18071, Spain. - - 2007
The aim of this study was to examine the dipsogenic mechanisms involved in the recently discovered tuberomammillary (TM)-mediated polydipsia. Rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of each TM subnucleus underwent several dipsogenic treatments, both osmotic and volemic. Animals with ventral (E2) or medial TM lesions (E3 or E4) showed a potentiated ...
Petrovich Gorica D - - 2007
Motivation plays an important role in the control of food intake. A cue that acquires motivational properties through pairings with food consumption when an animal is hungry can override satiety and promote eating in sated rats. This phenomenon of conditioned potentiation of feeding is mediated by connections between the forebrain ...
Alaverdashvili Mariam - - 2007
Amphetamine (AMPH) has been proposed as a treatment for post-stroke motor deficits when coupled with symptom-relevant physical rehabilitation. Whereas a number of experimental studies report improvements in endpoint measures of skilled reaching for food by rats, there has been no assessment of whether beneficial effects extend to overcoming learned non-use ...
Moran Timothy H - - 2007
Curt Richter's seminal contributions to the field of psychobiology continue to enlighten us today. His approaches to scientific questions, his ability to design ways of allowing his research subjects (usually rats) to answer his questions and his unique style of data presentation inform current investigations into the biological bases of ...
Ellsworth Bruce A - - 2007
Structure-activity relationships for a series of pyrazine carboxamide CB1 antagonists are reported. Pharmaceutical properties of the series are improved via inclusion of hydroxyl-containing sidechains. This structural modification sufficiently improved ADME properties of an orally inactive series such that food intake reduction was achieved in rat feeding models. Compound 35 elicits ...
Cottone Pietro - - 2008
Binge eating and an increased role for palatability in determining food intake are abnormal adaptations in feeding behavior linked to eating disorders and body weight dysregulation. The present study tested the hypothesis that rats with limited access to highly preferred food would develop analogous opioid-dependent learned adaptations in feeding behavior, ...
Whishaw I Q - - 2007
Reaching for food, or skilled reaching, is used as a test of basal ganglia function in preclinical studies as well as studies of human neurological conditions. Although changes in the end-point measure of success document the effects of neurotoxic cellular damage to the caudate-putamen and its treatment in rodents, there ...
Chirino Rosario - - 2007
Maternal behavior is induced in virgin female rabbits (normally unresponsive to foster pups) by removing the accessory olfactory bulbs. To determine if the main olfactory system (MOS) plays a similar inhibitory role in the present work we investigated the effect of lesioning the olfactory epithelium with a ZnSO(4) spray on ...
Stashkevich I S - - 2007
After 48-h food deprivation,Wistar rats were trained to reach a food sphere from a narrow horizontal feeder tube with one paw, with a free choice of limb. The animals used both limbs at the initial stages of training--seizing of food with one paw could alternate with seizing using the other ...
El-Amamy Heather - - 2007
Recent evidence suggests that the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) and midbrain-striatal dopamine systems are critically involved in the alteration of attentional and emotional processing of initially neutral stimuli by associative learning. In rats, the acquisition of learned orienting responses (ORs) to visual cues paired with food is impaired by lesions ...
Jarosz Patricia A - - 2007
A previous study in our laboratory using Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats showed that conditioned place preferences (CPPs) can be learned to two different high-caloric "snack foods"--one high in sugar (Froot Loops cereal: FL) vs. one high in fat (Cheetos: C), and that both preferences were mediated by endogenous opioids. Using ...
Peter Jean-Christophe - - 2007
Functionally active antibodies (Abs) against central G-protein-coupled receptors have not yet been reported. We selected the hypothalamic melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) as a target because of its crucial role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. A 15 amino acid sequence of the N-terminal (NT) domain was used as an antigen. This ...
Aimé P - - 2007
Olfaction plays a fundamental role in feeding behavior, but changes in olfactory acuity according to feeding states have never been precisely demonstrated in animals. The present study assesses the olfactory detection performance of fasted or satiated rats placed under a strictly controlled food-intake regimen. We did this using a conditioned ...
Landry G J - - 2007
Rats can anticipate a fixed daily mealtime by entrainment of a circadian timekeeping mechanism anatomically separate from the light-entrainable circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neural substrates of this food-entrainable circadian system have not yet been fully elucidated. A role for the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT) is suggested by ...
Hermer-Vazquez Linda - - 2007
Humans and non-human animals make use of sensory hierarchies in "selecting" strategies for solving many cognitive and behavioral tasks. Often, if a preferred type of sensory information is unavailable or is not useful for solving a given task, the animal can switch to a lower-priority strategy, making use of a ...
Sibilia V - - 2006
We studied the effect of the acute central administration of obestatin on food intake and body weight in short-term starved male rats, and those of 28-day continuous intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of obestatin in free feeding rats. In 16-h starved rats, obestatin induced a trend toward a reduction of food intake ...
Payne Martha E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that diet may be related to the occurrence of brain lesions. The cross-sectional association between food intake and brain lesion volumes in late-life depression was examined in a cohort of elderly individuals with current or prior depression. METHODS: Food intake was assessed in 54 elderly vascular depression ...
Ivliev D A DA Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. - - 2006
Neuron activity was recorded from the basal forebrain of rats, including the mixed area of the ventral pallidum, substantia innominata, and mid part of Meynert's nucleus. The base of the forebrain was found to contain neurons (40% of all neurons recorded) which altered their activity on acquisition of a food-procuring ...
Pisu Maria Giuseppina - - 2006
Stressful stimuli and anxiogenic drugs increase the plasma and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids. Moreover, in rats trained to consume their daily meal during a fixed period, the anticipation of food is associated with changes in the function of various neurotransmitter systems. We have now evaluated the effects of anticipation ...
Wallace Douglas G - - 2006
Operant procedures combined with pharmacological manipulations have implicated a role for the dopaminergic system in the perception and production of temporal intervals. Because studies have suggested that animals use temporal information to organize food protection behavior, the current study investigates whether dopaminergic systems are involved in timing during this natural ...
Silveira Patricia Pelufo - - 2006
We have previously demonstrated that neonatal handling increases sweet food ingestion. In the present study, we examined whether food intake, using different kinds of food, is altered in neonatally handled animals, with or without inducing satiety using a sucrose solution. Abdominal fat, glycemia and hormones linked to appetite including leptin, ...
Thorpe Christina M - - 2006
Rats were trained on an interval time-place learning (TPL) task in which the location of food availability depended on the time since the start of the session. Each of four levers (numbered 1, 2, 3, 4) provided food on an intermittent schedule for two nonconsecutive 3-min periods. The order in ...
Messina Michelina M - - 2006
Estradiol exerts an inhibitory effect on food intake via interactions with anorexigenic peptides, like cholecystokinin, that function to decrease meal size. It is currently unknown whether estradiol also interacts with orexigenic compounds implicated in the physiological control of food intake. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine ...
Silveira P P - - 2006
Neonatal handled rats ingest more sweet food than non-handled ones, but it was documented only after puberty. Here, we studied the purinergic system in the nucleus accumbens, a possible target for the alteration in the preference for palatable food. We measured the ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis mediated by ectonucleotidases ...
Babb Stephanie J - - 2006
Rats (n = 6) visited four baited locations (randomly chosen on each trial; study phase), one of which was randomly selected to provide chocolate. After short (1-h) or long (25-h) retention intervals (RIs), eight locations were available, and the four locations not available in the study phase provided food (test ...
Aponte, G.
We examined the possibility that somatostatin, a tetradecapeptide distributed in the gut and the central nervous system, may influence food intake and behavior in rats. Although intravenously infused somatostatin did not alter food intake in 8 hour fasted rats, intracerebroventricularly infused somatostatin resulted in a biphasic response, first increasing then ...
Atchley Deann P D - - 2006
Serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in controlling food intake and regulating body weight. In addition, clinical studies suggest a possible role for 5-HT in the etiology of anorexia nervosa. Recently, we have examined the effects of pharmacological manipulation of the 5-HT system in female rats exposed to conditions that ...
Mahía J - - 2006
This study aimed to examine the function of the tuberomammillary complex in water and food intake of Wistar rats. The results show that lesions restricted to tuberomammillary subnuclei: caudal ventral tuberomammillary nucleus (E1), rostral ventral tuberomammillary nucleus (E2), medial ventral tuberomammillary nucleus (E3) or medial dorsal tuberomammillary nucleus (E4), induce ...
Sanders Nicole M - - 2006
Prior exposure to hypoglycemia impairs neuroendocrine counterregulatory responses (CRR) during subsequent hypoglycemia. Defective CRR to hypoglycemia is a component of the clinical syndrome hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). Hypoglycemia also potently stimulates food intake, an important behavioral CRR. Because the increased feeding response to hypoglycemia is behavioral and not hormonal, we ...
Fukumasu Heidge - - 2006
Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is originally from Amazon, Brazil. Its effects on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis have been investigated in this study. Mice were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), received three different doses of P. cupana added to commercial food, and euthanized after 25 weeks. Gross lesions were quantified, and preneoplastic lesions (PNL) were ...
King Bruce M - - 2006
Early researchers found that lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) resulted in hyperphagia and obesity in a variety of species including humans, which led them to designate the VMH as the brain's "satiety center." Many researchers later dismissed a role for the VMH in feeding behavior when Gold claimed that ...
de Andrade Iracema Senna - - 2006
In the present study, newborn male Wistar rats were injected, subcutaneously, five times, every other day, with monosodium glutamate (MSG, 4 g/kg bw) or saline (as control, C), during the neonatal period. MSG animals developed destruction of the arcuate nuclei (ARC) with absence of NPY-immunoreactive cell bodies, which impaired both ...
Gaskin Stephane - - 2006
The conditioned cue preference (CCP) was used to study how rats discriminate between adjacent arms on a radial maze. Chai and White (Behav Neurosci 2004, 118:770-784) showed that an intact dorsal hippocampus is required to learn this discrimination and that an amygdala-based conditioned approach response that produces an equal tendency ...
Guzmán Khalil - - 2006
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-wasting syndrome might be facilitated by the HIVgp120 affecting the immunological system. We studied the effect (subchronic administration: 5 days) of HIVgp120, and a few immune-response mediators: regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES), stromal derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), and their combination, ...
Gharbawie O A - - 2006
That rats reach for and grasp a food item using a single paw has prompted their use in neurobiological studies of skilled movements and modeling neural injury including middle cerebral artery stroke. Although motor system lesions have been shown to disrupt various qualitative aspects of the transport of a limb ...
Yiin Yeh-Min - - 2005
The postingestive actions of nutrients condition strong flavor preferences in rats and may also enhance flavor acceptance (increase total intake) in some situations. This study determined the impact of food deprivation on flavor preference and acceptance conditioned by intragastric (i.g.) infusions of glucose. Rats fitted with gastric catheters were trained ...
Zafra María A - - 2005
The aim of this study was to examine the function of the lateral parabrachial area (LPB) in relation to the intragastric administration of nutrients. The consumption of flavors associated with intragastric nutrient administration and the subsequent food and water intake were measured in rats with lesions in the LPB. The ...
Louter-van de Haar Johanna - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Studies on the effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) in humans are controversial. As differences in the HCA preparations may contribute to this apparent discrepancy, the aim of the current study is to compare different HCA-containing preparations in adult Wistar rats. DESIGN: The effects of 3 different HCA-containing preparations (Regulator, ...
Petrovich Gorica D - - 2005
Experimental animals that are trained to associate a cue with food consumption when hunger prevails will subsequently consume a greater amount of food when that cue is presented under conditions of satiety. Previously, we showed that this phenomenon of conditioned potentiation of feeding is abolished by a neurotoxic lesion that ...
Holland Peter C - - 2006
In many experimental settings, lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CN) interfere with surprise-induced enhancement of event processing. In those settings, surprise was produced by omitting an expected event. This experiment examined the effects of CN lesions on enhanced learning after surprise was induced by presenting an unexpected ...
Kasaoka Seiichi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Histamine, a derivative of histidine, decreases food intake by activation of histamine neurons. The aim of the present study was to clarify gender-related differences in food intake through the histidine-histamine neuron system. METHODS: Male, female, and ovariectomized rats were fed a histidine-enriched diet or a control diet with the ...
van de Wall Esther H E M - - 2005
Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake (PHYSIOL BEHAV XX(X) 000-000, 2005). Rats were treated neonatally with capsaicin (CAP) to investigate the involvement of vagal afferents in food intake control and body weight regulation. In the first set of experiments, rats were offered increasing concentrations of sucrose ...
Mendoza Jorge - - 2005
Restricted feeding schedules (RFS) entrain behavioral and physiological rhythms even in suprachiasmatic nucleus ablated animals, suggesting the existence of a food-entrained oscillator. The nucleus accumbens is an important structure for the expression of motivational behaviors and because its anatomical subterritories, Shell (Acc-Sh) and Core (Acc-Co) establish connections with different functional ...
Medeiros Magda A - - 2005
The role of serotonergic system in the feeding behavior was appraised by electrolytic lesions in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and administration of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 3 mg/5 microl, icv). Chronic evaluations were accomplished through 120 and 360 days in PCPA-injected and DRN-lesioned rats, respectively. Acute food intake was evaluated in ...
Pickens Charles L - - 2005
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in the use of outcome expectancies to guide behavior. The present study used a devaluation task to examine this function. Rats first received light-food pairings followed by food-toxin pairings designed to devalue the food. After either excitotoxic or sham OFC lesions, responding to ...
Gaskin Stephane - - 2005
The conditioned cue preference (CCP) task was used to study the ability of rats to discriminate between spatial locations. Food-deprived rats explored an eight-arm radial maze with no food present (pre-exposure). On subsequent days, they were alternately confined in one arm of the maze with food and in another arm ...
Mendoza J J Departamento de Anatomía, Facultad de Medicina, Edificio "B" 4 Piso, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF, 04510, - - 2005
Rats maintained under restricted feeding schedules (RFS) develop food-anticipatory activity and entrainment of physiological parameters. Food entrainment is independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and depends on food-entrainable oscillators (FEO). Restricted feeding schedules lead animals toward a catabolic state and to increase their food driven motivation, suggesting that in this process ...
Ito Rutsuko R Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EB UK. - - 2005
The hippocampus (HPC) is known to be critically involved in the formation of associations between contextual/spatial stimuli and behaviorally significant events, playing a pivotal role in learning and memory. However, increasing evidence indicates that the HPC is also essential for more basic motivational processes. The amygdala, by contrast, is important ...
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