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Tomiyama A Janet - - 2011
Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory stressor to examine HPA response to ...
Bauer Carolyn M - - 2011
This study tested whether an ethologically relevant stressor, a three-week period of food restriction where food was unavailable for four hours a day, caused chronic stress in molting and non-molting captive European starlings. Although all birds increased weight during the Food Restriction period, only non-molting birds increased food intake. Morning ...
Ranawana Viren - - 2011
The glycemic response (GR) to food is influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A consistent observation in GR studies is the wide within- and between-individual variations. The authors hypothesize that between-individual variations in the GR, insulin response (IR) and gastric emptying occur even when food particle size is standardized. ...
Clegg Miriam E - - 2011
It is now known that health benefits associated with diets rich in fruit and vegetables may be partly derived from intake of polyphenols. Berry polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism and absorption and hence postprandial glycaemia. To date, studies related to polyphenol effects on the glycaemic response have been completed only ...
Harenberg Job - - 2011
Based on the results of large clinical trials, several low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have been approved for prophylaxis and the treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism. As a result of expiration or pending expiration of patent protection of the originator LMWHs, the first generic LMWH enoxaparin has been approved by the ...
Harenberg Job - - 2011
The first generic low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) end of July 2010 for clinical use in all medical indications where the branded product enoxaparin has reached approval. Many LMWHs have been approved for prophylaxis and the treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism based ...
Armentia A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: We have observed that some cases of food anaphylaxis were followed by severe thrombosis associated to anticardiolipin antibodies. Food anaphylaxis associated with antiphospholipid syndrome has seldom been published. OBJECTIVE: The aims were: 1) to test anticardiolipin antibodies in an important number of patients with anaphylaxis due to vegetal foods ...
Cerrato Maria - - 2010
OBJECTIVE:: To test the effect of raising ambient temperature (AT) on activity-based anorexia (ABA) and to extend to female rats previous findings reported in male animals. METHOD:: Two studies are reported in which female rats were submitted to food restriction and free access to an activity wheel either separately or ...
Takeda Hiroshi - - 2010
The biokinetics of radiocarbon (¹⁴C) in rats continuously ingested in the forms of amino acids (glycine and leucine) or as foods (wheat and rapeseed) were examined and compared with each other. The differences in the biokinetics between ¹⁴C-amino acids and ¹⁴C-foods were observed in the excretion of ¹⁴C in feces ...
King Bruce M - - 2011
An early study reported that, unlike sham-operated rats, rats made anosmic by olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) failed to compensate for the dilution of their diet with nonnutritive bulk by increasing their food intake. In the present study, the effects of a glucoprivic challenge, intraperitoneal-administered 350 mg/kg 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), on food intake ...
Liang Nu-Chu - - 2011
Activity based anorexia (ABA) is a model that mimics the self-starvation and hyperactivity features of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study investigated whether a history of ABA will enhance food avoidance learning and retard its extinction in female rats. We compared the acquisition and extinction of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) ...
Lin Tzu-Ching E - - 2010
Two experiments examined the content of configural learning in rats. In Experiment 1, after simple pre-exposure to two hybrid contexts (AB and CD), rats acquired a configural discrimination involving two of the contexts (A and C) and two auditory stimuli (X and Y; AX→food, AY→no food, CX→no food, and CY→food). ...
Iyare Eghosa E - - 2010
Extract of the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (HS) (Malvaceae) has been reported to decrease fluid and food intake in lactating rats through a mechanism not yet fully understood. It has also been reported that rat pups undernourished during lactation have delayed puberty onset, suggesting a link between nutrition and ...
Santollo Jessica - - 2010
While there is considerable evidence that the ovarian hormone estradiol reduces food intake in female rats, it is unclear which estrogen receptor (ER) subtype, ERα or ERβ, mediates this effect. While several studies have demonstrated that activation of ERα, but not ERβ, is sufficient to reduce food intake in ovariectomized ...
Pickens C L - - 2010
We recently adapted the conditioned suppression of operant responding method to study fear incubation. We found that food-restricted rats show low fear 2 days after extended (10 d; 100 30-s tone-shock pairings) fear training and high fear after 1-2 months. Here, we studied a potential mechanism of fear incubation: extended ...
Dwyer Dominic M - - 2010
Rats with prelimbic (PL) cortex lesions were tested on a discrete-trial discrimination where food rewards were used as both discriminative cues and reinforcing outcomes. On incongruent trials, the discriminative cue food differed from the outcome food; on congruent trials they were the same. When cue and outcome foods differ, a ...
Pérez-Padilla Angeles - - 2010
Activity-based anorexia occurs when food availability is restricted to 1h of the day and a wheel is freely available to the rest of the time. Under such conditions rats run excessively and stop eating even during periods in which food is available. A defining characteristic of the excessive activity is ...
Galarce Ezequiel M - - 2010
Considerable evidence shows that environmental cues that signal food delivery when rats are food-deprived can substantially potentiate feeding later when rats are food-sated. Similarly, cues associated with meal interruption, food removal or impending food scarcity may also induce increased eating. For example, after learning the association between a discrete "interruption" ...
Angeles-Castellanos M - - 2010
Daily feeding schedules entrain temporal patterns of behavior, metabolism, neuronal activity and clock gene expression in several brain areas and periphery while the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock, remains coupled to the light/dark cycle. Because bilateral lesions of the SCN do not abolish food entrained behavioral and hormonal rhythms ...
Ishizuka Tomoko - - 2010
When animals eat food, the oral cavity receives a variety of sensory information from food. The hardness of food, which elicits somatic sensation, is thought to affect feeding behavior, however, the details of neuronal mechanism are unclear. The histaminergic system is known to be involved in feeding behavior, and our ...
Chen Kun-Chao - - 2009
Outbreaks of food-associated renal failure in pets occurred in Asia and the United States of America in 2004 and 2007. They were related to the combined intoxication of cyanuric acid and melamine. Our aims were to investigate cyanuric acid and melamine contamination of pet food and to examine subchronic toxicity ...
Gaskin Stephane - - 2010
We tested the effects of temporary inactivation of the dorsal entorhinal cortex on spatial discrimination using a conditioned cue preference (CCP) paradigm. The three phases of the procedure were: pre-exposure: unreinforced exploration of the center platform and two adjacent arms of an eight-arm radial maze; training: rats were confined to ...
Close James - - 2009
One connectionist analysis of the acquired equivalence/distinctiveness of cues assumes that when similar compounds (e.g., AX and BX) are paired with the same outcome (e.g., food, +; or no food, -), their components come to activate the same configural unit (ABX). When these compounds are paired with different outcomes, their ...
Silveira P P PP PPG Neurociências, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. - - 2010
Neonatal handling in rats persistently alters behavioral parameters and responses to stress. Such animals eat more sweet food in adult life, without alterations in lab chow ingestion. Here, we show that neonatally handled rats display greater incentive salience to a sweet reward in a runway test; however they are less ...
Watanabe Minemori - - 2009
While the hypothalamus has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance, the central mechanisms and neural circuit that coordinate the feeding response to energy deficit have not been fully clarified. To better understand the role of the hypothalamus in mediating hyperphagic responses to food deprivation or glucoprivation, we examined ...
Kanarek Robin B - - 2009
Exercise improves cardiovascular health, strengthens muscles and bones, stimulates neuroplasticity, and promotes feelings of well-being. However, when taken to extremes, exercise can develop into an addictive-like behavior. To assess the addictive potential of exercise, withdrawal symptoms following injections of 1.0 mg/kg naloxone were compared in active and inactive male and ...
Darling Rebecca A - - 2009
We examined food intake in chronically maintained decerebrate rats in response to two antimetabolic drugs known to stimulate food intake, 2-mercaptoacetate (MA) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG). MA reduces fatty acid oxidation, and 2DG reduces glucose utilization. Because previous work has shown that insulin-induced hypoglycemia increases food intake in decerebrate rats, we ...
Clark Benjamin J - - 2009
Experiments were designed to determine the role of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) in 3 forms of navigation: beacon, landmark, and path integration. In beacon navigation, animals reach goals using cues directly associated with them, whereas in landmark navigation animals use external cues to determine a direction and distance to goals. ...
Shen Ling - - 2009
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a protein mainly synthesized in the liver and brain. To further understand the role of brain apoE in the management of daily food intake, we have examined the circadian pattern of hypothalamic apoE gene and protein expression in freely-fed (FF) and food-restricted (RF, food provided 4 ...
Schoech Stephan J - - 2009
Food supplementation of free-living animals has been used to address the role of availability of resources in the timing of reproduction. A meta-analysis by Schoech and Hahn suggested that responsiveness of the reproductive axis to the supplementary cue of food is lessened at higher latitudes, presumably because the brief time ...
Boggiano M M - - 2009
Relapsing to overeating is a stubborn problem in obesity treatment. We tested the hypothesis that context cues surrounding palatable food (PF) intake have the power to disrupt caloric regulation even of less PF. Context cues are non-food cues that are in the environment where PF is habitually eaten. Rats were ...
Galarce Ezequiel M - - 2009
Food consumption is controlled by both internal and external factors. Environmental signals associated with food may prepare an animal to forage, consume and digest more effectively. Furthermore, environmental cues that provide information about food availability enable animals to make predictions about future food resources and act upon that knowledge in ...
Santollo Jessica - - 2009
Estrogens exert many of their behavioral effects by binding to nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) proteins, ERalpha and ERbeta. Recent studies involving ER knockout mice and selective ER agonists suggest that estradiol's anorexigenic effect is mediated via activation of ERalpha. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined whether the presumptive ERalpha antagonist, ...
Wong K J - - 2009
This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABA(B) agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a limited access protocol. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to two schedules of access (Daily [D] or Intermittent [I]) to ...
De Jonghe Bart C - - 2009
Clay consumption can occur during illness but there has been little work to understand why. To investigate whether consuming clay confers an advantage to the sick animal, we compared the recovery from illness of adult male rats with or without access to kaolin. Illness was induced by injection of 6 ...
Luyten Laura - - 2009
The glucose metabolism in the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) is increased in rats in the activity-based anorexia (ABA) model. In patients, electrical stimulation in hyperactive brain regions reduced symptoms in e.g. major depressive disorder and cluster headache. In two blinded randomised controlled experiments, we therefore examined the effects of high-frequency electrical ...
Ooyama Katsuhiko - - 2009
Previous studies have demonstrated that fatty acid oxidation in the liver may affect food intake. This study examined the influence of preloading of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) on food intake in comparison with long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT). Male rats were fasted for 18 h and then administered LCT or MCT emulsion orally. ...
Shinozaki Tomokazu - - 2008
The effects of fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), were studied in normophagic and food-restriction-induced hyperphagic middle-aged Wistar rats. Normophagic intact Wistar rats were given fluvoxamine (100 mg/kg/d, per os (p.o.)) or vehicle for 10 d. Hyperphagic middle-aged Wistar rats were subjected to 10 d of food restriction; they ...
Verhagen Linda A W - - 2009
Excessive physical activity is commonly described as symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model for AN. The ABA model mimics severe body weight loss and increased physical activity. Suppression of hyperactivity by olanzapine in anorectic patients as well as in ABA rats suggested a ...
Vento Peter J - - 2008
The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague-Dawley ...
Chiamulera C C Neuropsychopharmacology Laboratory, Section of Pharmacology, Department of Medicine and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. - - 2010
Noradrenergic transmission has been implicated in the affective component of relapse to tobacco smoking. Evidence in human and laboratory animals showed that smoking or nicotine administration may cause changes of the noradrenergic system resulting in hyperactivity in this system after cessation. It has been hypothesised that the anti-adrenergic beta-blocker propranolol ...
Germano C M R - - 2008
Melanocortin system and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) are implicated in the control of feeding behavior. Besides its anorexigenic effect on food intake, CRH is one of the most important regulators of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Therefore, there could be an interplay between HPA axis activity and melanocortin system. We investigated ...
Martin Megan M - - 2008
Converging lines of evidence have supported a role for the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NB) in attentional mechanisms; however, debate continues regarding the role of the medial septum in behavior (MS). Recent studies have supported a role for the septohippocampal system in the online processing of internally generated cues. The current ...
Hofbauer Karl G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Active immunization in rats may serve several purposes: the production of a disease-like phenotype, the generation of pharmacologic tools, and the development of clinically useful therapies. We selected the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) as a target because its blockade could provide a treatment for anorexia and cachexia. METHODS: We used ...
Rehm Sabine - - 2008
Reduced food consumption and associated lower body weights may occur in subacute toxicity studies. The short-term effects of food restriction (FR) on body and reproductive organ weights, hormones, and testis histology were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats fed 20% to 36% less (21 g feed/day) than rats fed ad libitum (AL) ...
Lyaruu Donacian M - - 2008
Renal impairment in children is associated with tooth defects that include enamel pitting and hypoplasia. However, the specific effects of uremia on tooth formation are not known. In this study, we used rat mandibular incisors, which continuously erupt and contain all stages of tooth formation, to characterize the effects of ...
Pettenuzzo Leticia Ferreira - - 2008
Anorectic effects of caffeine are controversial in the literature, while stress and obesity are growing problems in our society. Since many stressed people are coffee drinkers, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of stress and chronic administration of caffeine on feeding behavior and body weight ...
Swithers Susan E - - 2008
Adult male rats have been demonstrated to increase food intake in response to administration of drugs that interfere with oxidation of fatty acids (e.g. methyl palmoxirate and mercaptoacetate [MA]), effects that are larger in animals maintained on a high-fat diet. In contrast, while administration of MA has been reported to ...
Onyechi, U A; ;
<i>Detarium microcarpium</i> is a legumnous plant food used traditionally among the Ibos in the SouthEastern part of Nigeria as a thickening agent in vegetable soups. <i>Detarium</i> is largey uncharacterised and under exploited. There is a dearth of information in the lterature on this plant ood. The aim of the study ...
Thanos Panayotis K - - 2008
In the current study, we examined the effect of the selective D(3) receptor antagonists SB-277011A and NGB 2904 on operant food self-administration (FSA) in Zucker obese and lean rats. Obese (Ob) and lean (Le) Zucker rats were maintained under a restricted feeding regimen (70% of ad-libitum rat chow) and were ...
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