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Atiya Ali M - - 2013
Polyamine intake from milk is considered essential for post-natal maturation of the immune system and small intestine. The present study aimed to determine polyamine content in human milk after preterm delivery and the association with mothers' dietary intake. In comparison, the polyamine levels were compared with those in term breast ...
Petrick Jay S - - 2013
Gene expression can be modulated in plants to produce desired traits through agricultural biotechnology. Currently, biotechnology-derived crops are compared to their conventional counterparts, with safety assessments conducted on the genetic modification and the intended and unintended differences. This review proposes that this comparative safety assessment paradigm is appropriate for plants ...
Heinemann Jack A - - 2013
Changing the nature, kind and quantity of particular regulatory-RNA molecules through genetic engineering can create biosafety risks. While some genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are intended to produce new regulatory-RNA molecules, these may also arise in other GMOs not intended to express them. To characterise, assess and then mitigate the potential ...
Livezey Kristin - - 2013
Listeria and Salmonella detection assays for food and environmental surfaces that target ribosomal RNA (rRNA) have been developed. The large number of rRNA molecules in bacteria enabled the development of molecular assays that use enrichment times as short as 12 hours for Salmonella and 24 hours for Listeria. These assays ...
Girard Maryline - - 2013
Abstract Four nucleic acid extraction methods were evaluated for the purpose of quantifying a norovirus surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV-1]) concentrated from different food samples. Simple (strawberries and lettuce) and complex (sliced turkey breast, soft-shell clams, and potato salad) food matrices were inoculated with a viral suspension containing high (4×10(5) PFU) ...
Soda Kuniyasu - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of dietary polyamines toward preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Age-standardized mortality rates as well as other relevant information regarding individuals with CVD were gathered from the World Health Organization and the International Monetary Fund in 48 different European and other Western ...
Yoshida Tadashi - - 2012
Angiotensin II (Ang II), which is elevated in many chronic disease states such as end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure, induces cachexia and skeletal muscle wasting by increasing muscle protein breakdown and reducing food intake. Neurohormonal mechanisms that mediate Ang II-induced appetite suppression are unknown. Consequently, we examined the ...
Nakano-Tateno Tae - - 2011
The effects of centrally administered Angiotensin II (Ang II) on water and food intake in rodent models are well known. However, most studies have focused on the acute effects of intracranial Ang II. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular Ang II on food and water intake ...
Srinivasu P D N - - 2011
Necessity to understand the role of additional food as a tool in biological control programs is being increasingly felt, particularly due to its eco-friendly nature. A thorough mathematical analysis in this direction revealed the vital role of quality and quantity of the additional food in the controllability of the predator-prey ...
de Kloet Annette D - - 2011
Considerable evidence implicates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the regulation of energy balance. To evaluate the role of the RAS in the central nervous system regulation of energy balance, we used osmotic minipumps to chronically administer angiotensin II (Ang II; icv; 0.7 ng/min for 24 days) to adult male Long-Evans ...
- - 2011
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the eyelid thermal pulsation system into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.
Ghourab Samar - - 2011
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28 amino acid peptide expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. VIP and the VIP receptor VPAC(2)R are expressed in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. VIP has been shown to be involved in the regulation of energy balance in ...
- - 2011
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) system into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying this device type into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of these devices.
Mietlicki Elizabeth G - - 2011
Ghrelin is a gut peptide that has been studied extensively for its role in food intake and energy balance. More recent studies show that ghrelin reduces water intake in rats and some non-mammalian species. Despite the importance of the regulation of NaCl intake in body fluid homeostasis, the effects of ...
- - 2011
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the focused ultrasound stimulator system for aesthetic use into class II (special controls). The special control(s) that will apply to the device is the guidance document entitled "Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use." The Agency ...
Sallam Hanaa S - - 2011
Obesity is one of the most prevalent health problems in the United States. Current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity are unsatisfactory. We hypothesized the use of colon electrical stimulation (CES) to treat obesity by inhibiting upper gastrointestinal motility. In this preliminary study, we aimed at studying the effects ...
Mills S - - 2011
There is an increased desire for sophisticated foods, whereby consumers harbor higher expectations of health-promoting benefits above basic nutrition. Moreover, there is a move from the adulteration of foods with chemical preservatives toward biopreservation. Such expectations have led scientists to identify novel approaches to satisfy both demands, which utilize bacteriocin ...
Arbuckle K - - 2010
Snakes are increasingly kept by private hobbyists and their numbers in the pet trade are increasing. Since suitable diets are essential for the health, welfare and maintenance of captive animals, objective research is required to improve and evaluate current feeding practices. Unfortunately, the husbandry of reptiles is frequently led by ...
O'Gorman Eoin J - - 2011
Functionally unique species contribute to the functional diversity of natural systems, often enhancing ecosystem functioning. An abundance of weakly interacting species increases stability in natural systems, suggesting that loss of weakly linked species may reduce stability. Any link between the functional uniqueness of a species and the strength of its ...
Branch Trevor A - - 2010
Biodiversity indicators provide a vital window on the state of the planet, guiding policy development and management. The most widely adopted marine indicator is mean trophic level (MTL) from catches, intended to detect shifts from high-trophic-level predators to low-trophic-level invertebrates and plankton-feeders. This indicator underpins reported trends in human impacts, ...
Hawlena Dror - - 2010
We present a framework to explain how prey stress responses to predation can resolve context dependency in ecosystem properties and functions such as food chain length, secondary production, elemental stoichiometry, and cycling. We first describe the major nonspecific physiological stress mechanisms and their ecologically relevant consequences. We next synthesize the ...
Choy Emily S - - 2010
At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with ∑PCB ...
Krebs Charles J - - 2011
Two population oscillations dominate terrestrial community dynamics in northern Canada. In the boreal forest, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) fluctuates in cycles with an 8-10 year periodicity and in tundra regions lemmings typically fluctuate in cycles with a 3-4 year periodicity. I review 60 years of research that has uncovered ...
Madin Elizabeth M P - - 2010
Fishing has clear direct effects on harvested species, but its cascading, indirect effects are less well understood. Fishing disproportionately removes larger, predatory fishes from marine food webs. Most studies of the consequent indirect effects focus on density-mediated interactions where predator removal alternately drives increases and decreases in abundances of successively ...
Lavoie Raphael A - - 2010
Even at low concentrations in the environment, mercury has the potential to biomagnify in food chains and reaches levels of concern in apex predators. The aim of this study was to relate the transfer of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a Gulf of St. Lawrence food web to ...
Hoekman David - - 2011
The relative importance of resources (bottom-up forces) and natural enemies (top-down forces) for regulating food web dynamics has been debated, and both forces have been found to be critical for determining food web structure. How the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up forces varies between sites with different abiotic conditions ...
Guimerà R - - 2010
The response of an ecosystem to perturbations is mediated by both antagonistic and facilitative interactions between species. It is thought that a community's resilience depends crucially on the food web--the network of trophic interactions--and on the food web's degree of compartmentalization. Despite its ecological importance, compartmentalization and the mechanisms that ...
van den Brink Nico W - - 2011
We demonstrate that pelagic Antarctic seabirds show significant decreases in concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants. Trends in Adélie penguins and Southern fulmars fit in a general pattern revealed by a broad literature review. Downward trends are also visible in pelagic fish, contrasting sharply with steady or increasing concentrations in ...
Pörtner H O - - 2010
Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect individual organisms during all life stages, thereby affecting populations of a species, communities and the functioning of ecosystems. These effects of climate change can be direct, through changing water temperatures and associated phenologies, the lengths and frequency of hypoxia events, through ongoing ocean ...
Roth B M - - 2010
A process-based simulation model was used to examine the nature and intensity of food-web interactions that allow Osmerus mordax to dominate invaded lakes. The model simulates food-web interactions among linked populations of O. mordax, Coregonus artedi and Sander vitreus. Simulations indicated that O. mordax dominate where: (1) adult O. mordax ...
Haukås Marianne - - 2010
The present study reports diastereomer-specific accumulation of HBCD from a point source in five marine species representing a typical food web in a Norwegian coastal area. Samples of mussels, polychaetes, crabs and seabird eggs were analyzed for the diastereomers α-, β- and γ-HBCD, as well as lipid content and stable ...
Matich Philip - - 2011
1. Apex predators are often assumed to be dietary generalists and, by feeding on prey from multiple basal nutrient sources, serve to couple discrete food webs. But there is increasing evidence that individual level dietary specialization may be common in many species, and this has not been investigated for many marine ...
Liu Wei-chung - - 2010
Due to the structural complexity of nature, it is not always easy to identify topologically importance species in an ecosystem. In the past decade, several studies in ecology have developed methods for measuring species importance basing on direct and indirect inter-specific interactions. Here, by extending a previously developed methodology, we ...
Tack Ayco J M - - 2011
1. Shared enemies may link the dynamics of their prey. Recently, quantitative food webs have been used to infer that herbivorous insect species attacked by the same major parasitoid species will affect each other negatively through apparent competition. Nonetheless, theoretical work predicts several alternative outcomes, including positive effects. 2. In this paper, ...
Suzuki Kenta - - 2010
Population dynamics can reflect the body mass distribution of species because there is an allometric relationship between the average body mass of species and its metabolic timescale. Since predators are generally larger than their prey, a hierarchical structure from fast timescales to slow timescales can be a general structure in ...
Rohr Rudolf Philippe - - 2010
Several stochastic models have tried to capture the architecture of food webs. This approach is interesting, but it is limited by the fact that different assumptions can yield similar results. To overcome this limitation, we develop a purely statistical approach. Body size in terms of an optimal ratio between prey ...
Fauchald Per - - 2010
Removal of large predatory fishes from marine ecosystems has resulted in persistent ecosystem shifts, with collapsed predator populations and super-abundant prey populations. One explanation for these shifts is reversals of predator-prey roles that generate internal feedbacks in the ecosystems. Pelagic forage fish are often predators and competitors to the young ...
Wilson Erin E - - 2010
The difficulty of directly observing predatory events hinders a complete understanding of how predation structures food webs. Indirect approaches such as PCR-based and isotopic analyses clarify patterns of resource consumption but fail to distinguish predation from scavenging. Given that facultative scavenging is a ubiquitous and phylogenetically widespread foraging strategy, an ...
Shakya Sulochana - - 2010
Action thresholds are traditionally based on the density of pests and the economic damage they cause to crops. Pest damage assessments are usually made in a "sterile" environment, devoid of extenuating factors such as predators, parasitoids, and alternative food sources. Recently, the effects of a predator or parasitoid species have ...
Pangallo Kristin C - - 2010
Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are putative marine natural products that accumulate in marine mammal blubber in similar concentrations and patterns to biomagnifying organic pollutants. Here we measure concentrations of MBPs and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) in 40 samples composed of eight fish species, two squid species, and six species of marine mammals. To ...
Kirmani Sahar N - - 2010
Foraging herbivores must satisfy their nutrient requirements in a world of toxic plants while also avoiding predators. Plant toxins and perceived predation risk at food patches should both reduce patch residency time, but the relative strengths of these factors on feeding decisions has rarely been quantified. Using an arboreal generalist ...
Utne-Palm Anne C - - 2010
Since the collapse of the pelagic fisheries off southwest Africa in the late 1960s, jellyfish biomass has increased and the structure of the Benguelan fish community has shifted, making the bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus) the new predominant prey species. Despite increased predation pressure and a harsh environment, the gobies are ...
Seymour Justin R - - 2010
Phytoplankton-produced dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) provides underwater and atmospheric foraging cues for several species of marine invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals. However, its role in the chemical ecology of marine planktonic microbes is largely unknown, and there is evidence for contradictory functions. By using microfluidics and image analysis of swimming behavior, we ...
Wu Jiang-Ping - - 2010
Several currently used non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are examined in the components of a freshwater food web from an electronic waste recycling site, South China. All these BFRs are detectable in ...
Petchey Owen L - - 2010
Few models concern how environmental variables such as temperature affect community structure. Here, we develop a model of how temperature affects food web connectance, a powerful driver of population dynamics and community structure. We use the Arrhenius equation to add temperature dependence of foraging traits to an existing model of ...
Woodward Guy - - 2010
Fresh waters are particularly vulnerable to climate change because (i) many species within these fragmented habitats have limited abilities to disperse as the environment changes; (ii) water temperature and availability are climate-dependent; and (iii) many systems are already exposed to numerous anthropogenic stressors. Most climate change studies to date have ...
Sarmento Hugo - - 2010
Previsions of a warmer ocean as a consequence of climatic change point to a 2-6 degrees C temperature rise during this century in surface oceanic waters. Heterotrophic bacteria occupy the central position of the marine microbial food web, and their metabolic activity and interactions with other compartments within the web ...
Bengtson Nash Susan - - 2010
In order to investigate the extent to which Perfluorinated Contaminants (PFCs) have permeated the Southern Ocean food web to date, a range of Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and Antarctic-migratory biota were analysed for key ionic PFCs. Based upon the geographical distribution pattern and ecology of biota with detectable vs. non-detectable PFC burdens, ...
Romero Gustavo Q - - 2010
1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction. 2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna ...
Schofield Oscar - - 2010
Climate change will alter marine ecosystems; however, the complexity of the food webs, combined with chronic undersampling, constrains efforts to predict their future and to optimally manage and protect marine resources. Sustained observations at the West Antarctic Peninsula show that in this region, rapid environmental change has coincided with shifts ...
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