Search Results
Results 51 - 100 of 591
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Benford Diane - - 2010
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and a number of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mutagenic and are also carcinogenic in rodent bioassays. Oral carcinogenicity data are not available for individual PAH other than BaP, and so BaP has been used as a marker of the carcinogenicity of, and exposure to, PAHs. Carcinogenicity ...
Heres-Pulido Mar?a Eugenia - - 2010
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) has been defined as a cancer preventive food. Nevertheless, broccoli contains potentially genotoxic compounds as well. We performed the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster in treatments with organically grown broccoli (OGB) and co-treatments with the promutagen urethane (URE), the direct alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate ...
Hernández-Ramírez Raúl U - - 2009
N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are potent animal carcinogens and potential human carcinogens. The primary source of exposure for most individuals may be endogenous formation, a process that can be inhibited by dietary polyphenols. To estimate the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to the individual and combined consumption of polyphenols ...
Milkowski Andrew - - 2010
The discovery of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the 1980s represented a critical advance in understanding cardiovascular disease, and today a number of human diseases are characterized by NO insufficiency. In the interim, recent biomedical research has demonstrated that NO can be modulated by the diet independent of its ...
Carmody Rachel N - - 2009
While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent ...
Ohno Marumi - - 2009
Polyphenols have been shown to have potent antioxidant activity, and therefore, food containing polyphenols is expected to contribute to the prevention of cancer. However, food contains not only polyphenols but also various other constituents. We used the Ames test to investigate the effects of crude extracts of whole cacao products, ...
Tamme T - - 2009
The nitrate and nitrite contents were determined in canned vegetable-based infant foods of five varieties. Furthermore, changes in nitrate content during industrial processing were studied. Samples were taken from raw materials, homogenized mixtures, and final products after sterilization, and then analyzed for nitrate and nitrite content by high-pressure liquid chromatography. ...
Michaud Dominique S DS Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, United Kingdom. - - 2009
The hypothesis that nitrosamine exposure may increase the risk of glioma has been circulating for several decades, but testing it has been difficult because of the ubiquitous nature of nitrosamine exposure. Diet has been the focus of many studies because it can substantially influence nitrosamine exposure, mostly from the endogenous ...
Hord Norman G - - 2009
The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and, in infants, methemoglobinemia. Despite the physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vascular and immune function, consideration of food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components has received little attention. ...
Karaman Sule - - 2009
Analytical studies have reported that N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid (NAA) is present at low concentrations in many foods. The current studies were conducted to assess the mutagenicity of NAA using standard OECD guideline in vitro bacterial and in vivo mammalian mutagenicity studies. For comparison and control data, mutagenicity studies were also conducted ...
Salaspuro Mikko - - 2009
The key issue in cancer prevention is the identification of specific aetiologic factors. Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol oxidation, is carcinogenic in animals. ADH and ALDH2 gene mutations provide an exceptional human model to estimate the long-term effects of acetaldehyde exposure in man. These models provide strong evidence for ...
Ngoan Le Tran le - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Food change due to cooking temperature and unrecognized heat-formed chemical carcinogens may impact on the risk of stomach and colo-rectal cancers. To test this hypothesis a case-control study was performed. METHODS: A total of 670 cases of stomach and colo-rectal cancers matched with 672 hospital controls for sex and ...
Griesenbeck John S JS Department of Social and Behavioral Health, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M Health Science Center, College Station, TX, USA. - - 2009
Studies have suggested that nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines have an etiologic role in adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases such as cancer. Although an extensive body of literature exists on estimates of these compounds in foods, the extant data varies in quality, quantified estimates, and relevance. We developed estimates of ...
Busquets Rosa - - 2008
Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are potent mutagens that form at high temperatures in cooked, protein-rich food. Due to their frequent intake, these compounds are considered a risk factor for human cancer. Cooking conditions and eating habits strongly influence the level of HA exposure. Thus, it is difficult to assess the intake ...
Malinovschi Andrei - - 2009
The present study analyzed how models currently used to distinguish alveolar from bronchial contribution to exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are affected by manipulation of NO formation in the pharyngo-oral tract. Exhaled NO was measured at multiple flow rates in 15 healthy subjects in two experiments: 1) measurements at baseline and ...
Sukkasem Chontisa - - 2008
The effect of nitrate on the performance of a single chamber air cathode MFC system and the denitrification activity in the system were investigated. The maximum voltage output was not affected by 8.0mM nitrate in the medium solution at higher external resistance (270-1000Omega), but affected at lower resistance (150Omega) possibly ...
Merski Jerome A - - 2008
Spunbond, nonwoven fabrics consisting of polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate, which meet food contact requirements, may be used as pouch materials for products containing food and/or flavor ingredients that are held in the mouth. In these situations ingestion may occur, resulting in exposure to the fabric and potentially antimony, a catalyst ...
van Velzen Agnes G - - 2008
High dietary nitrate intake may pose a risk to human health. Since up to 80-85% of dietary nitrate intake comes from vegetables, the aim of this study was to determine the absolute bioavailability of nitrate from three nitrate-rich vegetables. In an open, four-way cross-over, single dose study, 12 human subjects ...
Menard C - - 2008
The aim of this study was to assess the dietary exposure of nitrate and nitrite in France. A total of 13, 657 concentration levels of nitrate and nitrite measured in food, representing 138 and 109 food items, respectively, and coming from French monitoring programmes between 2000 and 2006, were used. ...
Enomoto Makoto - - 2008
Increased air pollution, containing carcinogenic particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)), has gained particular attention in recent years as a causative factor in the increased incidence of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. Extensive carcinogenicity studies conducted recently under Good Laboratory Practice conditions by National Toxicology Program in the USA, ...
Mie Tanya - - 2008
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warm-blooded animals. In most adults, it does not cause serious illness, but severe disease may result from infection in fetuses and immunocompromised people. Consumption of raw or undercooked meats has consistently been identified as an important ...
Whittaker Paul - - 2008
Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a yellowish liquid that is usually mixed with other ingredients to produce butter flavor or other flavors in a variety of food products. Inhalation of butter flavoring vapors was first associated with clinical bronchiolitis obliterans among workers in microwave popcorn production. Recent findings have shown irreversible obstructive ...
Vishnuvardhan V - - 2008
An optical sensor was developed for sensing of nitrite based on the monotonous decrease in absorbance of Rhodamine 6G at 525 nm (the absorbance maximum of dye) with increasing concentration of nitrite. This sensor also permits naked eye detection. Various parameters like concentrations of sulphuric acid and Rhodamine 6G, response ...
Stidl Reinhard - - 2008
Aim of the present study was a comprehensive investigation of the detoxification capacities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) towards heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) formed during cooking of meat. It has been postulated that LAB prevent genotoxic and/or carcinogenic effects of HCA in laboratory rodents and humans via direct binding mechanisms. ...
Krizková Lívia - - 2008
Ofloxacin (15 microg/mL) and acridine orange (5 microg/mL) induce mutagenicity by different mechanisms in the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. The present study examined whether Pycnogenol (PYC; 5-100 microg/mL) or Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761; 5-100 microg/mL) could protect against the mutagenic effects of each of the mutagens and the potential ...
Ancín-Azpilicueta Carmen - - 2008
This review discusses those factors that have an influence on amine concentration in wine, as well as the vinification stages when these amines are formed and their evolution during the storage of the product. It also outlines the importance of these biogenic and volatile amines both in the sensorial aspect ...
Peluso Marco M Cancer Risk Factor Branch, Analytical and Biomolecular Cytology Unit, CSPO-Scientific Institute of Tuscany, Florence, - - 2008
In contrast to some extensively examined food mutagens, for example, aflatoxins, N-nitrosamines and heterocyclic amines, some other food contaminants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other aromatic compounds, have received less attention. Therefore, exploring the relationships between dietary habits and the levels of biomarkers related to exposure to aromatic ...
Mitacek Eugene J - - 2008
It is our working hypothesis that the high rate of the liver and gastric cancers in North and Northeast Thailand is associated with increased daily dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Samples of fresh and preserved Thai foods were systematically collected and analyzed from 1988 to 1996 and ...
Sullivan Kristie M - - 2008
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), compounds formed when meat is cooked at high temperatures particularly through pan frying, grilling, or barbequing, pose a potential carcinogenic risk to the public. It is unclear whether there is any level at which consumption of HCAs can be considered safe. Efforts to measure these compounds mainly ...
Takayama Shozo - - 2008
This review covers chemical carcinogenesis studies in nonhuman primates performed by the National Cancer Institute, USA, to provide hitherto unavailable information on their susceptibility to compounds producing carcinogenic effects in rodents. From autopsy records of 401 breeders and untreated controls, incidences of spontaneous malignant tumors were found to be relatively ...
Rohrmann Sabine - - 2007
It was the aim of the present study to estimate the intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) from meat, which have been associated with cancer risk in several epidemiological studies, of 21 462 subjects who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in Heidelberg. This was ...
López-Berenguer Carmen - - 2007
Cooking as a domestic processing method has a great impact on food nutrients. Most Brassica (Brassicaceae, Cruciferae) vegetables are mainly consumed after being cooked, and cooking considerably affects their health-promoting compounds (specifically, glucosinolates, phenolic compunds, minerals, and vitamin C studied here). The microwave cooking process presents controversial results in the ...
Alaejos M S - - 2008
This review covers the bibliographic data from the last 10 years on the possible carcinogenicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in humans. Aspects such as red meat intake, cooking methods applied to red meat, and doneness of cooking are discussed from an epidemiological point of view. The role in the ...
Busquets R - - 2007
Several cooked meats such as beef (fried, coated-fried), pork (fried, coated-fried), and chicken (fried, griddled, coated-fried, roasted) were analyzed for the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (4'-OH-PhIP) not commonly determined in food and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (PhIP). The highest content of 4'-OH-PhIP was found in fried and griddled chicken breast, the concentration ...
Sindelar J J - - 2007
Increasing demands for natural, organic, and/or preservative-free foods have resulted in the consumer availability of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added processed meat and poultry products. A comprehensive understanding about the quality and sensory attributes of commercially available uncured products is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if quality and sensory ...
Ward Mary H MH Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH/DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. - - 2007
Drinking water and dietary sources of nitrate and nitrite can react in vivo with amines and amides to form N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potent animal carcinogens. Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies especially in agricultural areas. We conducted a population-based case-control study of renal cell carcinoma in 1986-1989 ...
Delaney Edward J - - 2007
The recent application of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept to the regulation of pharmaceuticals in the European Union is analyzed. The derivation of TTC and the threshold of regulation that followed it were originally intended to provide makers of food contact materials greater flexibility with their products, while ...
Boback Scott M - - 2007
The cooking of food is hypothesized to have played a major role in human evolution partly by providing an increase in net energy gain. For meat, cooking compromises the structural integrity of the tissue by gelatinizing the collagen. Hence, cooked meat should take less effort to digest compared to raw ...
Cheng Ka-Wing - - 2007
The correlation between radical scavenging capacity and inhibitory activity in PhIP formation of 12 food-derived antioxidative phenolic compounds was investigated. Very poor correlation was found between their radical scavenging activity assessed by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and PhIP formation inhibition in a model system. The effects of several of ...
Carelli Donatella - - 2007
In this work is reported the development and application of an amperometric biosensor for the determination of total biogenic amines content by using the commercial diamino oxidase (DAO from Porcine kidney E.C. 1.4.3.6) as the biocomponent, entrapped by glutaraldehyde onto an electrosynthesized bilayer film. In order to minimize both the ...
Harwood M - - 2007
Quercetin is a naturally-occurring flavonol (a member of the flavonoid family of compounds) that has a long history of consumption as part of the normal human diet. Because a number of biological properties of quercetin may be beneficial to human health, interest in the addition of this flavonol to various ...
Landete José María - - 2007
Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases that can be detected in raw and processed foods. Several toxicological problems resulting from the ingestion of food containing biogenic amines have been described. Biogenic amines are mainly produced by the decarboxylation of certain amino acids by microbial action. Since the ability ...
Steck Susan E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are carcinogens formed in or on the surface of well-done meat, cooked at high temperature. METHODS: We estimated breast cancer risk in relation to intake of cooked meat in a population-based, case-control study (1508 cases and 1556 controls) conducted in Long ...
Mikstacka Renata R Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland. - - 2007
CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 are the inducible forms of cytochrome P450 expressed in extrahepatic tissues, which are responsible for the biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines and estradiol to the carcinogenic intermediates. The aim of our research was to determine and compare the inhibitory effect of naturally occurring analogues of ...
Abnet Christian C - - 2007
A large number of scientific studies and reviews have addressed the potential for dietary components to influence the risk of developing cancer. One topic of particular interest has been the impact of food contaminants. Two complementary programs, among others, have reviewed and synthesized information on the carcinogenic potential of food ...
Pahulu H F - - 2007
Certain reactions that occur in food during storage, such as nonenzymatic browning and lipid oxidation, form compounds that have been shown to be mutagenic. It is possible that over long storage periods, significant amounts of these products could be formed. Although some research has been published concerning the mutagenicity of ...
Boonsakan Paisarn - - 2007
Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma with sarcomatous transformation was first recognized in Ramathibodi Hospital in 2005. This variant of carcinoma has been increasingly reported particularly from Asian countries. Dedifferentiation of the epithelial component to various sarcomatous components is likely the underlying mechanism. The causative factors of hepatocarcinogenesis in Thailand include chronic ...
Thomson B M - - 2007
Exposure to excess nitrite is a potential health risk for humans. One hundred meat and processed foods and 100 vegetable samples purchased from New Zealand retail outlets were prepared as for consumption and analysed for nitrite and nitrate concentration using a standard, validated methodology. Nitrate concentrations ranged from less than ...
Nitta Yoko - - 2007
Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) catalyzes histamine formation from histidine. Histamine is a bioactive amine acting as a neurotransmitter as well as a chemical mediator. Phenolic food components have been tested for their ability to inhibit recombinant human HDC. Epicatechin gallate (ECG) was found to be a potent inhibitor as it inhibited ...
Katsura Yukitaka - - 2007
Mammalian cells have an activity of mutagenic repair for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ), in which DNA ends are joined via microhomologous sequences flanking the breakpoint. MMEJ has been indicated to be undertaken without Ku proteins, which are essential factors for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). On the ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >