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Gómez Diego - - 2012
A number of techniques exist for microbiological sampling of food processing environments in food industries. In the present study the efficacies of nine sampling procedures for the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from food contact surfaces, including a new sampling device consisting of a miniroller, were evaluated and compared. A stainless ...
Reslan Summar - - 2012
Behavioral economic theory is a useful framework for analyzing factors influencing choice, but the majority of human behavioral economic research has focused on drug choice. The behavioral economic choice paradigm may also be valuable for understanding food-maintained behavior. Our primary objective was two-fold: 1. Validate a human laboratory model of ...
Moro Sabrina - - 2012
Furan is formed in a variety of heat-treated foods through thermal degradation of natural food constituents. Relatively high levels of furan contamination are found in ground roasted coffee, instant coffee, and processed baby foods. European exposure estimates suggest that mean dietary exposure to furan may be as high as 1.23 ...
Di Giannatale Elisabetta - - 2012
Aims:  To provide an epidemiologic interpretation of a suspected outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Berta strains isolated from humans and from the leftovers of the implicated foods (cream, dairy-based desserts and eggs). Methods and Results: We have correlated the similarity between the strains through ...
Tuohy Kieran M - - 2012
Whole plant foods, including fruit, vegetables and whole grain cereals, protect against chronic human diseases like heart disease and cancer, with fiber and polyphenols thought to contribute significantly. These bioactive food components interact with the gut microbiota, with gut bacteria modifying polyphenol bioavailability and activity, and fiber constituting the main ...
- - 2012
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "S6 Addendum to Preclinical Safety Evaluation of Biotechnology-Derived Pharmaceuticals'' (S6 addendum). The S6 addendum was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). ...
Perogamvros Lampros - - 2012
Research in animal models has implicated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) in the control of food intake. Until now, these findings have been not replicated in humans. Here we describe a 22-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and no prior neurological or psychiatric history. Her clinical course was marked by successive eating ...
Gopinath Smita - - 2012
Host-to-host transmission in most Salmonella serovars occurs primarily via the fecal-oral route. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a human host-adapted pathogen and some S. Typhi patients become asymptomatic carriers. These individuals excrete large numbers of the bacteria in their feces and transmit the pathogen by contaminating water or food sources. ...
Liu Yunbao - - 2012
Although leaves of Curcuma mangga and Curcuma longa are used in food preparations, the bioactive components in it are not known. In this study, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities of leave extracts and its isolates were investigated using established bioassay procedures in our laboratory. The leaf extracts of both plants ...
Barzegari Abolfazl - - 2012
It is now well known that genetic and environmental factors affect the intestinal microbiome in an individual's lifetime and thus, different individuals possess different intestinal microbiomes and microbial metabolomes. The intestinal microbiome has been shown to differ among individuals from the same sex, between sexes and between individuals of different ...
Prieto Pedro Antonio - - 2012
During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human ...
Mokhtari W - - 2012
Aims:  the present study was designed to isolate Shigella spp. strains from food and stool samples by a combination of PCR and culture methods and characterize their serotypes, antibiotic resistance profiles, virulence genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns to investigate possible clonal relationships among strains circulating. Methods and Results:  Six ...
Medeiros Vinci Raquel - - 2012
Benzene is a volatile organic compound known to be carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) and may be present in food. In the present study, 455 food samples from the Belgian market were analyzed for benzene contents and some possible sources of its occurrence in the foodstuffs were evaluated. Benzene was ...
Aidara-Kane A - - 2012
The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and food-producing animals has important consequences for human and animal health, as it can lead to the development of resistant bacteria (pathogens and/or commensals with resistance genes). Moreover, resistant bacteria in animals can be transferred to people--usually through the consumption of food, but ...
Wooldridge M - - 2012
The concern over antibiotic-resistant bacteria producing human infections that are difficult to treat has led to a proliferation of studies in recent years investigating resistance in livestock, food products, the environment and people, as well as in the mechanisms of transfer of the genetic elements of resistance between bacteria, and ...
Sindelar Jeffrey J - - 2012
Nitrate and nitrite are part of the human diet as nutrients in many vegetables and part of food preservation systems. In the 1950s and 1960s the potential for formation of nitrosamines in food was discovered and it ignited a debate about the safety of ingested nitrite which ultimately focused on ...
Dorne J L C M - - 2012
Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to ...
Elser James J - - 2012
Phosphorus is a chemical element that is essential to life because of its role in numerous key molecules, including DNA and RNA; indeed, organisms require large amounts of P to grow rapidly. However, the supply of P from the environment is often limiting to production, including to crops. Thus, large ...
Kringelbach Morten L ML Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK. - - 2012
Food ensures our survival and is a potential source of pleasure and general well-being. In order to survive, the human brain is required to optimize the resource allocation such that rewards are pursued when relevant. This means that food intake follows a similar cyclical time course to other rewards with ...
Chen Xiaomin - - 2012
Food safety is of extreme importance to human health. Vanillin and ethyl vanillin are the widely used food additives and spices in foods, beverages, cosmetics and drugs. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the impact of vanillin and ethyl vanillin on the activities of CYP2C9, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, ...
Hensgens M P M - - 2012
Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) are traditionally seen in elderly and hospitalized patients who have used antibiotic therapy. In the community, CDIs requiring a visit to a general practitioner are increasingly occurring among young and relatively healthy individuals without known predisposing factors. C. difficile is also found as ...
Yeomans Martin R MR School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK. - - 2012
One widely cited model of how humans acquire liking for different foods is flavour-nutrient learning, where associations between the orosensory properties of the ingested food or drink (the flavour CS) and positive consequences of nutrient ingestion (the UCS) lead to acquired liking for the flavour (flavour-nutrient hedonic learning: FNL-H). Likewise, ...
Green Benedict T - - 2012
Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco ...
Collignon Peter J - - 2012
Infectious diseases expert Peter Collignon supports tight control over food-production practices.
Khan M A MA Department of Biological Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber-Pukhthoonkhwa, - - 2012
The European and American house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, have a huge impact upon human health worldwide due to being the most important indoor trigger of atopic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Preceding studies have shown that the behavioural response of house dust mites ...
Wilcox Stephen B - - 2012
This article discusses the implications of the new Food and Drug Administration's draft guidance on human factors and usability engineering for the development of diabetes-related devices. Important considerations include the challenge of identifying users, when the user population is so dramatically broad, and the challenge of identifying use environments when ...
Vinhal Costa Orsine J - - 2012
The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus), known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ...
Lima A D L - - 2012
Mushrooms have been used as components of human diet and many ancient documents written in oriental countries have already described the medicinal properties of fungal species. Some mushrooms are known because of their nutritional and therapeutical properties and all over the world some species are known because of their toxicity ...
Ottaviani Javier I - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Accumulating data show a causal role for flavanols in the mediation of cardiovascular benefits associated with the consumption of flavanol- and procyanidin-containing foods. Evidence for a direct causal role for procyanidins in this context is far less profound due to the poor absorption of procyanidins. However, it has been ...
Hennig Bernhard - - 2012
The paradigm of human risk assessment includes many variables that must be viewed collectively in order to improve human health and prevent chronic disease. The pathology of chronic diseases is complex, however, and may be influenced by exposure to environmental pollutants, a sedentary lifestyle, and poor dietary habits. Much of ...
Jakovcevic Adriana - - 2012
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are especially skillful in communicating with humans, and they rely on special abilities to do that. One of these skills involves gazing at human faces in cases of uncertainty or when seeking for something out of reach. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between dogs' ...
Nevo Eviatar - - 2012
Climate change is a major environmental stress threatening biodiversity and human civilization. The best hope to secure staple food for humans and animal feed by future crop improvement depends on wild progenitors. We examined 10 wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Koern.) populations and 10 wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch) ...
Aziz Abdul - - 2012
  Glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) are naturally occurring toxic compounds in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) that cause acute intoxication in humans after their consumption. Present research was conducted to evaluate α-chaconine, α-solanine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGAs) contents in the peel and flesh portions by high-performance liquid chromatography method in ...
Bhullar Navreet K - - 2012
Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread, especially in poor populations across the globe where daily caloric intake is confined mainly to staple cereals. Rice, which is a staple food for over half of the world's population, is low in bioavailable micronutrients required for the daily diet. Improvements of the plant-based diets are ...
Mondo Kiyo - - 2012
Sharks are among the most threatened groups of marine species. Populations are declining globally to support the growing demand for shark fin soup. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate toxins that may pose health risks to consumers of shark products. The feeding habits of sharks are varied, including fish, mammals, crustaceans ...
Fitzpatrick Teresa B - - 2012
The term vitamin describes a small group of organic compounds that are absolutely required in the human diet. Although for the most part, dependency criteria are met in developed countries through balanced diets, this is not the case for the five billion people in developing countries who depend predominantly on ...
Power Michael L - - 2012
In the distant past obesity in humans was rare and likely caused by metabolic dysregulation due to genetic or disease-related pathology. External factors precluded the ability of most people to overeat or under exert. Socio-cultural obesity came about due to the rareness of obesity and its difficulty to achieve. What ...
Caloni F - - 2012
From 2000 to 2010, the Poison Control Centre of Milan (CAV), in collaboration with the University of Milan, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Sciences and Technologies for Food Safety, Toxicology Section, collected epidemiological information related to animal poisoning and classified it in an organised and computerised data bank. ...
Khani Soghra - - 2012
Probiotics are live microbial food supplements or their components, which have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Probiotics can be bacteria, molds, or yeasts, but most of them fall into the group known as lactic acid bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented ...
Shakerian A - - 2012
The aim of this study was to investigate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) content of several commercially available brands of rice grains (Oryza sativa) in central Iran. A total of 67 samples of the most widely consumed brands of rice grains were purchased from local bazaar markets in Shahrekord, ...
Komoroske Lisa M - - 2012
San Diego Bay is an anthropogenically impacted waterway that is also a critical habitat for many sensitive species such as the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas). In this study, we quantified trace metal concentrations in sediment and organisms composing the green sea turtle diet, and identified bioaccumulation patterns for a ...
Minh Ngo Duc - - 2012
This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n=132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n=130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from ...
Dufour Virginie - - 2012
Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes. ...
Gori L - - 2012
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mature fruit (commonly known as seeds) and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence ...
McCorriston Joy - - 2012
At the cusp of food production, Near Eastern societies adopted new territorial practices, including archaeologically visible sedentism and nonsedentary social defenses more challenging to identify archaeologically. New archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence for Arabia's earliest-known sacrifices points to territorial maintenance in arid highland southern Yemen. Here sedentism was not an option ...
Clouard C - - 2012
The establishment of food preferences and aversions determines the modulation of eating behaviour and the optimization of food intake. These phenomena rely on the learning and memory abilities of the organism and depend on different psychobiological mechanisms such as associative conditionings and sociocultural influences. After summarizing the various behavioural and ...
Mišurcová Ladislava - - 2012
The interest in functional food, both freshwater and marine algal products with their possible promotional health effects, increases also in regions where algae are considered as rather exotic food. Increased attention about algae as an abundant source of many nutrients and dietary fiber from the nutrition point of view, as ...
Valenzuela Luciano O - - 2012
Although the globalization of food production is often assumed to result in a homogenization of consumption patterns with a convergence towards a Western style diet, the resources used to make global food products may still be locally produced (glocalization). Stable isotope ratios of human hair can quantify the extent to ...
Kirchhofer Katharina C - - 2012
Chimpanzees routinely follow the gaze of humans to outside targets. However, in most studies using object choice they fail to use communicative gestures (e.g. pointing) to find hidden food. Chimpanzees' failure to do this may be due to several difficulties with this paradigm. They may, for example, misinterpret the gesture ...
Sobral Daniel - - 2012
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, a relevant pathogen in veterinary medicine, and a major cause of food poisoning. Epidemiological investigation tools are needed to establish surveillance of S. aureus strains in humans, animals and food. In this study, we investigated 145 S. aureus isolates recovered from various animal ...
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