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Summer G - - 2003
Evidence on potential health hazards arising from exposure to volatile anesthetics remains controversial. Exposure may, in principle, be supervised by monitoring of ambient air or, alternatively, in vivo. We used the Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry to screen the breath of 40 operating room staff members before operating room duty, 0, ...
Holopainen R - - 2003
Two kinds of air duct cleaning methods, mechanical brushing with different brushes and compressed air cleaning, were compared in the laboratory and in newly built buildings. The ducts were contaminated either with test dust or with dust originated from a construction site. The amount of dust on the duct surface ...
Nagda N L - - 2003
This paper presents a review and assessment of aircraft cabin air quality studies with measured levels of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs). VOC and SVOC concentrations reported for aircraft cabins are compared with those reported for residential and office buildings and for passenger compartments of other types ...
Burger Joanna - - 2003
Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to ...
Azahra M - - 2003
Near-surface air samples for assessment of seasonal 7Be levels were taken weekly at Granada, Spain, (37 degrees 10'50"N-3 degrees 35'44"W, altitude 670 m) in the period 1993-2001. The 7Be levels measured reflect strong seasonal trends. Concentrations during autumn and/or winter showed a minimum (ca. 1.5 mBq/m3), and in each year ...
Gram Frederick - - 2003
Annual concentration fields of SO2 and NOx for the period 1974-1998 are calculated for a 22 x 18 km2-grid in Oslo. In a study of lung cancer and air pollution in Oslo, 16209 men living in Oslo have been followed from 1972/73 to 1998. This paper presents a method for ...
Loppi Stefano - - 2003
The results of a biomonitoring survey carried out in the town of Pistoia (central Italy) using the biodiversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of heavy metals in thalli of Parmelia caperata as indicators of air pollution are reported. Compared to previous surveys, the overall situation generally improved, with higher ...
Quirynen Marc - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Breath odor is scored by different techniques, each with its own shortcomings. Organoleptic ratings are uncomfortable for the patient, subjective, influenced by external parameters including food and cosmetics, and especially lack international calibration. Portable sulphide monitors are relatively expensive and neglect several major malodorous molecules (e.g., butyric and propionic ...
Brugger Hermann - - 2003
Snow avalanche case reports have documented the survival of skiers apparently without permanent hypoxic sequelae, after prolonged complete burial despite there being only a small air pocket on extrication. We investigated the underlying pathophysiological changes in a prospective, randomised 2 x 2 crossover study in 12 volunteers (28 tests) breathing ...
Chen Tser-yieth - - 2003
Taiwan's implementation of the 1997 Air Pollution Emissions Fees Program will conceivably lead to long-term reductions in pollution emissions. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefits to Taiwan from the expected reduction in crop losses as a direct result of such a decrease in air pollution. We ...
Nusholtz G S - - 2003
An investigation was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of air bags as a function of velocity. The study consisted of three parts: a theoretical idealization, an analysis of National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), and a reanalysis of previously published Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data. The theoretical analysis ...
Sutton Jeffrey A - - 2003
This study quantifies the range of premixed flame conditions for which CH fluorescece diagnostics are applicable, and it shows that the CH fluorescence signal can be increased if some of the hydrocarbon fuel is replaced with hydrogen. The CH fluorescence signal is found to be adequate for fuel-air equivalence ratios ...
Talebi S M - - 2003
Airborne particulate matter was collected from the atmosphere of the city of Isfahan by a high-volume air sampler. Determination of the concentration of total chromium was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The determination of hexavalent chromium was carried out by ion chromatography following the ...
Huber Alexander M - - 2003
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Although in stapes surgery successful hearing improvement may be achieved in the majority of patients, unsatisfactory closure of the air-bone gap can be recorded. One of many reasons for unexpected failures of stapes surgery may be the insufficient crimping of a stapes prosthesis onto the incus. The objectives of ...
Nansai Keisuke - - 2003
Preparing emission inventories is essential to the assessment and management of our environment. In this study, Japanese air pollutant emissions, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions categorized by approximately 400 sectors (as classified by Japanese input-output tables in 1995) were estimated, and the contributions of each sector to the total amounts ...
Avino Pasquale - - 2003
In this paper the results of seasonal monitoring campaign for primary (benzene and carbon monoxide) and secondary (nitrogen dioxide and ozone) pollutants and for the natural radioactivity of the particulate matter in the urban area of Rome, are reported to investigate acute atmospheric pollution episodes. Comparing the daily concentration trends ...
Mitchell B W - - 2003
Commercial hatcheries typically infuse hydrogen peroxide or formaldehyde gas into hatching cabinets to reduce airborne pathogens that may lead to disease transmission during the hatch. A nonchemical option, an electrostatic space charge system (ESCS), was customized for full-sized commercial hatching cabinets and was tested extensively in broiler hatcheries. The ESCS ...
Proietti Lidia - - 2003
In these past decades an important increase in the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases has been documented in most countries of the world with large differences being reported within different areas, particularly in industrialized countries. Persistent environmental exposure to particulate air pollution from motor vehicles has been suggested to be ...
Papp Zoltán - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether chronic suppurative otitis media may cause sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: The files of 121 patients with unilateral chronic suppurative otitis media were reviewed in a retrospective study. Air conduction and bone conduction threshold averages were calculated over the speech frequencies (500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, and 2,000 ...
Diaz Marco A - - 2003
The objective of this study was to derive a simple equation to convert distances between air miles traveled by a helicopter and ground miles traveled by an ambulance. We performed a retrospective analysis of a convenience sampling of 245 "lights and sirens" ground ambulance transports between 1993 and 1997. Ground ...
Lindemann J - - 2003
The nasal cavity volume and the temperature of the nasal mucosa are considered to be the most important predictors of nasal conditioning. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intranasal degree of water vapour saturation of inhaled air and nasal patency. Intranasal humidity values at ...
Báez Armando - - 2003
Carbonyl compounds in air were measured at two houses, three museums, and two offices. All sites lacked air-conditioning systems. Although indoor and outdoor air was measured simultaneously at each site, the sites themselves were sampled in different dates. Mean concentrations were higher in indoor air. Outdoor means concentrations of acetone ...
Drysdale A E - - 2003
Life support approaches for Mars missions are evaluated using an equivalent system mass (ESM) approach, in which all significant costs are converted into mass units. The best approach, as defined by the lowest mission ESM, depends on several mission parameters, notably duration, environment and consequent infrastructure costs, and crew size, ...
Agrawal M - - 2003
Peri-urban agriculture is vital for the urban populations of many developing countries. Increases in both industrialization and urbanization, and associated air pollution threaten urban food production and its quality. Six hour mean concentrations were monitored for SO(2), NO(2) and O(3) and plant responses were measured in terms of physiological characteristics, ...
Bäckström M - - 2003
The retention of suspended solids, particles and heavy metals in different grassed swales during rain events and snowmelt is discussed. The experimental results derived from investigations performed in existing grassed swales in the Luleå region, Northern Sweden. During high pollutant loading rates, grassed swales retain significant amounts of pollutants, mainly ...
Figliola Robert S - - 2003
Because they are believed to control the microclimate of the skin by removing or reducing perspiration accumulation and providing localized cooling, low-air-loss mattress systems are used for the treatment and prevention of pressure ulcers. However, no clear, universally agreed upon definition exists for their design, and reproducible standards on which ...
Hummel H E - - 2003
Diabrotica v. virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), (in short D.v.v.), with common name western corn rootworm, is endemic to the New World. Originating in the regions from South America to Mexico where it was in biological equilibrium with its natural enemies, predators and pathogens, it moved north with its food plants. ...
Vorontsov Alexandre V - - 2002
This work explores the ability of photocatalysis to decontaminate water and air from chemical warfare agent mustard using its simulant 2-phenethyl 2-chloroethyl sulfide (PECES). PECES like mustard slowly dissolves in water with hydrolysis, forming 2-phenethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulfide (PEHES). Irradiation of TiO2 suspension containing PECES with the unfiltered light of a ...
Lindgren T - - 2002
The aim was to determine cabin air quality and in-flight exposure for cabin attendants of specific pollutants during intercontinental flights. Measurements of air humidity, temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2), respirable particles, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde were performed during 26 intercontinental flights with Boeing 767-300 with and without tobacco ...
Renström A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to rodent allergens may cause laboratory animal allergy. Personal exposure to occupational allergens is measured by collecting airborne dust on filters using person-carried pumps. This technique cannot be used to evaluate personal protective respiratory equipment. Recently developed intranasal air samplers collect inhaled particles by impaction on adhesive ...
Tripathi R M - - 2002
Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ET-AAS) has been used for the determination of Al in environmental and food samples with a detection limit of 0.3 ng ml(-1). The reliability of estimation is assessed through the analysis of Standard Reference Materials (IAEA SRMs) of Soil-7, SL-3, SD-M2/TM and Hay (V-10). The results ...
Bello D - - 2002
Results of a comparative field study on the performance of 25-mm inhalable samplers (Institute of Occupational Medicine [IOM]) and midget impingers for the collection of total isocyanates in air using the 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP) reagent are presented. Air sampling and analysis was performed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety ...
Lelieveld J - - 2002
The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce ...
Dull Peter M - - 2002
On October 12, 2001, two envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores passed through a sorting machine in a postal facility in Washington, D.C. When anthrax infection was identified in postal workers 9 days later, the facility was closed. To determine if exposure to airborne B. anthracis spores continued to occur, we ...
Grabowski Jurek G - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Geographic information systems are widely used in studies of diseases. However, their value for aviation safety research has not been adequately explored. PURPOSE: This study examined the geographic patterns of pilot fatality rates in commuter and air taxi operations. METHODS: Crash data recorded by the National Transportation Safety Board ...
Heumann E - - 2002
Powerful green upconversion lasing of Er(3+):LiLuF(4) was achieved with a multipass pumping setup. The maximum output was 213 mW for Ti:sapphire laser pumping. Diode-pumped cw lasing at room temperature is demonstrated for the first time to the authors' knowledge.
Carr David - - 2002
The investigation of potential adverse health effects of urban traffic-related air pollution is hampered by difficulties encountered with exposure assessment. Usually public measuring sites are few and thereby do not adequately describe spatial variation of pollutant levels over an urban area. In turn, individual monitoring of pollution exposure among study ...
Burge Harriet A - - 2002
Changes in climate are altering pollen distribution. Predictive modeling can be used to forecast long- and short-term changes in pollen concentrations. Increasing evidence confirms the presence of pollen allergens on small, respirable particles in the air, explaining the occurrence of pollen-season increases in asthma. Like pollens, aboveground indoor fungal aerosols ...
Kobayashi Tsuneo - - 2002
This paper investigates the concentration ratio of radon progeny (218Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi) in outdoor air. From 1988 to 1998, alpha spectroscopy was used intermittently to collect progeny data outside the author's office located in the northeastern part of Japan. Let the quantity R(EEC) represent the ratio EEC(218Po)/[EEC(214Pb) + EEC(214Bi)], ...
Kanagalingam J - - 2002
We describe the use of a common radiographic view of the lower cervical skeleton, 'Swimmer's View', to aid the diagnosis of foreign bodies in the upper oesophagus, which may be obscured by the clavicles. We further recommend this view when there is uncertainty over the nature of an impacted food ...
Essner Richard L RL - - 2002
Leaping, parachuting and gliding are the primary means by which arboreal squirrels negotiate gaps in the canopy. There are notable differences among the three locomotor modes with respect to mid-air postures and aerodynamics, yet it is unclear whether variation should also be expected during the launch phase of locomotion. To ...
Lee J H - - 2002
Stormwater runoff was monitored on 13 separate urban watersheds, which were chosen to represent distinct types of residential and industrial development, along with various watershed characteristics. A total of 38 storm events were monitored to investigate the first flush phenomenon. The first flush phenomenon may be defined as the initial ...
Dahl Richard - - 2002
Why are chemicals that have been banned for over a decade still being detected in the environment? How is it that chemicals and other pollutants such as particulate matter turn up hundreds or even thousands of miles from their sources? These are just two of the questions that a team ...
Martins Lourdes Conceição - - 2002
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of daily air pollution levels (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic profile < or = 10 microns) on morbidity by using the daily number of emergency room visits due to chronic lower respiratory ...
Baumgardner Ralph E RE - - 2002
The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) was established by the U.S. EPA in response to the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To satisfy these requirements CASTNet was designed to assess and report on geographic patterns and long-term, temporal trends in ambient air pollution and acid ...
Wolf Christof - - 2002
The study investigates the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in Cologne, Germany. First, using their addresses, all patients treated for CRS at the ENT Department of the University Hospital between 1990 and 1999 were assigned to one of the 85 city districts. Second, indicators of air ...
Hensirisak P - - 2002
A laboratory-scale microbubble dispersion (MBD) generator was shown to improve oxygen transfer to aerobic microorganisms when coupled to the conventional air-sparger. However, the process was not demonstrated on a large scale to prove its practical application. We investigated the scale-up of a spinning-disk MBD generator for the aerobic fermentation of ...
Gamisans Xavier - - 2002
The absorption of SO(2) and NH(3) from the flue gas into NaOH and H(2)SO(4) solutions, respectively has been studied using an industrial scale ejector-venturi scrubber. A statistical methodology is presented to characterise the performance of the scrubber by varying several factors such as gas pollutant concentration, air flowrate and absorbing ...
Mui Winnie W Y - - 2002
The behavior of 16 volatile compounds of banana during a combination of air-drying (AD) and vacuum microwave-drying (VMD) of banana chips was characterized. Samples were AD to remove 60, 70, 80, or 90% of moisture (wet basis) and then subjected to VMD to achieve a final moisture content of 3% ...
Baudoin Philippe - - 2002
A car with two dead bodies trapped inside was discovered in a gravel pit. The main hypothesis of investigators was a traffic accident simulation by night. Examination of a broken light-bulb revealed both a rather unusual oxidation type and small rounded cavities never reported before. Tests were performed and allowed ...
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