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Stridsklev Inger Cecilie - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in flux-cored wire (FCW) welders welding on stainless steel (SS). METHOD/DESIGN: Seven FCW welders were monitored for 3 days to 1 workweek, measuring Cr and Ni in air, blood, and urine. The welders were questioned ...
Wilson Glenn R - - 2004
The effect of rainfall on the metabolism of birds is poorly understood. We measured the metabolism as rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) of four male and four female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) using open-circuit respirometry. We measured VO2 during the spring at ambient temperatures (Ta) of 5, 10, 15, and ...
Kelly Frank J - - 2004
Air is one of our most important natural resources; however, it is also in the front line for receiving environmental pollution. Air quality decreased markedly following the industrial revolution, but it was not until the great London Smog in 1952 that air quality made it onto the political agenda. The ...
Kan Hai-Dong - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. METHODS: Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 ...
Abdel Hameed A A - - 2004
A temporary renovation activity releases considerably high concentrations of particulate matter, viable and non-viable, into air. These pollutants are a potential contributor to unacceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Particulate matter and its constituents lead, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and fungi as well as fungal spores in air were evaluated in ...
Nummela Sirpa - - 2004
The origin of whales (order Cetacea) is one of the best-documented examples of macroevolutionary change in vertebrates. As the earliest whales became obligately marine, all of their organ systems adapted to the new environment. The fossil record indicates that this evolutionary transition took less than 15 million years, and that ...
Uriarte Ibon - - 2004
The abundance and spatial distribution of mesozooplankton were compared in the euhaline region of the polluted Bilbao estuary and the unperturbed Urdaibai estuary. The environmental variables measured were salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen saturation, chlorophyll a, particulate organic matter and Secchi disk depth. Differences in the environmental variables and zooplankton between ...
Lohmann Rainer - - 2004
Air samples were taken onboard the RRS Bransfield on an Atlantic cruise from the United Kingdom to Halley, Antarctica, from October to December 1998, with the aim of establishing PCB oceanic background air concentrations and assessing their latitudinal distribution. Great care was taken to minimize pre- and post-collection contamination of ...
Wright Tim J - - 2004
Two contrasting views of the active deformation of Asia dominate the debate about how continents deform: (i) The deformation is primarily localized on major faults separating crustal blocks or (ii) deformation is distributed throughout the continental lithosphere. In the first model, western Tibet is being extruded eastward between the major ...
Kita Itsuro - - 2004
Samples of all rains in a period from October, 1998 to January, 1999 at Athens, Greece, were collected. The pH values of almost all of these rains clustered in a high range of 7.0-7.5, with no relation between pH and their SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and Cl(-) contents. In addition, a few ...
Taebi Amir - - 2004
While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a ...
Boehm Alexandria B - - 2004
Short-lived radium isotopes (223Ra and 224Ra) are used to investigate the potential association between groundwater discharge and microbial pollution at Huntington Beach, CA. We establish the tidally driven exchange of groundwater from the surficial beach aquifer across the beach face. Groundwater is found to be a source of nutrients (silica, ...
Loppi S - - 2004
The results of a biomonitoring survey carried out in the town of Montecatini Terme (central Italy) in the period 1993-2000 using the biodiversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of heavy metals in thalli of Flavoparmelia caperata as indicators of air pollution are reported. From 1993 to 2000, the mean ...
Srivastava Anjali - - 2004
An attempt has been made to determine the levels of benzene in air at different locations in Mumbai city. Levels of benzene in air have been determined by adsorbing air at a uniform flow rate on especially fabricated activated coconut charcoal cartridges followed by thermal desorption and detection on Varian ...
Luksamijarulkul Pipat - - 2004
The air quality in mass transport buses, especially air-conditioned buses may affect bus drivers who work full time. Bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166 of the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority were randomly selected to investigate for microbial air quality. Nine air-conditioned buses and 2-4 open-air ...
Mankin R W - - 2004
A microwave radar system that senses motion was tested for capability to detect hidden insects of different sizes and activity levels in stored products. In initial studies, movements of individual adults or groups of Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Attagenus unicolor (Brahm), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) were easily detected ...
Yeo Hyun-Gu - - 2004
Mean concentrations of total PCBs (gas+particle) detected in urban and rural atmospheres were 130.41+/-62.57 pg/m(3) and 39.65+/-34.04 pg/m(3), respectively. The concentration distribution of PCB homologs in the urban and rural area decreased with increasing Cl substitutions and showed significant correlation coefficients (P>0.05) with the octanol-air partition coefficient (K(OA)) and vapor ...
Kalbac Martin - - 2004
The state of doping of fullerene peapods C60@SWCNT treated with K vapor was studied by in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry. For all samples under study, a heavy chemical n doping was proved by the vanishing of the radial breathing mode and the downshift of tangential displacement mode. The K-treated peapods remain ...
Fridlind Ann M - - 2004
NASA's recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment focused on anvil cirrus clouds, an important but poorly understood element of our climate system. The data obtained included the first comprehensive measurements of aerosols and cloud particles throughout the atmospheric column during the evolution of ...
Harrad Stuart - - 2004
This study reports concentrations of BDEs 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154 in outdoor air [median sigmaPBDE (sum of BDEs 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) = 18 pg m(-3)] in air from a range of office and home indoor microenvironments (median sigmaPBDE = 762 pg m(-3)) and vegan and ...
Gadgil A S - - 2004
The concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO,) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were measured at 13 important traffic intersections in Pune city. In order to study the contribution of these pollutants from motor vehicles, attention was focused on the roadside, street-level concentration. The statistical analysis of the sampling ...
Zhu Jiping - - 2004
A modified thermal desorption method to determine low levels of aniline and other related mono-aromatic amines (MAAs) in residential air is described. The method was successfully applied to the determination of levels of these chemicals in residential air from 69 selected homes in two Canadian regions. Instrument detection limits of ...
Kokhanovsky Alexander A - - 2004
Permanent snow and ice cover great portions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. It appears in winter months in northern parts of America, Asia, and Europe. Therefore snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Also, it is a main regulator of the seasonal variation of the planetary albedo. ...
Shen Li - - 2004
Annually integrated air concentrations of alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were determined in 2000/2001 at 40 stations across North America using XAD-based passive air samplers to understand atmospheric distribution processes on a continental scale. Elevated levels of gamma-HCH in the atmosphere of the Canadian Prairies are consistent with the ongoing use ...
Nieuwenhuizen Willem F - - 2004
Bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) is a major component in whey and its physical properties are important for the texture of many dairy-based foods. Modification of proteins with transglutaminase from Streptoverticillium mobaraense (MTGase) can be used to alter their physical properties. MTGase-mediated modification of native BLG was until now, however, not effective. ...
Rydock James P - - 2004
There is continuing concern about whether and to what extent airliner cabins represent an increased risk of transmission of airborne infectious disease. The purpose of this study was to examine through a simple experiment the relative importance of close proximity and partial recirculation of cabin air on the potential risk ...
du Toit D F - - 2004
Choking on aspirated food or a foreign body (i.e. meat, mushroom, coin, chewing gum and a balloon) is a common cause of laryngeal obstruction, particularly in those persons who are intoxicated by alcohol or who have bulbar palsy (degeneration of motor neurons in the brain stem nuclei of the glossopharyngeal ...
Shibao Harunobu - - 2004
Tuberaphis styraci is a social aphid that produces 2nd instar soldiers with morphological, behavioral and reproductive division. High aphid density was shown to induce soldier production in T. styraci, although direct cue of soldier induction associated with high density has been unknown. In order to identify the proximate environmental cue ...
Cho Min S - - 2004
A composite material of a silica-based mesoporous molecular sieve, MCM-41, with conducting polyaniline (PANI) inside the uniformly aligned one-dimensional channels (PANI/MCM-41) was prepared and its nanocomposite formation was confirmed through an electrical conductivity measurement. This nanocomposite particle was adopted for a dispersed phase in electrorheological (ER) fluids, and the ER ...
Sundqvist Kristina L - - 2004
Concentrations and air-water gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in nine paired air and water samples. The samples were collected monthly in the Kattegat Sea between December 1998 and November 1999. Average fugacity and flux values indicated that PCBs were oversaturated in the water, while ...
Gunschera Jan - - 2004
GOAL, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND: Complaints by residents of frame-houses about musty odour in the houses has become an increasing problem within the last years. An additional problem is that the odour is transferred to clothes and skin. The persons themselves do not recognize the smell after a while because of ...
Memarzadeh Farhad - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to compare environmental conditions and mice in cages with four different mechanical ventilation designs and a static isolator cage. Environmental conditions (air velocity, temperature, relative humidity, bedding weight change, airborne dust, NH3, and CO2) were compared for each cage type (n = 5 per ...
Nnadi Fidelia N - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various treatment processes as they relate to the development of disinfection by-products (DBPs). At an existing municipal water supply, several tests were performed, including: air-stripping, potassium permanganate (KMnO4) addition, pH adjustment, evaluation of corrosion control inhibitors, final disinfection, and ...
Yoshida Tsutomu - - 2004
Toluene concentrations in exhaled air of workers using thinner at work place and glue sniffers were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Toluene concentrations in exhaled air of workers were significantly lower than those of glue sniffers. This suggests that a worker does not inhale as much thinner as a sniffer ...
Nishio Clarice - - 2004
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional force between orthodontic brackets and archwires. The differences in magnitude of the frictional forces generated by ceramic brackets, ceramic brackets with metal reinforced slot, and stainless steel brackets in combination with stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium orthodontic archwires were investigated. ...
Sakai Kiyoshi - - 2004
Indoor and outdoor concentrations of formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and selected chlorinated volatile organic compounds (chlorinated VOC) were measured in 37 urban dwellings in Nagoya, Japan, and 27 urban dwellings in Uppsala, Sweden, using the same sampling procedures and analytical methods. Indoor as well as outdoor air concentrations of ...
Milan Fábio Machado - - 2004
The relationship between the application of die-spacer prior to wax pattern fabrication and metal removal from the inner surface of the casting on marginal and internal discrepancies of complete cast crowns was evaluated. One hundred and twenty complete crowns were cast with palladium-silver alloy melted by gas-oxygen torch or electrical ...
Nilsson Göran E - - 2004
Coral reef fishes are not known for their hypoxia tolerance. The coral-dwelling goby, Gobiodon histrio, rarely leaves the shelter of its host coral colony. However, our measurements indicate that this habitat could become hypoxic on calm nights ([O(2)] minima=2-30% of air saturation) due to respiration by the coral and associated ...
Zelinski J - - 2004
The application of air protection methods and technologies involves considerable investment and maintenance costs. Thus, to reduce overall expenditures an economic calculation of air pollution control, should be applied. This problem is connected in special way with areas of great population of inhabitants with spatially uneven density, where energetic, technological ...
Brown Stephen K - - 2004
Pollutant emissions from unflued gas heaters were assessed in CSIRO's Room Dynamic Environmental Chamber. This paper describes the chamber assessment procedure and presents findings for major commercial heaters that are nominally "low-emission". The chamber was operated at controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, ventilation and air mixing, representative of those encountered ...
Bylaite Egle - - 2003
The effects of pectin and viscosity on the release of a systematic series of aldehydes (alkanals, methyl-alkanals, alkenals, and alkandienals) were studied in a food model system of low sucrose content (10% w/w). The viscosity was varied by adding different amounts of Ca(2+) (0, 13.5, and 27 mg/g pectin) to ...
Egeghy P P - - 2003
AIMS: To estimate exposures to benzene and naphthalene among military personnel working with jet fuel (JP-8) and to determine whether naphthalene might serve as a surrogate for JP-8 in studies of health effects. METHODS: Benzene and naphthalene were measured in air and breath of 326 personnel in the US Air ...
Jo Wan-Kuen - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate residential exposure to selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) relative to the proximity of the Daegu dyeing industrial complex (DDIC). METHODS: A series of surveys was conducted to measure the concentrations of five aromatic VOCs (toluene, benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, and o-xylene) and methyl ...
Whicker Jeffrey J - - 2003
Alarming continuous air monitors (CAMs) are a critical component for worker protection in facilities that handle large amounts of hazardous materials. In nuclear facilities, continuous air monitors alarm when levels of airborne radioactive materials exceed alarm thresholds, thus prompting workers to exit the room to reduce inhalation exposures. To maintain ...
Yap Adrian U J - - 2003
This study determined the influence of curing lights and modes on composite resistance to chemical degradation by various food-simulating liquids. Two different types of curing light (Halogen [H]-Elipar Trilight, 3M-ESPE; LED [L]-Freelight, 3M-ESPE) and two curing modes (standard [S]; exponential [E) were evaluated in the study. Forty-five composite (Z100 [3M-ESPE]) ...
Wedmore Ian S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Intubation is a difficult skill under normal circumstances and more so with a limited visual field such as wearing a protective mask in a chemical or biological incident. This study sought to determine whether successful intubation using the intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) under protective mask conditions was equivalent ...
den Aantrekker Esther D - - 2003
Recontamination of food products can cause foodborne illnesses or spoilage of foods. It is therefore useful to quantify this recontamination so that it can be incorporated in microbiological risk assessments (MRA). This paper describes a first attempt to quantify one of the recontamination routes: via the air. Data on the ...
Beck Christopher M - - 2003
In response to community concerns, the air quality impact of imploding a 22-story building in east Baltimore, MD, was studied. Time- and space-resolved concentrations of indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) (nominally 0.5-10 microm) were measured using a portable nephelometer at seven and four locations, respectively. PM10 levels varied in ...
Ward Juliette N - - 2003
Foraminiferal ecology at sewage outfalls has been investigated in numerous field studies over the last 30 years. Foraminifera have been frequently used as biomonitors of sewage pollution since they are both abundant and ubiquitous. Sewage outfalls have been demonstrated to have both positive and negative effects on adjacent foraminiferal populations, ...
Summer G - - 2003
Evidence on potential health hazards arising from exposure to volatile anesthetics remains controversial. Exposure may, in principle, be supervised by monitoring of ambient air or, alternatively, in vivo. We used the Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry to screen the breath of 40 operating room staff members before operating room duty, 0, ...
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