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Stock T H - - 1985
A survey of indoor air quality under warm weather conditions, in a variety of Houston area residences not selected in response to occupant complaints, revealed a distribution of indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranging from less than 0.008 ppm to 0.29 ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 0.07 ppm. Approximately 15% of ...
Kozicki M - - 1985
A total of 688 out of 2240 air charter passengers in flight to Kenya, West Africa or Sri Lanka/Maldives volunteered to participate in a follow-up study investigating the influence of various food and beverage items on the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea. Within the first three days of their stay abroad, ...
Borland C - - 1985
It is recognized that hyperventilation of cold air and the inhalation of fine mists of distilled water provoke significant bronchoconstriction in the asthmatic individual, yet little is known as to how these provocations affect the structural integrity of the alveolar epithelial membrane. In 11 normal subjects, the following effects have ...
Eckenhoff R G - - 1985
Seventy-seven subjects were decompressed from air or nitrogen-oxygen (nitrox) saturation exposures at 18.3 to 40.2 meters sea water (msw) [60 to 132 feet sea water (fsw)] using four different decompression schedules. A h schedule for decompression from an air saturation-excursion profile at 18.3 msw (60 fsw) resulted in pain-only decompression ...
Bergman B R - - 1985
Fallout of bacteria and contamination at the wound site were studied during a standardized orthopaedic operation using sedimentation plates and a bacterial sampler. The procedure was performed in either a conventionally ventilated operating theatre or in an ultraclean air enclosure. The staff was dressed in either an all-cotton system (working ...
Mutti A - - 1984
Lung uptake and excretion of n-hexane were studied in ten workers in a shoe factory. Simultaneous samples of inhaled and alveolar air were collected with the aid of a Rhan-Otis valve, personal samplers, and charcoal tubes. Alveolar excretion was monitored during a six hour postexposure period. Uptake was calculated from ...
Murphy B P - - 1984
Small air bubbles unavoidably included in the fluid of the inflatable penile prosthesis will expand upon exposure to increased altitude. Three prostheses with predetermined amounts of air underwent decompressions in an altitude chamber. The device was able to contain the expanded air bubbles with no extravasation of fluid or air ...
Wallace L A - - 1984
A pilot study to test methods of estimating personal exposures to toxic substances and corresponding body burdens was carried out between July and December 1980. Individual exposures to about a dozen volatile organic compounds in air and drinking water were measured for nine volunteers in Bayonne and Elizabeth, New Jersey, ...
Chadha T S - - 1984
Bronchoconstriction, measured by spirometry and body plethysmography, has been reported with deep breaths of air and of aerosolized buffered saline (ABS) (0.5% sodium chloride and phosphate buffer), in some stable asthmatics. To investigate the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we measured airway resistance (Raw) and functional residual capacity (FRC) in ten ...
Feder M E - - 1984
Air-breathing tadpoles of Xenopus laevis (Amphibia: Anura) use buccopharyngeal surfaces for both gas exchange and capture of food particles in the water. In dense food suspensions, tadpoles decrease ventilation of the buccopharynx and increase air breathing. The lung ventilatory frequency is elevated even though the rate of oxygen consumption is ...
Otson R - - 1984
A grab sampling technique utilizing evacuated glass sampling bulbs was evaluated and was found suitable for the simultaneous determination of propane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and petroleum distillates which would be generated into air during the use of fabric protectors.
Davies R - - 1983
The cytotoxicity of various ball-milled UICC amosite samples toward mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro was examined. On increased ball milling, the cytotoxicity of the amosite samples fell. This decreased biological activity seemed to correlate best with number of fibers longer than 4 micron/micrograms dust, rather than total number of fibers ...
Nero A V - - 1983
To elucidate any connection between high radon concentrations and low-infiltration houses, we have concurrently measured the 222Rn concentration and the infiltration rate in U.S. houses. Three housing surveys have been undertaken: one in "energy-efficient" houses located throughout the U.S. and two in "conventional" houses in the San Francisco area and ...
Kostalas H - - 1982
The feasibility for the development of a portable radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence unit, able to detect Pb in air samples, was studied. The unit employs a 0.6-mCi 109Cd source and a Xe-filled proportional detector. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 15 micrograms of lead per cubic metre ...
Mensah G A - - 1982
Sixteen unanesthetized adult White Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) were exposed to an aerosol of 99mTc-labeled submicrometric particles and killed 0, 1, 12, or 36 h later. The amount and distribution of radioactive particles retained in the lungs and skeletal system were measured to describe regional deposition and clearance. Particles were ...
Javalgekar R R - - 1982
The aspect of preventive medicine is mainly based upon the intake of competed food stuffs. Ayurveda is the pioneer system to give due place to this branch. The author discusses in this paper the human dietetics from tho view point of physical and social hygiene by deeply thinking of surrounding ...
Hughes W T - - 1982
Axenic rats maintained in germfree isolators were found to be free of Pneumocystis carinii after three months of immunosuppression with dexamethasone. This P. carinii-free rat model was used to identify the mode of acquisition of P. carinii from the natural environment. Germfree were exposed in selective manner to potential sources ...
Hobo S - - 1982
The amount of vertical height distortion of porcelain cusps and fossae during glazing was investigated, and the following conclusions can be drawn. 1. Vertical height loss was minimized by using opaque cones to support cuspal porcelain. 2. The amount of vertical distortion was less after the second glaze than the ...
Hambraeus A - - 1982
The contamination of linen and air in a bed centre, supply station and ward were compared, as well as the contamination of gowns used by the staff working in the 'clean' and the 'dirty' rooms of the bed-centre. The contamination of linen and air was low and there was no ...
Laing D G - - 1982
Factors which govern the optimum perception of odours have not yet been defined. This has hindered the development of standard methods and instruments for measuring olfactory responses. As an initial step towards defining these conditions, inhalation rates and volumes, number of sniffs, and sniff duration were measured for twenty-three humans ...
Scott R C - - 1982
An Evaporimeter and a ventilated chamber technique have been compared in their ability to measure transepidermal water loss (TEWL) through rat skin. These techniques measure TEWL under very different conditions; the Evaporimeter measures the net TEWL under ambient relative humidity (RH) whereas the ventilated chamber employs a constant atmosphere, usually ...
Bolin H R - - 1982
Solar driers that are currently being investigated for drying of agricultural products can be divided into two major divisions, depending upon how they transfer the incident solar energy to the product to be dried. These two divisions are direct and indirect drying, with some work also being done on combination ...
Pääkkö P - - 1981
To evaluate the patterns of chronic interstitial and granulomatous inflammation, scars and lymphangitis carcinomatosa in radiographs of excised air-inflated lungs at autopsy, the distribution of these findings in 89 lungs was determined histologically on 441 sections sampled systematically. Pathologic-radiologic correlations were studied on the basis of 29 sections from 18 ...
Allander C - - 1981
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is used in high concentrations in inhalation anaesthesia and can serve as a tracer of other, more potent anaesthetic agents polluting the air of operating theatres. It has the quality of absorbing infra-red light with a characteristic peak of 4.5 micrometer in the absorption spectrum. N2O in ...
Toshniwal R - - 1981
Hamsters treated with vancomycin developed enterocolitis significantly more often in a conventional animal room than in a room designed to prevent cross-infection with Clostridium difficile. In the conventional room C. difficile was isolated from cages, food racks, floors, buckets, the hands of caretakers, and the stools of animals with enterocolitis ...
Ginsberg I A - - 1981
Audiometric findings of 2405 stapedectomized individuals were subjected to computer analysis. Results are reported in yearly intervals for six years postoperatively. Air and bone conduction thresholds were significantly improved and showed excellent stability over the period of investigation. The high success rate and sustained improvement affirms the use of the ...
Boettner E A - - 1980
Thermal degradation products of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) food-wrap films were studied under simulated supermarket conditons using a commercial wrapping machine with either a hot wire or a cool rod cutting device. A sampling hood was constructed around the wire/rod to confine and allow collection of thermal degradation products produced. Compounds ...
Keeler R F - - 1980
The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of bitter and sweet Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus, Lupinus mutabilis, Lupinus polyphyllus, and Lupinus perennis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. No anagyrine was detected in any of the samples. The GC peak in some of the samples which ...
Hatch D J - - 1980
A scavening dish is described which removes large volumes of contaminated air. It can be placed close to the open-tailed bag of the paediatric T piece to provide a safe, convenient and efficient scavenger without any modification of the patient circuit. Measurements before and after installation have shown it to ...
Amyot D - - 1980
At approximately seven minutes to midnight on Saturday, November 10, 1979, a Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) train travelling from Windsor to Scarborough, Ontario, was derailed in an industrial area in the centre of Mississauga in Peel County (near Toronto). The accident was attributed to an overheated axle bearing on a ...
Maggi E - - 1979
The authors present the results of several years' work in the field of food pollution. The research, which has been carried out on food products of animal origin marketed in the north of Italy, has established that the degree of contamination by heavy metals (mercury, chromium and lead) and organochlorine ...
Fraser D W - - 1979
Pontiac fever affected ten men who had cleaned a steam turbine condenser with compressed air. Previous epidemics of Pontiac fever and Legionnaires' disease--both caused by Legionella Pneumophila (proposed sp. nov.)--involved "airborne spread" from air-conditioning cooling towers or evaporative condensers. Aerosols of contaminated water in heat-rejection systems appear to be important ...
Bryan G W - - 1979
Bioaccumulation of pollutants can occur from sea water, from suspended particles, from sediments and through food chains. The rate at which accumulation occurs in an organism depends not only on the availability of the pollutant but also on a whole range of biological, chemical and environmental factors. The ultimate level ...
di Prampero P E - - 1979
Tractional resistance (RT, N) was determined by towing two cyclists on a racing bike in "fully dropped" posture in calm air on a flat track at constant speed (5--16.5 m/s). RT increased with the air velocity (v, m/s): RT = 3.2 + 0.19 V2. The constant 3.2 N is interpreted ...
Ravera O - - 1979
The effects of pollution at population level are considered in relation to demographic characteristics and overall to the birthrate. The direct and indirect effects of pollution on community structure is discussed. The influence of pollution may vary according to the food-chain structure; (as a consequence, the hazard 'ceteris paribus' will ...
Thaete L G - - 1979
A new technique is presented which significantly reduced the occurrence of artefacts by eliminating the air-stain interface when staining thin sections of biological material. It is designed for simultaneous treatment of large numbers of samples. The experiment described deals mainly with the specific staining problems encountered when using grids coated ...
Sebastien P - - 1979
Asbestos contamination of the outside aid in Paris and suburbs has been monitored in some environmental situations, namely, "typical" urban sites removed from known sources of asbestos emissions, crossroad locations, the vicinity of a freeway, areas with buildings under construction, and areas around asbestos factories. In the same manner, measurements ...
Horton D J - - 1979
The effect of breathing warm humidified air upon bronchoconstriction induced with body cooling or inhalation of methacholine was studied in two groups of eight asthmatic subjects. One group had the body cooled using one-minute exposures, first to a cold shower at 15 degrees C and then to a current of ...
Burge H P - - 1978
The possible role of fungi as allergic contaminants in book collections has been investigated in eleven University of Michigan Libraries. Air in the stacks of each of the eleven libraries was sampled on three occasions (2 or 4--10 minute samples on each occasion) with Andersen Volumetric viable particle samplers. Books ...
Austin J C - - 1978
Environmental chambers provide a convenient means of studying the toxicology of gases in experimental animals. The specialised equipment needed for these studies is not commercially available. This paper reports on the design, construction and performance of a simple, and inexpensive, inhalation chamber and gas mixing unit for air pollution studies ...
Kagamimori S - - 1978
An investigation of the effects of air pollution on vegetation and human health was conducted in a low-degree air-polluted Japanese rural area. The validity of the criteria, which were expressed as Bi-band ratios (R/B, R/G) in leaves of Japanese cedars based on infrared air photography, has been proved worthwhile for ...
Rake B W - - 1978
A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), ...
Hirsch D J - - 1978
We have studied the effect of residential central air conditioning on indoor spore counts. The air of 6 pairs of homes (air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned) was sampled volumetrically 4 times daily for 3 consecutive days at 2-hr intervals in the kitchens, bedrooms, and basements with an Anderson sampler. Nearly simultaneous samples ...
Morita S - - 1978
The dichroism was measured in films of air-dried and, consequently, flattened chromatophores of Chromatium vinosum, Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The values (deltaA/A) of dichroism in C. vinosum were found to be -1.05 at 590 nm and 0.75 in the near infrared region. The values of dichroism in R. sphaeroides ...
Marple V A - - 1978
A dust generator has been developed to produce dry dust from powderous materials for instrument calibration and laboratory studies. The powder is fed at a constant rate via a chain conveyor into a fluidized bed where the particles are deagglomerated and aerosolized. The powder feed rate is raviable from 1.2 ...
Robinson J S - - 1977
All halothane vaporizers tested for leakage when turned off, leaked significant amounts of halothane and this may represent a hazard to patients liable to develop halothane hepatitis or malignant hyperpyrexia. The hazard from leaking vaporizers may be reduced considerably by the use of well-designed bypass units. Circuit contamination by halothane ...
Anderson E F - - 1977
Intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV), as described in the literature, utilizes an air-oxygen blender and a compressed air source. When older ventilators are used and in locations in which compressed air sources are unavailable, other arrangements must be made if IMV is to be used. An arrangement is described in which ...
Rohl A N - - 1977
Crushed serpentinite quarried in Montgomery County, Maryland, has been extensively used for paving roads and other surfaces. The mineral assemblage includes antigorite or lizardite as well as chrysotile and tremolite. Air samples taken in the vicinity of serpentine-paved roads show that chrysotile concentrations are about 10(3) times greater than those ...
Susskind H - - 1977
The total-body retention of 127Xe, and its variation with time following short, nonequilibrium periods of inhalation, were measured in vivo so as to refine dosimetry calculations. Radioactivity in the chest region and in the recirculating xenon-air mixture was measured continuously during re-breathing of the gas mixture and in the first ...
Wingate C L - - 1977
Accurate bolus is needed for extension of Bragg-peak therapy. Proton beam-stopping profiles in a lucite-styrofoam-tissue phantom and in a Rando phantom were recorded photographically. Air volumes caused the largest distortions. Lucite bolus was cut to achieve desired beam-stopping profiles. Verification of bolus effect in situ will be important to control ...
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