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Heppner C W - - 2007
Furan is an organic, volatile compound used in various chemical-manufacturing industries. Headspace gas chromatography is the analytical method of choice for obtaining reliable results on its occurrence. The presence of furan in some food items has been known since the late 1970s, but a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ...
Ghigo Giovanni - - 2006
The viability of some nitration pathways is explored for benzene (B), naphthalene (N), and in part pyrene (P). In principle, functionalization can either take place by direct nitration (NO2 or N2O5 attack) or be initiated by more reactive species, as the nitrate and hydroxyl radicals. The direct attack of the ...
Cheng Ka-Wing - - 2006
Heterocyclic amines (HAs) occur at the ppb range in foods. Most of them demonstrate potent mutagenicity in bacteria mutagenicity test, and some of them have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as probable/possible human carcinogens. Their capability of formation even during ordinary cooking practices implies frequent ...
Hubbard Sara E - - 2007
Several new sugar glasses were investigated for their potential in solid-matrix luminescence. Both solid-matrix fluorescence (SMF) and solid-matrix phosphorescence (SMP) properties were obtained, and two heterocyclic aromatic amines were employed as model compounds. In addition to glucose glasses, which were investigated previously, fructose, ribose, xylose, galactose, maltose, and glucose with ...
Felton James S - - 2006
Cooking foods clearly has a beneficial impact for humans; the microbial content can be decreased, proteins made more digestible and the flavor and texture improved. But at the same time, amino acids, creatine and sugars, which occur naturally in meats, may be involved in reactions that generate heterocyclic amine (HA) ...
Nunes A P M - - 2007
Stevioside is a natural non-caloric sweetener extracted from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) leaves. It has been widely used in many countries, including Japan, Korea, China, Brazil and Paraguay, either as a substitute for sucrose in beverages and foods or as a household sweetener. The aim of this work was to study ...
Busquets Rosa - - 2006
Genotoxic heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed via the Maillard reaction and free radical reaction mechanisms when meat or fish is cooked at usual cooking conditions. In this paper, the effect of the addition of red wine was tested to study if it interferes in HA formation. Fried chicken breast was ...
Rungapamestry Vanessa - - 2006
In cabbage, glucosinolates such as sinigrin are hydrolyzed by plant myrosinase to allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), allyl cyanide, and, in the presence of an epithiospecifier protein, 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane (CEP). Isothiocyanates have been implicated in the cancer-protective effects of Brassica vegetables. The effect of processing on the hydrolysis of glucosinolates was investigated in ...
Ferreira Isabel M P L V O - - 2006
The presence of biogenic amines in foodstuffs is an important food safety problem because of the implication of these compounds in food intolerance and intoxication. The separation and quantification of biogenic amines in foods is normally performed by chromatographic techniques. This review contains descriptions of the quantification of biogenic amines ...
Schutte Maaike E - - 2006
The present study describes the effect of different flavonoids on the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers and the development of an in silico model describing this process taking into account passive diffusion and active transport of PhIP. Various flavonoids stimulated the apical to basolateral PhIP transport. Using ...
Pfau Wolfgang - - 2006
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) have been shown to induce tumours at various organ sites in experimental animal studies and high levels of dietary intake of HAA have been associated with increased cancer risk in humans. These HAA are formed in meat upon heating from precursors such as amino acids, reducing ...
Isbrucker R A - - 2006
Licorice (or 'liquorice') is a plant of ancient origin and steeped in history. Licorice extracts and its principle component, glycyrrhizin, have extensive use in foods, tobacco and in both traditional and herbal medicine. As a result, there is a high level of use of licorice and glycyrrhizin in the US ...
Jakszyn Paula P Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Registry, Institut Català d' Oncologia, (ICO-IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de LLobregrat (08907), Barcelona, Spain. - - 2006
To study the association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake and gastric cancer (GC), between meat and processed meat intake, GC and oesophageal cancer (OC), and between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC. In this article we reviewed all the published cohort and case-control studies from 1985-2005, and ...
O'Brien J - - 2006
The present paper examines the particular difficulties presented by low levels of food-borne DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens, some of which may be difficult to eliminate completely from the diet, and proposes a structured approach for the evaluation of such compounds. While the ALARA approach is widely applicable to all substances in ...
Ferreira Maria Izildinha - - 2007
Trad-SHM assay was used to check mutagenic potential of atmospheric contamination at Ibirapuera Park, located in São Paulo city, Brazil, and variation of risk along the year, besides determining which Tradescantia clone, BNL 4430 or KU-20, better indicates risk. Thirty pots of both clones were exposed during one-year period (September, ...
Petala M - - 2006
The objectives of this work were the assessment of the effectiveness of coagulation on the reclamation of secondary effluents and the evaluation of the quality of reclaimed waters by the examination of their ecotoxic and mutagenic properties. Aluminum coagulants resulted in higher removal of organic content, than iron coagulant, reaching ...
Masuda Shuichi - - 2006
We determined the changes in the mutagenic and estrogenic activities of 17beta-estradiol after a nitrite treatment. Nitrite-treated 17beta-estradiol showed mutagenic activities toward Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 100 and TA 98. We confirmed that nitrite-treated 17beta-estradiol generated radicals from the results of an analysis of electron spin resonance. By applying an ...
Tamme T - - 2006
The content of nitrates were determined in 1,349 samples of vegetables and ready-made food in 2003-2004 as a part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The results of manufacturers' analyses carried out for internal monitoring were included in the study. The ...
See S W - - 2006
Cooking is an important source of indoor aerosols in residential homes and buildings with non-smokers, and thus has public health implications. However, limited information is currently available in the published literature on the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols produced by gas cooking. Consequently, a comprehensive study was carried out ...
Lanzotti Virginia - - 2006
Onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.), among the oldest cultivated plants, are used both as a food and for medicinal applications. In fact, these common food plants are a rich source of several phytonutrients recognized as important elements of the Mediterranean diet, but are also used in ...
Yun Cheol-Heui - - 2006
A heterocyclic amine, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) is one of the potent food-borne dietary carcinogens derived mainly from burnt meat products. In the present study, we investigated the immunosuppressive effect of Trp-P-1 on the blastogenesis of lymphocytes prepared from spleen and thymus of Balb/c mice. Trp-P-1 inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, proliferation ...
Olson David A - - 2006
Emission rates, decay rates, and cooking durations are reported from continuous PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microm) concentrations measured using personal DataRam nephelometers (1-min time resolution) from the Research Triangle Park (RTP) PM panel study. The study (n = 37 participants) included monitoring for 7 consecutive days in each ...
Wang Zemin Z Department of Environmental Toxicology and the Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas, USA. zemin.wang@tiehh.ttu.edu - - 2006
Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC ...
Ward Mary H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Dietary nitrite has been associated with increased glioma risk; however, drinking water nitrate has not been extensively evaluated. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of adult glioma in Nebraska. Water utility nitrate measurements were linked to residential water source histories. We computed average nitrate exposure over a 20-year ...
Guadagnin S G - - 2005
The nitrate content of leafy vegetables (watercress, lettuce and arugula) produced by different agricultural systems (conventional, organic and hydroponic) was determined. The daily nitrate intake from the consumption of these crop species by the average Brazilian consumer was also estimated. Sampling was carried out between June 2001 to February 2003 ...
Zhang L - - 2005
1. Textural and rheological differences among broiler breast meat ranging from pale, soft and exudative (PSE) to dark, firm and dry (DFD) in their fresh and frozen (and thawed) forms were investigated. 2. The PSE meat showed significantly higher lightness values and lower pH and water holding capacity values than ...
Banning Maggie - - 2005
It has been estimated that 70% of all cancers are caused by the food that we consume and smoking tobacco (Wogan et al, 2004). Currently, food health advice focuses on maintaining a diet which is low in fat and calories, rather than concentrating on the cooking methods used and the ...
Pons-Sánchez-Cascado Sofía - - 2005
Volatile and biogenic amines from three batches of anchovies, marinated in vinegar, were studied. The anchovies had been vacuum-packed and kept in refrigerated storage for 3 months. Trimethylamine and total volatile basic nitrogen levels were very low and constant throughout marinating and storage process: less than 1 and 10 mg/100 ...
Reinik M - - 2005
The contents of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines in commercial cured meat products on the Estonian market were determined for 2000-01 and 2003-04 as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The maximum permitted levels of residual nitrites and nitrates were not ...
Doerge Daniel R - - 2005
Acrylamide (AA) is a widely studied industrial chemical that is neurotoxic, mutagenic to somatic and germ cells, and carcinogenic in rodents. The recent discovery of AA at ppm levels in a wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms, particularly toxicokinetics and bioavailability. ...
McMullen Sarah E - - 2005
An ion chromatographic method was developed for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in vegetable and fruit baby foods. The introduction of nitrate or nitrite to food may be natural or artificial as a preservative. Because of the higher pH found in babies' stomachs, nitrate can act as a reservoir ...
Salmon C P - - 2006
Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw sample weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked sample weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not ...
Huang Ke-Jing - - 2006
A new fluorescent probe 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,6-dicarbethoxy-8-(3',4'-diaminophenyl)-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (TMDCDABODIPY) has been developed to detect nitrite in meat products and vegetables. The fluorescence of TMDCDABODIPY is very weak, but when it reacts with nitrite, a strong fluorescent triazole forms in aqueous medium at room temperature, which offers the advantage of specificity and sensitivity for ...
Chladkova Jirina - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are investigated as a non-invasive approach to monitoring of inflammation in the respiratory tract. EBC concentrations of nitrite and nitrate, the stable end products of oxidative metabolism of nitric oxide, are increased in patients with asthma, especially during acute exacerbations. OBJECTIVES: To ...
Sinha Rashmi - - 2005
There is ample evidence from basic research and animal carcinogenicity studies that heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mutagens and carcinogens. However, there was a paucity of human data due to a lack of appropriate investigative tools. We developed the first validated cooked meat module within a ...
Kazemzadeh A - - 2005
A new, low-cost nitrite sensor was developed by immobilizing a direct indicator dye in an optical sensing film for food and environmental monitoring. This sensor was fabricated by binding gallocyanine to a cellulose acetate film that had previously been subjected to an exhaustive base hydrolysis. The membrane has good durability ...
Adams An - - 2005
Food melanoidins were isolated from bread crust, coffee, and tomato sauce and their composition was investigated by thermal degradation. Among the generated volatiles, important food flavor compounds were detected: in particular furans, carbonyl compounds, 1,3-dioxolanes, pyrroles, pyrazines, pyridines, thiophenes, and phenols. The results indicated that the isolated melanoidin fractions mainly ...
Peterson Sabrina S Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, - - 2005
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is a conjugating biotransformation enzyme that plays a role in maintaining levels of endogenous compounds (e.g., bilirubin) and handling exogenous compounds, including carcinogens. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism results in decreased UGT1A1 promoter activity due to 7 thymine-adenine (TA) repeats instead of the commonly found 6 repeats. Studies indicate ...
Jägerstad Margaretha - - 2005
Gene-environment interactions include exposure to genotoxic compounds from our diet and it is no doubt, that humans are regularly exposed to e.g. food toxicants, not least from cooked foods. This paper reviews briefly four classes of cooked food toxicants, e.g. acrylamide, heterocyclic amines, nitrosamines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Many of these ...
Behrends J M - - 2005
An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of top round steaks (semimembranosus) as influenced by USDA quality grade (top Choice or high Select), city (Chicago or Philadelphia), consumer segment (beef loyalists = heavy consumers of beef; budget rotators = cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and variety ...
Moliner-Martinez Y - - 2005
Solid support assisted derivatization coupled to diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was proposed and proved useful for the detection and quantification of aliphatic amines in water as an example. Dabsyl chloride (DBS), ninhydrin and sodium 1,2-naphtoquinone 4-sulphonate (NQS) were assayed as derivatization reagents. C(18) and SDB-XC disks and C(18) cartridges were ...
Schilter Beno?t - - 2005
Assessment of the significance to human health of ochratoxin A (OTA) in food is limited by a lack of human toxicity data. Therefore, OTA risk evaluation relies mainly on the use of animal data, with renal carcinogenicity in rat being considered as the pivotal effect. The elucidation of the mechanism ...
Wong Kin-Yoke - - 2005
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed in meat during high-temperature cooking have been associated with risk of colorectal and breast cancer. Incidence of these cancers is increasing in Singapore, a country with 77% ethnic Chinese. The purpose of this study was to estimate HAA levels in the Chinese diet and individual ...
Byrne Sandra L - - 2004
Various types of produce were fortified with chlorpyrifos and then boiled, baked, canned, or concentrated as appropriate for the type of produce. Both uncooked and cooked samples were analyzed for chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, and then, chlorpyrifos cooking factors were calculated by comparing the postcooked concentration to the uncooked concentration. The ...
Tsuchiya Koichiro - - 2004
Nitric oxide (NO) has many physiological functions. It is believed to be produced from L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and nitrite and nitrate are waste forms of it. By the way, nitrate and nitrite are abundant in vegetables and fruits, especially leafy vegetables and pickled vegetables. Orally-ingested nitrate is ...
Herraiz T - - 2004
Norharman and harman are two heterocyclic beta-carboline (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) alkaloids with biological and potential toxicological activity that appear in foodstuffs and environmental sources. To assess the occurrence and distribution of these compounds and to estimate the exposure levels based on the detected amounts, numerous samples of foodstuffs and cigarette smoke were ...
Khatoon Naveeda - - 2004
Eight whole legumes, namely Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), broad beans (Vicia faba), Cowpea (Vigna catjang), field beans (Dolichos lablab), green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb), horse gram (Dolichos biflorus), lentils (Lens esculenta) and French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), were cooked under pressure or in a microwave oven and were analysed for nutrient ...
Borgen Eva - - 2004
Accurate assessment of human intake of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) is necessary for epidemiological studies and future risk assessment. Using questionnaires, the frequency of consumption of specific dishes can be obtained at an individual level and linked to analyzed concentrations of different compounds in corresponding dishes. Some typical Swedish cooked ...
Love John L - - 2004
The Tepnel Bio Kit for the detection of beef in cooked foods was assessed to determine its validity in demonstrating if food being imported into New Zealand contains beef material. The test suffered no interference from the presence of other common nonbovine species meats accepted as food within New Zealand ...
Jakszyn Paula - - 2004
Some nitrosocompounds that are formed during food preservation, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heterocyclic amines (HA) formed during cooking, may have carcinogenic activity. An accurate assessment of dietary intake of such compounds is difficult, mainly because they are not naturally present in foods, and they are not ...
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