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Results 201 - 250 of 587
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Embola C W - - 2001
The effects of green tea intake on the metabolism of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in the rat was studied. IQ belongs to a new class of mutagens and carcinogens, heterocyclic arylamines, formed during cooking through browning meats and fish, thus, in the food chain of most non-vegetarians. Ten adult male and female ...
Zeiger E - - 2001
In the National Toxicology Program database of 172 chemicals that were judged non-carcinogenic or equivocal in 2 year rodent studies in both sexes of rats and mice, there are 38 chemicals that were mutagenic in Salmonella. All but two of the chemicals had structural alerts for mutagenicity. The largest proportion ...
Ferguson L R - - 2001
Polyphenols are a large and diverse class of compounds, many of which occur naturally in a range of food plants. The flavonoids are the largest and best-studied group of these. A range of plant polyphenols are either being actively developed or currently sold as dietary supplements and/or herbal remedies. Although, ...
Ioku K - - 2001
Onion is a major source of flavonoids and is cooked in various ways in the world. The major flavonoids in onion are two quercetin glycosides, quercetin 4'-O-beta-glucoside (Q4'G) and quercetin 3,4'-O-beta-diglucosides (Q3,4'G), which are recognized as bioactive substances that are good for our health. We have investigated the effect of ...
Leong-Morgenthaler P M - - 2001
Heterocyclic amines are ubiquitously present in cooked meats and fish. They represent an important class of food-borne carcinogens. We describe the cytotoxic, apoptotic, and mutagenic responses of mismatch repair-proficient (TK6) and mismatch repair-deficient (MT1) human lymphoblastoid cells to PhIP, the most abundant heterocyclic amine. Dose-dependent increases in cytotoxicity, in apoptosis, ...
Levallois P - - 2000
Urinary excretion of volatile nitrosamines was assessed in 59 non-smokers living in a rural county of Québec, Canada. Water and food intakes were measured by means of a 24-hour recall. Nitrates were analyzed in the tap water of all participants (geometric mean=2.0 mg nitrate-N/L) and dietary intakes of nitrate and ...
Bover-Cid S - - 2000
The effect of the hygienic status of raw materials on biogenic amine production during ripening and storage (at 4 and 15 degrees C) of fermented sausages was studied. Two portions of fresh lean and back fat pork were stored for 5 days at -20 degrees C (treatment A) and at ...
Pais P - - 2000
Some 20 years ago, Japanese scientists discovered a new group of highly toxic compounds, classified as heterocyclic aromatic amines, from broiled and grilled meat and fish products. Numerous studies have shown that most HAs are mutagenic and carcinogenic, and the safety of HA-containing foods has become a concern for the ...
Krul C - - 2000
The TNO gastro-Intestinal tract Model (TIM) is a dynamic computer-controlled in vitro system that mimics the human physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine. In the current TIM physiological parameters such as pH, temperature, peristaltic movements, secretion of digestion enzymes, bile and pancreatic juices, and absorption of digested products-by ...
Antipov A N - - 2000
Molybdenum- and molybdenum cofactor-free nitrate reductases recently isolated by us from vanadate-reducing bacteria Pseudomonas isachenkovii are likely to mediate vanadate reduction. During anaerobic growth of P. isachenkovii on medium supplemented with nitrate and vanadate, vanadate dissimilation was followed by nitrate consumption, and this process was associated with some structural reorganizations ...
Bhattacharjee P - - 2000
Randomly selected samples of three popular commercial brands of Basmati rice (designated as A, B and C) available in Mumbai city were studied with respect to their proximate composition and differences in their quality evaluated in terms of length by breadth and elongation ratio, differential length by breadth ratio, water ...
Ward M H - - 2000
Previous studies of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have found elevated risks with higher consumption of salted fish and preserved foods, particularly during childhood. These foods can contain high levels of nitrosamines; however, most studies have not estimated exposure to nitrosamines directly. We conducted a case-control study in Taiwan to evaluate dietary ...
Potter L - - 2000
Regulatory mechanisms that enable bacteria associated with food, drinks and the human body to adapt to changes in the availability of oxygen are reviewed. Excess oxygen induces two adaptive responses to oxidative stress. Five or more control circuits enable enteric bacteria to generate energy and grow well in anaerobic environments. ...
Levallois P - - 2000
Nitrate exposure was investigated in a group of 187 people using well water and living in four areas of rural Quebec (Canada) with intensive agricultural activities. Nitrate intake was evaluated using a 24-h dietary recall and a food frequency questionnaire, in conjunction with a validated food database and measurements of ...
Merino L - - 2000
Nitrite and nitrate are used as additives in the food industry to provide color and taste and to control undesirable gas and flavor production by anaerobic bacteria by virtue of their antimicrobial properties. The analytical method that has been widely used to determine nitrite and nitrate involves the use of ...
Deguchi T - - 2000
The novel purple pigment hordeumin, an anthocyanin-tannin pigment, was produced from barley bran-fermented broth. The mutagenicity or antimutagenicity of hordeumin was investigated according to the Ames method, an indication of the safety of food, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Despite the presence of S-9 mix, hordeumin was not mutagenic. On the ...
Kinae N - - 2000
Wasabi (Wasabi japonica) and horseradish (Cholearia arnoracia) are used as spices of daily foodstuffs. Allylisothiocyanate (AIT) is a potent component in both plants and occurs by grating them. It is well known that AIT shows inhibitory effect on the growth of food poisoning bacteria and fungi. In this work, several ...
Kikugawa K - - 2000
Introduction of phenolic antioxidants, thiol compounds and reductones into the heated model system composed of glucose/glycine/creatinine was effective to scavenge the intermediary pyrazine cation radical and to reduce the mutagenicity due to imidazoquinoxaline heterocyclic amines. Addition of a reductone, ascorbate or erythorbate, at 0.3% to ground beef effectively reduced the ...
Catterall F - - 2000
Naturally occurring dimeric polyphenolics and their gallate esters were isolated from grape seeds, almond fruits, and apple skin, and their ability to modulate the mutagenicity of food carcinogens was studied in the Ames test, and compared to that of the monomeric green tea flavonols, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Neither the monomeric ...
Walle U K - - 1999
Cooked-food mutagens formed when frying meat have been suggested to contribute to the etiology of colon, breast and prostate cancer. The most prevalent of these mutagens is 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), which after absorption is bioactivated by both phase I and phase II enzymes. Although available data suggest absorption of PhIP in ...
Putnam K P - - 1999
Although products of pyrolysis are often cytotoxic and mutagenic, the relationship between the type of material pyrolysed and the toxicity of the resulting pyrolysis products is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of several types of common pyrolysis products. The ...
Totsuka Y - - 1999
Co-mutagenic beta-carbolines, such as norharman and harman, were quantified in mainstream and sidestream smoke condensates of six Japanese brands of cigarettes, and also in 13 kinds of cooked foods, using a combination of blue cotton treatment and HPLC. Norharman and harman were detected in all the cigarette smoke condensate samples. ...
Sharma D - - 1999
Tobacco and alcohol, opium, hot tea and food, bracken and tannins, plant irritants, fungal infection, nitrosamines, nitrates and nitrites, moldy foods and mycotoxins and dietary deficiencies have received attention as aetiological factors for carcinoma of oesophagus. Global epidemiology and epidemiology at the national level show that it has marked regional ...
Felton J S - - 1999
The occurrence and formation of heterocyclic amines in foods is discussed in light of the consistent finding of a new class of imidazopyridines. In addition, a quantitative structure-activity relationship will be presented correlating the potency of these imidazopyridines to predicted chemical properties. Although no strong linear correlation is found between ...
Marczylo T H - - 1999
Purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone) is a naturally occurring anthraquinone pigment found in species of madder root. We have found that the presence of purpurin in bacterial mutagenicity assays is responsible for a marked inhibition of mutagenicity induced by food-derived heterocyclic amines. Purpurin was found to be a better inhibitor of Trp-P-2-dependent mutagenicity ...
Sabater-Vilar M - - 1999
Pigments produced as secondary metabolites by various isolates of moulds belonging to the genus Monascus have been used traditionally as colorants in Oriental food. Modern food industry has rediscovered these moulds as promising source for natural colorants. However, recent studies evidence that one of the secondary metabolites produced by Monascus ...
Keating G A - - 1999
The identification of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in cooked foods has focused attention on the potential health effects from their consumption in the diet. Recent studies have estimated daily dietary intakes of HCAs that vary 10-fold and implicated different cooked meats as the prime source of HCAs in the diet. These ...
Lijinsky W - - 1999
N-Nitroso compounds were known almost 40 years ago to be present in food treated with sodium nitrite, which made fish meal hepatotoxic to animals through formation of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Since that time, N-nitroso compounds have been shown in animal experiments to be the most broadly acting and the most potent ...
Ahn D U - - 1999
Headspace oxygen in sample vial for the purge-and-trap dynamic headspace/gas chromatography method oxidizes meat if held hours before purging, influences volatile profiles, and misrepresents the true composition of volatiles. Helium flush and helium flush plus oxygen absorber were used to eliminate residual oxygen and minimize oxidative changes in meat during ...
Petersen A - - 1999
The contents of nitrate and nitrite in lettuce, leek, potato, beetroot, Chinese cabbage and white cabbage on the Danish market were determined for 3 years in the period 1993-1997 as part of the Danish food monitoring programme. These vegetables are supposed to provide the major contribution to the intake of ...
Schuler D - - 1999
2-Hexenal is an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compound which is mutagenic, genotoxic and forms cyclic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts like similar propenals for which carcinogenicity was shown, e.g. acrolein or crotonaldehyde. Since humans have a permanent intake of 2-hexenal via vegetarian food this genotoxic compound is considered to play a role in human carcinogenicity. ...
Shiozawa T - - 1999
A mutagen, 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]5-ami no-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriiazole (PBTA-1), isolated from water of the Nishitakase River in Kyoto exhibits potent mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with S9 mix and has characteristic moieties, including bromo, chloro, acetylamino, bis(2-methoxyethyl)amino and primary amino groups on a 2-phenylbenzotriazole skeleton. The mutagenicities of PBTA-1, its congeners and five ...
Ding W X - - 1999
The water pollution of toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) is a worldwide problem and worsens with industrialization. Microcystins are potent cyclic heptapeptidic hepatotoxins produced mainly by Microcystis aeruginosa, and their hepatotoxicity has been well-documented. In contrast, information on the genotoxic effects of microcystins is relatively scarce. In our present study, the ...
Manson M M - - 1999
The relationship between food and cancer is extremely complex. It is generally accepted that diet is a contributory factor in the aetiology of a large proportion of cancers, but with very few exceptions, we are unable to identify specific causal agents. Many food components have genotoxic potential and more are ...
Hensel A - - 1999
Because a high daily consumption of polysaccharides-containing food is assessed to decrease the risk of cancer of the gastrointestinal system, different types of carbohydrates were investigated for their antimutagenic activity against different standard mutagens. Within the screening pronounced antimutagenic effects were found for xyloglucan and different pectins and pectin-like rhamnogalacturonans ...
Bodmer S - - 1999
Biogenic amines, e.g. histamine, occur in many different foods. At high concentrations, they are risk factors for food intoxication, whereas moderate levels may lead to food intolerance. Sensitive persons, with insufficient diamine oxidase activity, suffer from numerous undesirable reactions after intake of histamine containing foods. Besides spoiled foodstuffs, especially fermented ...
Mitacek E J - - 1999
The recent case-control studies in Thailand indicate that a high incidence of liver cancer in Thailand has not been associated with common risk factors such as hepatitis B infection, aflatoxin intake and alcohol consumption. While the infestation by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) accounted for the high risk in ...
Kovács A - - 1999
A method for determining biogenic amines in food using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography has been developed. Derivatization of the amines was performed with AccQ (6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate; Waters, Milford, MA, USA) reagent. The influence of buffer composition on the separation (including pH, SDS concentration and various additives) was investigated. The separation ...
Lall S B - - 1999
The importance of nutrition in protecting the living organism against the potentially lethal effects of reactive oxygen species and toxic environmental chemicals has recently been realized. This new perspective has prompted re-evaluation of the food constituents of human diet from the point of view of their nutritional adequacy, deficiency and ...
Botting K J - - 1999
We have previously suggested that differences in cancer incidence between Polynesians (including Maoris and people from several Pacific islands) and Europeans in New Zealand may at least partially relate to differences in the species of food plants (fruits, vegetables and cereals) preferentially eaten by these groups. Twenty-five food plants that ...
Varanda E A - - 1999
The antimutagenic effect of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom, both collected in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, was assessed by the Salmonella/microsome assay upon direct- and indirect-acting mutagens. EEP had inhibitory effect (in an ascending order) on the mutagenicity power of daunomycin (TA102), benzo(a)pyrene ...
Taber L - - 1998
Arachidonic acid (AA) is an extremely important fatty acid involved in cell regulation. When provided in the diet, it is cogently incorporated in membrane phospholipids and enhances eicosanoid biosynthesis in vivo and in vitro; however, controversy exists as to the levels of AA in food and in the diet. This ...
Broadbent T A - - 1998
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) (2) is produced endogenously from naturally occurring glucosinolates contained in a wide variety of plant food substances including members of the family Cruciferae, and particularly members of the genus Brassica, whenever they are crushed or cooked. The acid environment of the gut very facilely converts it into a ...
Wheeler T L - - 1998
The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of belt grill and Open Hearth electric broiler cookery on palatability and cooking traits of longissimus steaks. The longissimus thoracis from carcasses of grain-fed steers or heifers was used. Duplicate measurements were made for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 and ...
Ashida H - - 1998
The cytotoxicity of heterocyclic amines, dietary carcinogens derived from cooked foods, to primary cultured rat hepatocytes was studied. A tryptophan pyrolysis product, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) was the most cytotoxic of 11 compounds tested. Trp-P-1 was found to induce apoptosis as measured by morphological changes in nuclear chromatin and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. ...
Skog K I - - 1998
Frying or grilling of meat and fish products may generate low ppb levels of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs). Many heterocyclic amines are formed via the Maillard reaction from creatine, free amino acids and monosaccharides; compounds naturally occurring in protein-rich foods of animal origin. The formation and yield of HAs are ...
Chung K T - - 1998
Tannins (commonly referred to as tannic acid) are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. They have been reported to be responsible for decreases in feed intake, growth rate, feed efficiency, net metabolizable energy, and protein digestibility in experimental animals. Therefore, foods rich in tannins are considered to ...
Malaveille C - - 1998
Human urine is known to contain substances that strongly inhibit bacterial mutagenicity of aromatic and heterocyclic amines in vitro. The biological relevance of these anti-mutagens was examined by comparing levels of tobacco-related DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells from smokers with the anti-mutagenic activity in corresponding 24-h urine samples. An ...
Anderson D - - 1998
The flavonoids, silymarin, myricetin, quercitin, kaempferol, rutin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside have been examined in combination with the food mutagens, 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido (4,3-b)indole (Trp-P-2) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-(4,5-f) quinoline (IQ), in the Comet assay in human lymphocytes from donor A and human sperm from donor B. These compounds alone have been shown to produce positive ...
Byrne C - - 1998
Cooking meat creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs) through pyrolysis of amino acids and creatinine. Although recognized as mutagenic, the etiological role of HCA in human cancer is unclear, due to the lack of information on the effect of typical food cooking methods on HCA concentrations and on variation in HCA exposure ...
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