Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1066
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Guidetti Paolo - - 2007
Indirect effects of predators in the classic trophic cascade theory involve the effects of basal species (e.g. primary producers) mediated by predation upon strongly interactive consumers (e.g. grazers). The diversity and density of predators, and the way in which they interact, determine whether and how the effects of different predators ...
Nowlin Weston H - - 2007
Periodical cicadas emerge from below ground every 13 or 17 years in North American forests, with individual broods representing the synchronous movement of trillions of individuals across geographic regions. Due to predator satiation, most individuals escape predation, die, and become deposited as detritus. Some of this emergent biomass falls into ...
Albrecht Matthias - - 2007
1. We studied the community and food-web structure of trap-nesting insects in restored meadows and at increasing distances within intensively managed grassland at 13 sites in Switzerland to test if declining species diversity correlates with declining interaction diversity and changes in food-web structure. 2. We analysed 49 quantitative food webs ...
Kristan William B WB - - 2007
Subsidized predators may affect prey abundance, distribution, and demography. Common Ravens (Corvus corax) are anthropogenically subsidized throughout their range and, in the Mojave Desert, have increased in number dramatically over the last 3-4 decades. Human-provided food resources are thought to be important drivers of raven population growth, but human developments ...
Bartrons Mireia - - 2007
The role of insect larvae and pupae as sources of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in freshwater food webs for high predators such as fish is evaluated. Trichoptera and diptera have been taken as organisms of choice for such comparison because they are common in benthic aquatic habitats ...
Woodley Michael A - - 2007
In this manuscript, after a brief review of the history of typological thinking in the biological sciences from Transcendentalism to Structuralism, it is argued that natural Platonic laws may operate in ecosystems. This claim is based on two observations of law-like behaviour. Firstly, that adaptation towards specialization can be considered ...
Capellán E - - 2007
1. To gain insight into the evolution of compensatory growth, we studied the growth patterns of anuran (Rana temporaria) larvae following either a period of exogenous growth depression (food restriction) or a period of endogenous depression (exposure to predators). We also investigated the potential deferred costs that larval compensatory growth ...
Vasseur David A - - 2007
Natural food webs are species-rich, but classical theory suggests that they should be unstable and extinction-prone. Asynchronous fluctuations in the densities of competing consumers can stabilize food web dynamics in constant environments. However, environmental fluctuations often synchronize dynamics in nature. Using the same 'diamond-shape' food web model first used to ...
Stouffer Daniel B - - 2007
Food webs aim to provide a thorough representation of the trophic interactions found in an ecosystem. The complexity of empirical food webs, however, is leading many ecologists to focus dynamic ecosystem studies on smaller microcosm or mesocosm studies based upon community modules, which comprise three to five species and the ...
Kimbrell Tristan - - 2007
Theoretical work on intraguild predation suggests that if a top predator and an intermediate predator share prey, the system will be stable only if the intermediate predator is better at exploiting the prey, and the top predator gains significantly from consuming the intermediate predator. In mammalian carnivore systems, however, there ...
Bell G - - 2007
The trophic relationships of an ecological community were represented by digital individuals consuming resources or prey within a simulated ecosystem and producing offspring that may differ from their parents. When individuals meet, a few simple rules are used to decide the outcome of their interaction. Trophically complex systems persist for ...
Daugherty Matthew P - - 2007
Documenting trophic links in a food web has traditionally required complex exclusion experiments coupled with extraordinarily labor-intensive direct observations of predator foraging. Newer techniques such as stable isotope analysis (SIA) may facilitate relatively quick and accurate assessments of consumer feeding behavior. Ratios of N and C isotopes are thought to ...
Krumme U - - 2007
Stomach contents were examined from 102 banded puffer, Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae), caught from intertidal mangrove creeks at diurnal neap tides between June and September, 1997 (early dry season) near Bragança (north Brazil). The study found that C. psittacus were specialized predators of Cirripedia (Balanus spp.) and Brachyuran crabs (Uca spp., ...
Rocha C F D - - 2007
We studied in fieldwork, the feeding ecology of a Hemidactylus mabouia population from southeastern Brazil throughout one year in a region with marked climatic seasonality. A sampling of availability of arthropods in the environment was carried out, which evidenced that the availability of food resources influenced the composition of the ...
Julius Matthew L - - 2007
Estrogenic compounds have been discovered in many surface water samples in many anthropogenically altered surface waters. Wastewater effluent has been identified as a major pathway of contamination and found to revert much of the metabolic products of these biologically active compounds back to their original form. This presentation explains methodology ...
Meysman Filip J R - - 2007
Because ecosystems fit so nicely the framework of a "dissipative system", a better integration of thermodynamic and ecological perspectives could benefit the quantitative analysis of ecosystems. One obstacle is that traditional food web models are solely based upon the principles of mass and energy conservation, while the theory of non-equilibrium ...
Wirsing Aaron J - - 2007
Predators can influence plants indirectly by altering spatial patterns of herbivory, so studies assessing the relationship between perceived predation risk and habitat use by herbivores may improve our understanding of community organization. In marine systems, the effects of predation danger on space use by large herbivores have received little attention, ...
Kondoh Michio - - 2007
The mechanism for maintaining complex food webs has been a central issue in ecology because theory often predicts that complexity (higher the species richness, more the interactions) destabilizes food webs. Although it has been proposed that prey anti-predator defence may affect the stability of prey-predator dynamics, such studies assumed a ...
Van Geest G J - - 2007
A dramatic increase in the breeding population of geese has occurred over the past few decades at Svalbard. This may strongly impact the fragile ecosystems of the Arctic tundra because many of the ultra-oligotrophic freshwater systems experience enrichment from goose feces. We surveyed 21 shallow tundra ponds along a gradient ...
Van de Meutter Frank - - 2007
A recent challenge in community ecology is to understand under what conditions local and regional processes may be more important in shaping community structure. We investigated the role of dispersal mode and generation time for communities of macroinvertebrates in two sets of connected ponds during three consecutive years. We found ...
Kneitel Jamie M - - 2007
1. Omnivory is an important interaction that has been the centre of numerous theoretical and empirical studies in recent years. Most of these studies examine the conditions necessary for coexistence between an omnivore and an intermediate consumer. Trait variation in ecological interactions (competition and predator tolerance) among intermediate consumers has ...
Longmuir Allyson - - 2007
Interactions between trophic levels during food web assembly can drive positive correlations in diversity between producers, consumers, and decomposers. However, the contribution of trophic interactions relative to local environmental factors in promoting species diversity is poorly understood, with many studies only considering two trophic levels. Here we examine correlations in ...
Wilson Maria - - 2007
Toothed whales use intense ultrasonic clicks to echolocate prey and it has been hypothesized that they also acoustically debilitate their prey with these intense sound pulses to facilitate capture. Cephalopods are an important food source for toothed whales, and there has probably been an evolutionary selection pressure on cephalopods to ...
Demopoulos Amanda W J - - 2007
Plant invasions can fundamentally alter detrital inputs and the structure of detritus-based food webs. We examined the detrital pathways in mangrove food webs in native (Puerto Rican) and introduced (Hawaiian) Rhizophora mangle forests using a dual isotope approach and a mixing model. Based on trophic-level fractionation of 0-1 per thousand ...
Persson Lennart - - 2007
Many top-predator fish stocks in both freshwater and marine systems have collapsed as a result of overharvesting. Consequently, some of these communities have shifted into seemingly irreversible new states. We showed, for predators feeding on prey that exhibit food-dependent growth, that culling of fish prey may promote predator recovery. We ...
Kagami Maiko - - 2007
In food-web studies, parasites are often ignored owing to their insignificant biomass. We provide evidence that parasites may affect trophic transfer in aquatic food webs. Many phytoplankton species are susceptible to parasitic fungi (chytrids). Chytrid infections of diatoms in lakes may reach epidemic proportions during diatom spring blooms, so that ...
Lovern Sarah B SB University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Great Lakes WATER Institute, 600 E. Greenfield Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53204, - - 2007
Little is known aboutthe impact manufactured nanoparticles will have on aquatic organisms. Previously, we demonstrated that toxicity differs with nanoparticle type and preparation and observed behavioral changes upon exposure to the more lethal nanoparticle suspensions. In this experiment, we quantified these behavioral and physiological responses of Daphnia magna at sublethal ...
Huxel Gary R - - 2007
The structure and dynamics of food webs are largely dependent upon interactions among consumers and their resources. However, interspecific interactions such as intraguild predation and interference competition can also play a significant role in the stability of communities. The role of antagonistic/synergistic interactions among predators has been largely ignored in ...
Caldow Richard W G - - 2007
Introductions of non-native species are seen as major threats to ecosystem function and biodiversity. However, invasions of aquatic habitats by non-native species are known to benefit generalist consumers that exhibit dietary switches and prey upon the exotic species in addition to or in preference to native ones. There is, however, ...
Caquet Thierry - - 2007
The immediate response and recovery of the macrobenthic communities of nonisolated and isolated freshwater outdoor 9 ml mesocosms following an acute stress caused by the addition of deltamethrin were studied over a 14-month period. To discriminate between internal and external recovery mechanisms, half of the treated ponds were covered by ...
Moya-Laraño Jordi - - 2007
Interactions among predators that prey on each other and are potential competitors for shared prey (intraguild [IG] predators) are widespread in terrestrial ecosystems and have the potential to strongly influence the dynamics of terrestrial food webs. Ants and spiders are abundant and ubiquitous terrestrial IG predators, yet the strength and ...
McCormick Mark I - - 2007
Territorial defense by breeders influences access to resources near defended nest sites by intruder species and may have indirect effects on other species within the territory, leading to local patchiness in distribution patterns. The present study demonstrates that adult males of a damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, indirectly facilitate the increased survival ...
Skirvin D J - - 2007
Two experiments were done to examine the predation of thrips, and the movement of Orius laevigatus Fieber and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) in the presence and absence of two supplemental food sources, pollen and the fungus Trichoderma viride. The presence of pollen led to a 55% reduction in predation of the ...
Sinclair A R E - - 2007
Data from long-term ecological studies further understanding of ecosystem dynamics and can guide evidence-based management. In a quasi-natural experiment we examined long-term monitoring data on different components of the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem to trace the effects of disturbances and thus to elucidate cause-and-effect connections between them. The long-term data illustrated the ...
Armitage James M - - 2007
Mechanistic bioaccumulation models for fish and piscivorous food-webs are widely used to assess the environmental hazard and risk of commercial chemicals, develop water quality criteria and remediation objectives, and conduct exposure assessment of pesticides in aquatic systems. Similar models for mammals and terrestrial food-webs are largely absent. As a result, ...
Doucett Richard R - - 2007
Understanding river food webs requires distinguishing energy derived from primary production in the river itself (autochthonous) from that produced externally (allochthonous), yet there are no universally applicable and reliable techniques for doing so. We compared the natural abundance stable isotope ratios of hydrogen (deltaD) of allochthonous and autochthonous energy sources ...
Gregory-Eaves Irene - - 2007
Many have demonstrated that anadromous Pacific salmon are significant vectors of nutrients from the ocean to freshwaters. Recently. however, it has been recognized that salmon spawners also input significant quantities of contaminants. The objectives of this paper are to delineate the extent to which salmon-derived nutrients are integrated into the ...
Patwa Zaheerabbas - - 2007
A mass-balance model for the uptake of organic contaminants in the opposum shrimp (Mysis relicta) is developed. The model describes the concentration in the mysid as a function of time as it grows and its lipid content changes over a two-year life span. The model can describe uptake in varying ...
Conradt Matthias - - 2007
In this article, we present the evaluation of the psychometric properties of a new self-report measure of Weight- and Body-Related Shame and Guilt (WEB-SG). The main purpose of the study was to measure shame and guilt feelings separately in obese individuals and investigate differing behavioral and emotional correlates of these ...
Nakata Kensuke - - 2007
Animals obtain information from past foraging experience to adjust their foraging activity according to their environment. The ability of spiders to obtain information from unsuccessful predation experiences was investigated by examining the effects on web building, a significant foraging investment, of prey detection without successful capture in the orb-web spider ...
Cannicci, S.
The abundance of trophic sources on the intertidal zone is discontinuous and their supply can vary both in a predictable or unpredictable way. The Mediterranean semi-terrestrial crab <I>Pachygrapsus marmoratus</I>, is known, as adult, to entirely rely on the intertidal trophic sources, and, consequently, it faces the fluctuations of nutritional sources ...
Kilongo, K; Centro Regional ...
The large-eye dentex <i>Dentex macrophthalmus</i> is a major target species of the demersal fishery off Angola, and is taken as bycatch off northern Namibia. Its prey spectrum off Angola and Namibia is described from the stomach contents of 593 individuals collected between northern Namibia (21°S) and northern Angola (6°S) during ...
Takimoto Gaku - - 2007
Intraguild predation is the simplest, ubiquitous form of trophic omnivory, known to greatly influence the structure and functioning of natural and managed food webs. Although alternative states are fundamental to intraguild predation dynamics, only necessary conditions for alternative states have been previously reported. Using simple models, we found complex but ...
Inouye Laura S - - 2007
As part of an investigation determining the trophically available fraction of metals in a model terrestrial food web, i.e., invertebrate prey to Western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), we evaluated the ability of several invertebrate prey to bioaccumulate lead and to form metals-rich granules, which are hypothesized to be non-available to ...
Vasas, V.
We investigated the effects of human activities on the pelagic food web structure of nearshore marine ecosystems. Their generic structure was established on the basis of literature review and analyzed by qualitative structural network analysis. Two main issues were addressed: (1) the role of species capable of forming harmful algal ...
Gakkhar Sunita - - 2007
Dynamical behavior of a food web comprising two predators competing over a single prey has been investigated. The analysis of the food web model shows that the persistence is not possible for two competing predators sharing a single prey species in the cases when any one of the boundary prey-predator ...
Shirakawa T - - 2007
Emergence in a system appears through the interaction of its components, giving rise to higher order or complexity in the system. We tested for the presence of emergent properties in a biological system using the simplest biological entity of a unicellular organism; the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, a giant unicellular ...
Uchida Satoshi - - 2007
We investigate the influence of functional responses (Lotka-Volterra or Holling type), initial topological web structure (randomly connected or niche model), adaptive behavior (adaptive foraging and predator avoidance) and the type of constraints on the adaptive behavior (linear or nonlinear) on the stability and structure of food webs. Two kinds of ...
Nyssen, F.
Isotope (C-13/C-12 and N-15/N-14) analyses were performed on 90 species belonging to different benthic communities sampled in the eastern Weddell Sea. The study focused on eight amphipod species whose isotopic composition was compared to their previously described respective gut contents. Amphipod stable isotope ratios correspond fairly accurately to the trophic ...
Dauby, P.
With more than 820 different species, among which about 75% endemics, the amphipod crustaceans form one of the richest animal group of the Southern Ocean. They have colonized most habitats and exhibit very diverse life styles and trophic types. They moreover show a broad size spectrum, with numerous giant species. ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >