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Schwab Christine - - 2012
Other-regarding preferences are a critical feature of human cooperation but to what extent non-human animals exhibit these preferences is a matter of intense discussion. We tested whether jackdaws show prosocial behaviour (providing benefits to others at no cost to themselves) and altruism (providing benefits to others while incurring costs) with ...
Jessop Tim S - - 2012
Humans are increasingly subsidizing and altering natural food webs via changes to nutrient cycling and productivity. Where human trophic subsidies are concentrated and persistent within natural environments, their consumption could have complex consequences for wild animals through altering habitat preferences, phenotypes and fitness attributes that influence population dynamics. Human trophic ...
Oh Tae Jung - - 2012
Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, ...
Maille Audrey - - 2012
Although gestural communication is widespread in primates, few studies focused on the cognitive processes underlying gestures produced by monkeys. The present study asked whether red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) trained to produce visually based requesting gestures modify their gestural behavior in response to human's attentional states. The experimenter held a food ...
Weihe Pál - - 2012
For centuries the pilot whale has been an important part Faroese life--both in regard to food and culture. However, studies dating back to 1977 have shown an increase in contamination of the meat, blubber, liver and kidneys of pilot whales. Several birth cohorts have been established in the Faroes in ...
Jordán Ferenc - - 2012
Realistically parameterized and dynamically simulated food-webs are useful tool to explore the importance of the functional diversity of ecosystems, and in particular relations between the dynamics of species and the whole community. We present a stochastic dynamical food web simulation for the Kelian River (Borneo). The food web was constructed ...
Wascher Claudia A F - - 2012
The ability to control an immediate impulse in return for a more desirable - though delayed - outcome has long been thought to be a uniquely human feature. However, studies on non-human primates revealed that some species are capable of enduring delays in order to get food of higher quality ...
Omeiza Gabriel K - - 2012
The authors assessed the occurrence of chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in commercial eggs. Of the 105 farmers surveyed for the use of CAP, 35 (33.3%) and 70 (66.7%) responded regarding their awareness or complete lack of awareness of the legislation that stipulates the use of CAP in food animals, including poultry, ...
De Silva Akila A Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, - - 2012
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided the opportunity to safely investigate the workings of the human brain. This paper focuses on its use in the field of human appetitive behaviour and its impact in obesity research. In the present absence of any safe or effective centrally acting appetite suppressants, ...
Nguyen Lien T H - - 2011
The amphipod Hyalella azteca was exposed for 28d to different combinations of Zn contaminated sediment and food. Sediment exposure (+clean food) resulted in increased Zn body burdens, increased mortality and decreased body mass when the molar concentrations of simultaneously extracted Zn were greater than the molar concentration of Acid Volatile ...
Kerstetter Kerry A - - 2011
Men and women express sexually dimorphic patterns of cocaine abuse, such that women progress faster from initially trying cocaine to becoming dependent upon the drug and display a greater incidence of relapse. Sex differences in response to cocaine are also seen in the laboratory in both humans and animal models. ...
Starkl Philipp - - 2011
Previous studies have indicated that specific molecular properties of proteins may determine their allergenicity. Allergen interaction with epithelia as the first contact site could be decisive for a resulting immune response. We investigate here for the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 whether thermal processing results in structural changes which ...
Beltcheva Michaela - - 2011
Zeolites, especially clinoptilolites, have wide application in removing heavy metals from different solutions and wastewater. The detoxification capacity of the clinoptilolite sorbent KLS-10-MA, a modified natural Bulgarian zeolite, applied as a food supplement in conditions of an ecotoxicological experiment with conventional food and lead was demonstrated for the first time. ...
Sauer Ursula G - - 2011
Nanomaterials are increasingly being added to food handling and packaging materials, or directly, to human food and animal feed. To ensure the safety of such engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), in May 2011, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a guidance document on Risk assessment of the application of nanoscience and ...
Al-Rmalli S W - - 2012
Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is associated with various diseases and high levels of Cd have been detected in Bangladeshi population warranting further research to identify the source of this exposure. In this study, Cd levels in 327 and 94 samples of Bangladeshi food and non-food samples, respectively, were determined ...
Fröhlich Eleonore - - 2012
Presently, many consumer products contain nano-sized materials (NMs) to improve material properties, product quality and ease of use. NMs in food additives and in cosmetic articles (e.g., tooth paste) may be taken up by the oral route. As adverse effects of environmental nanoparticles, like ultrafine particles, have been reported, consumers ...
C Medeiros Vinci Raquel - - 2011
Benzene may occur in foods due to the oxidative decarboxylation of benzoate in the presence of hydroxyl radicals. This study investigated factors influencing benzene formation in liquid model systems. The type of buffer, other sources of hydroxyl radical formation in food (photo oxidation of riboflavin and lipid oxidation), transition metal ...
Sumner Seirian - - 2011
SOCIAL FORAGING IN HUMANS HAS A DEEP EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY: early hominids searched for dispersed food sources in a patchy, uncertain environment. A fundamental assumption is that social foragers benefit by exchanging information about food sources, in order to make collective decisions based on pooled information. We conducted the first experimental ...
Copat Chiara - - 2012
Cadmium, lead, mercury and chromium concentrations in fish muscle tissue taken from various Sicilian areas were detected. Fish caught in Siracusa, nearby a petrochemical industrial area, were more contaminated by cadmium, lead and chromium (respectively 0.366, 0.32, 0.72 μg/g) than those from the other sites. In the Sicily Channel, we found ...
Pandey Richa - - 2011
Pot culture experiments were conducted to study dietary intake of heavy metals via vegetables, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) grown under the influence of atmospheric deposition and wastewater irrigation. The results indicated substantial accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables, which contribute significantly ...
Höss Sebastian - - 2011
Benthic organisms ingest dissolved and particle-bound contaminants together with their food, whereas it is not clear which fraction of the ingested suspension causes the toxic effects. In the standard toxicity test using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the organisms are fed with bacteria that bind contaminants, thus influencing the bioavailability of ...
Vlahović Milena - - 2011
Many biochemical, physiological and histological criteria have been used as indicators of exposures and effects of the contaminants. These changes can indicate the response of an organism to a specific environmental stressor. In the present paper, the effect of the acute and chronic exposure to cadmium as well as recovery ...
Cain Daniel - - 2011
Consumption of periphyton is a potentially important route of metal exposure to benthic invertebrate grazers. The present study examined the bioaccumulation kinetics of dissolved and dietary Cd and Cu in five species of mayflies (class Insecta). Artificial stream water and benthic diatoms were separately labeled with enriched stable metal isotopes ...
Cardoso C - - 2011
The intake of methyl-mercury (methyl-Hg) through the consumption of three common cephalopod species, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), squid (Loligo vulgaris) and octopus (Octopus vulgaris), in Portugal as well as the associated probability of exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were estimated by combining methyl-Hg contamination levels in these three cephalopods ...
Woodburn Katie - - 2011
The accumulation and toxicity of aluminium in freshwater organisms have primarily been examined following aqueous exposure. This study investigated the uptake, excretion and toxicity of aluminium when presented as aluminium-contaminated food. Adult Pacifastacus leniusculus were fed control (3μg aluminium/g) or aluminium-spiked pellets (420μg aluminium/g) over 28 days. Half the crayfish ...
Moon Hyo-Bang - - 2011
Reports on the occurrence and intake assessment of mercury for Korean seafood are currently not available. This is the first report to estimate the intake of methyl (Me-Hg) and total mercury (T-Hg) from seafood consumption in Korea. The concentrations of Me-Hg and T-Hg in seafood ranged from 1.02 to 780 ...
Maulvault Ana Luísa - - 2011
Regular consumption of seafood has been widely recommended by authorities. Yet, some species accumulate high levels of contaminants like Hg, Cd and As. In addition, the risks associated to the consumption of such seafood may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentration of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. ...
Kaushal Pankaj - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To identify the most commonly aspirated airway foreign bodies (FBs) and identify opportunities for intervention. METHODS: Literature was searched and pertinent articles from 1968 to 2010 (n=58; 14 articles were from the United States and 41 international) were reviewed. A list of the most commonly retrieved FBs resulted from ...
Görür Filiz Korkmaz - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Rize in Turkey was contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A comprehensive study was planned and carried out to determine the radioactivity levels and heavy metal concentrations in four food categories collected in Rize in 2008, 2009 and 2010. RESULTS: Tomato showed the highest concentration of (238) U, ...
Sevillano Morales J S - - 2011
The presence of heavy metals in big game meat may pose a risk to human health. The main objective of this paper is to carry out a risk assessment study (using a probabilistic and point-estimate approach) of lead intake by consumption of red deer and wild boar meat in Southern ...
Beltrami D - - 2011
An integrated approach based on the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of metal particles in foods was devised and validated. Different raw materials and food products, like wheat, durum wheat, wheat flour, semolina, cookies, and pasta ...
He Mei - - 2011
Bioaccessibility refers to the maximum bioavailability of pollutant ingested with food, and its measurements can lead to a more accurate risk assessment as compared to the measurements of total concentrations of pollutant in food. This study examined the factors affecting the bioaccessibility of methylmercury (MeHg) in nine species of marine ...
Black J L - - 2011
Background:  Coeliac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the population in the UK and is managed by the life-long adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Adhering to a GFD is practically difficult and not only affects dietary patterns, but also can affect many other aspects of daily life. The ...
Song Min - - 2011
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the incidence, predictive factors, and interventional management of food impaction after expandable metallic stent placement in patients with obstruction of the esophagus or upper gastrointestinal tract caused by benign or malignant disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 1993 and March 2010, 1,360 patients (1,029 men, 331 ...
Brunault Paul - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Although laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are coexisting first-choice restrictive procedures for bariatric surgery candidates, it is possible, given their different modes of action, that these procedures have different effects on quality of life (QOL). We hypothesized that improvement of QOL and comfort with ...
Zivkovic Angela M - - 2011
Human milk oligosaccharides are complex sugars that function as selective growth substrates for specific beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal system. Bovine milk is a potentially excellent source of commercially viable analogs of these unique molecules. However, bovine milk has a much lower concentration of these oligosaccharides than human milk, and ...
Reddy Kasa R N - - 2011
Malaysian population widely consumes the cereal-based foods, oilseeds, nuts, and spices in their daily diet. Mycotoxigenic fungi are well known to invade food products under storage conditions and produce mycotoxins that have threat to human and animal health. Therefore, determining toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) in foods used for ...
Chappell Mark G - - 2011
Minimizing the pain or discomfort of research animals through refinement of surgical techniques is inherent in the humane use of animals in investigative studies. The current approach for intraperitoneal implantation of radiotelemetry devices in mice is a ventral midline incision. An optional surgical approach is a flank incision. We used ...
Ochner Christopher N CN New York Obesity Research Center, St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY, - - 2011
To investigate changes in neural activation and desire to eat in response to appetitive cues from pre- to postbariatric surgery for obesity. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure. However, the mechanisms of action in RYGB are not well understood. A significant proportion of the resulting reduction ...
Novais Patrícia Fátima Sousa - - 2011
The anatomical and physiological changes of the gastrointestinal tract after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass lead to changes in dietary patterns and their effects are still little known. Hence, the objective of this work was to characterize the prevalence, the associated factors and the list of food aversions with the effect of ...
Kurpiewska Joanna - - 2011
Occupational skin disorders, in particular inflammations, dryness and erythema, in 80% of cases affect the skin of hands. The most frequent diagnosis, in over 90% of cases of occupational skin diseases, points to an irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. Our aim was to study the prevalence of self-reported skin symptoms ...
Jan F Akbar - - 2011
Heavy metals were analyzed in different foods crops, milk, meat and blood samples collected from different age group subjects such as children (1-12 years), adolescent (12-18 years), adults (18-45 years) and old age (above 45 and 55 years for males and females, respectively) from polluted and relatively less polluted areas. ...
Welfinger-Smith Gretchen - - 2011
Marine mammals (bowhead whale, walrus, and various seals) constitute the major component of the diet of the Yupik people of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. St. Lawrence Island residents have higher serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) than in the general U.S. population. In order to determine potential sources, traditional food ...
Valadez-Vega Carmen - - 2011
Recent studies have shown that handcrafted glass-clay containers are a health risk because they can be contaminated by heavy metals, which can be transferred to food, thus reaching the human body to potentially cause illness. Therefore, in the present work, we evaluate the leaching of lead, cadmium, and cobalt from ...
Talba Tahirou - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to assess the in vivo ability of glucosaminic acid-cobalt (II) chelate to reduce glycemia. Different concentrations of chelate solution were administrated to mice with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Daily oral administration of chelate solution 0.4 mL at various concentrations (0.32-0.4 g/mL) led to reduction ...
Kussmann Martin - - 2011
Comprehensive investigation of nutritional health effects at the molecular level requires the understanding of the interplay between three genomes, the food, the gut microbial, and the human host genome. Food genomes are researched for discovery and exploitation of macro- and micronutrients as well as specific bioactives, with those genes coding ...
Ou Chun-Quan - - 2012
Background Both diet and air pollution are associated with mortality risks. However, no epidemiological study has examined the potential interaction between diet and air pollution on mortality. We assessed their interaction on an additive scale. Methods We analysed the data on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants (PM(10), NO(2), SO(2) ...
Gulati Kavita - - 2010
Environmental pollutants have a significant impact on the ecosystem and disrupt balance between environment, human and non-human components that result in deleterious effects to all forms of life. Identifying environmental factors for potential imbalance are extremely crucial for devising strategies for combating such toxic dysregulation. Automobile exhaust (in air), heavy ...
Goh S M - - 2010
In this study, the effect on taste due to the addition of air bubbles to a water-based gel was investigated. The gel phase contained either sucrose to give a sweet taste or sodium chloride to give a salty taste. For the sweet gels, taste intensities were evaluated for samples with ...
Shusterman Dennis - - 2009
Olfaction and nasal trigeminal chemoreception together convey an impression of the physical and chemical qualities of inspired air. "Nasal pungency" refers to the nasal trigeminal impact of inhaled air pollutants as well as spicy foods and selected medicaments. Such diverse sensations as cooling, numbness, tingling, itching, burning, and stinging are ...
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