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Tinker M Tim - - 2008
Dietary diversity often varies inversely with prey resource abundance. This pattern, although typically measured at the population level, is usually assumed to also characterize the behavior of individual animals within the population. However, the pattern might also be produced by changes in the degree of variation among individuals. Here we ...
Ims Rolf A - - 2008
During the past two decades population cycles in voles, grouse and insects have been fading out in Europe. Here, we discuss the cause and implication of these changes. Several lines of evidence now point to climate forcing as the general underlying cause. However, how climate interacts with demography to induce ...
Martínez-Padilla Jesús - - 2008
Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed ...
Tzilkowski, Caleb J
Introduced trout have had direct and indirect effects on native fishes, amphibians, and invertebrates that have in some cases, induced detrimental community- and ecosystem-level effects. Recently, some North American agencies have invested substantial time, effort, and resources to eradicate exotic salmonids due to their documented or presumed negative effects on ...
Walsh Matthew R - - 2008
The ecological impacts of the indirect effects of predators are well established, but the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Predators often decrease prey density, which indirectly increases the resources available to surviving prey. This ecological effect could provide a link to evolution because it is generally assumed that resource availability influences ...
McLeod, Rebecca Jane
The secondary productivity of communities is inherently influenced by the availability and quality of food resources. Movement of organic matter (OM) across landscapes can connect adjacent systems by providing subsidies of carbon and nutrients, implying that alterations of environments from their natural state may affect the productivity of neighboring food ...
Greig, Hamish Stuart
Ecological communities along gradients of environmental stress are thought to be structured by trade-offs between resisting biotic interactions in physically benign habitats and successfully exploiting physically stressful habitats. However, these trade-offs are likely to be affected by the predictability of abiotic stressors, and variation in the strength of biotic interactions. ...
Liebhold Andrew M - - 2008
During the establishment phase of a biological invasion, population dynamics are strongly influenced by Allee effects and stochastic dynamics, both of which may lead to extinction of low-density populations. Allee effects refer to a decline in population growth rate with a decline in abundance and can arise from various mechanisms. ...
Moline Mark A - - 2008
Polar regions have experienced significant warming in recent decades. Warming has been most pronounced across the Arctic Ocean Basin and along the Antarctic Peninsula, with significant decreases in the extent and seasonal duration of sea ice. Rapid retreat of glaciers and disintegration of ice sheets have also been documented. The ...
Braza Peter A - - 2008
A two-predator, one-prey model in which one predator interferes significantly with the other predator is analyzed. The dominant predator is harvested and the other predator has an alternative food source. The response functions used are Holling type II and they are predator-dependent and include the effects of interference. The analysis ...
Wilf P - - 2008
Plants and herbivorous insects have dominated terrestrial ecosystems for over 300 million years. Uniquely in the fossil record, foliage with well-preserved insect damage offers abundant and diverse information both about producers and about ecological and sometimes taxonomic groups of consumers. These data are ideally suited to investigate food web response ...
Otto Sonja B - - 2008
Declining predator diversity may drastically affect the biomass and productivity of herbivores and plants. Understanding how changes in predator diversity can propagate through food webs to alter ecosystem function is one of the most challenging ecological research topics today. We studied the effects of predator removal in a simple natural ...
Strayer David L - - 2008
Inputs of fresh water and grazing both can control aquatic food webs, but little is known about the relative strengths of and interactions between these controls. We use long-term data on the food web of the freshwater Hudson River estuary to investigate the importance of, and interactions between, inputs of ...
Hillebrand Helmut - - 2008
The presence of consumers not only alters the mean biomass of the prey assemblage, but also affects the spatial heterogeneity of biomass distribution. Whereas the mean prey biomass is generally reduced by consumer presence, the effect on spatial heterogeneity is less clear-cut. A meta-analysis of almost 600 field experiments manipulating ...
Carrillo Presentación - - 2008
Knowledge of variations in microbial food web interactions resulting from atmospheric nutrient loads is crucial to improve our understanding of aquatic food web structure in pristine ecosystems. Three experiments mimicking atmospheric inputs at different nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios were performed in situ covering the seasonal biological succession of the pelagic zone ...
Otto Sonja B - - 2007
In natural ecosystems, species are linked by feeding interactions that determine energy fluxes and create complex food webs. The stability of these food webs enables many species to coexist and to form diverse ecosystems. Recent theory finds predator-prey body-mass ratios to be critically important for food-web stability. However, the mechanisms ...
Finkel Z V - - 2007
The size structure of phytoplankton assemblages strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling in the ocean. We determined the macroevolutionary trajectory in the median size of dinoflagellate cysts to compare with the macroevolutionary size change in other plankton groups. We found the median size of the ...
Dauby, P.
As they represent one of the most diversified taxonomic groups on Antarctic bottoms, amphipods are likely to play a complex role in biogeochemical fluxes that occur within benthic ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to present, using both digestive tract analyses and relative species abundance data, the impact of ...
Ishibashi, Hiroshi
The hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata is listed the IUCN Red List as critically endangered. At the COP 10 of the CITES meeting held in i997, Cuba proposed to downlist the population of hawksbills from Appendix I to Appendix II to allow limited trade. In this reportδ^15N and δ^13C measurements were ...
Harwood J D - - 2007
The area planted to genetically engineered crops has increased dramatically in the last ten years. This has generated many studies examining non-target effects of bioengineered plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins. To date, most have focused on population-level effects in the field or laboratory evaluation of specific plant-herbivore or plant-herbivore-predator trophic ...
Phillips Ben - - 2007
In arms races between predators and prey, some evolved tactics are unbeatable by the other player. For example, many types of prey are inedible because they have evolved chemical defenses. In this case, prey death removes any selective advantage of toxicity to the prey but not the selective advantage to ...
Pérez G L - - 2007
The impact of the widely used herbicide glyphosate has been mainly studied in terrestrial weed control, laboratory bioassays, and field studies focusing on invertebrates, amphibians, and fishes. Despite the importance of phytoplankton and periphyton communities at the base of the aquatic food webs, fewer studies have investigated the effects of ...
Roelke, Daniel
Environmental disturbances in aquatic systems alter phytoplankton community structure, diversity and biomass (Hutchinson, 1961). For example, laboratory experiments and field studies have shown that episodic flushing and nutrient loading can result in enhanced phytoplankton species diversity (Padisak, 1993; Sommer, 1995; Hambright and Zohary, 2000; Buyukates and Roelke, 2002; Lovejoy et ...
Cloern James E - - 2007
Ecological observations sustained over decades often reveal abrupt changes in biological communities that signal altered ecosystem states. We report a large shift in the biological communities of San Francisco Bay, first detected as increasing phytoplankton biomass and occurrences of new seasonal blooms that began in 1999. This phytoplankton increase is ...
Shimizu Yuichiro - - 2008
Initial theories of ecological stoichiometry were based on the assumption that the mass-specific content of key nutrient elements (such as P), changes little within a consumer species. However, evidence has shown that this content changes substantially according to feeding conditions. To clarify how the specific P content (S (P)) of ...
Herczeg Gábor - - 2008
Huey and Slatkin's (Q Rev Biol 51:363-384, 1976) cost-benefit model of lizard thermoregulation predicts variation in thermoregulatory strategies (from active thermoregulation to thermoconformity) with respect to the costs and benefits of the thermoregulatory behaviour and the thermal quality of the environment. Although this framework has been widely employed in correlative ...
Van Veen F J F - - 2008
1. Most communities of insect herbivores are unlikely to be structured by resource competition, but they may be structured by apparent competition mediated by shared natural enemies. 2. The potential of three guilds of natural enemies (parasitoids, fungal entomopathogens and predators) to influence aphid community structure through indirect interactions is ...
Dodds Walter K - - 2007
Trophic state is the property of energy availability to the food web and defines the foundation of community integrity and ecosystem function. Describing trophic state in streams requires a stoichiometric (nutrient ratio) approach because carbon input rates are linked to nitrogen and phosphorus supply rates. Light determines the source of ...
Schmidt Stephanie N - - 2007
Ecologists use stable isotopes (delta13C, delta15N) to better understand food webs and explore trophic interactions in ecosystems. Traditionally, delta13C vs. delta15N bi-plots have been used to describe food web structure for a single time period or ecosystem. Comparisons of food webs across time and space are increasing, but development of ...
Vance-Chalcraft Heather D - - 2007
Intraguild predation (IGP) occurs when one predator species consumes another predator species with whom it also competes for shared prey. One question of interest to ecologists is whether multiple predator species suppress prey populations more than a single predator species, and whether this result varies with the presence of IGP. ...
Long Zachary T - - 2007
Biodiversity may enhance productivity either because diverse communities more often contain productive species (selection effects) or because they show greater complementarity in resource use. Our understanding of how these effects influence community production comes almost entirely from studies of plants. To test whether previous results apply to higher trophic levels, ...
Norkko A - - 2007
Predicting the dynamics of ecosystems requires an understanding of how trophic interactions respond to environmental change. In Antarctic marine ecosystems, food web dynamics are inextricably linked to sea ice conditions that affect the nature and magnitude of primary food sources available to higher trophic levels. Recent attention on the changing ...
Hohmann Gottfried - - 2008
Compared to data from chimpanzees, observations on prey capture and meat eating by bonobos (Pan paniscus) are still rare, fragmentary and anecdotal. Here we present new and unpublished information from wild bonobos at Lui Kotale, Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. Our observations confirm that solitary and terrestrial ungulates ...
Brodin Anders - - 2007
Many small passerines are resident in forests with very cold winters. Considering their size and the adverse conditions, this is a remarkable feat that requires optimal energy management in several respects, for example regulation of body fat reserves, food hoarding and night-time hypothermia. Besides their beneficial effect on survival, these ...
Statzell-Tallman Adele - - 2008
Mangrove forests inhabit the shoreline regions of tropical and subtropical marine habitats, where they are the basis of a multi-trophic level food web that drives the shellfish and fisheries industries. Yeasts, and other fungi, have significant roles in these ecosystems as they decompose plant organic material and serve as a ...
Jonas, Jayne
Aboveground and belowground food webs are linked by plants, but their reciprocal influences are seldom studied. Because phosphorus (P) is the primary nutrient associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, and evidence suggests it may be more limiting than nitrogen (N) for some insect herbivores, assessing carbon (C):N:P stoichiometry will enhance ...
Eveleigh Eldon S - - 2007
Patterns in food-web structure have frequently been examined in static food webs, but few studies have attempted to delineate patterns that materialize in food webs under nonequilibrium conditions. Here, using one of nature's classical nonequilibrium systems as the food-web database, we test the major assumptions of recent advances in food-web ...
Arend, Kristin
THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS ON FISH COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FOOD WEB INTERACTIONS IN LAKE ONTARIO EMBAYMENTS Kristin K. Arend, Ph. D. Cornell University 2008 Aquatic ecosystems are influenced by physical, chemical, and biological processes operating at multiple spatial scales, from landscape through microhabitats. Processes operating at the landscape level, ...
Clotfelter Ethan D - - 2007
Resource pulses can have cascading effects on the dynamics of multiple trophic levels. Acorn mast is a pulsed resource in oak-dominated forests that has significant direct effects on acorn predators and indirect effects on their predators, prey, and pathogens. We evaluated changes in acorn mast, rodent abundance, raptor abundance, and ...
Abbott Karen C - - 2008
Many herbivore populations fluctuate temporally, but the causes of those fluctuations remain unclear. Plant inducible resistance can theoretically cause herbivore population fluctuations, because herbivory may induce plant changes that reduce the survival or reproduction of later-feeding herbivores. Herbivory can also simply reduce the quantity of food available for later feeders ...
Neutel Anje-Margriet - - 2007
Understanding how complex food webs assemble through time is fundamental both for ecological theory and for the development of sustainable strategies of ecosystem conservation and restoration. The build-up of complexity in communities is theoretically difficult, because in random-pattern models complexity leads to instability. There is growing evidence, however, that nonrandom ...
Abrams Peter A - - 2007
Trait- and density-mediated indirect effects describe different pathways by which indirect interactions in food webs are propagated from one species to another, through changes in intermediate species. A series of articles in Ecology has progressively altered the original definitions of "trait-mediated" to the point where understanding is being impeded. The ...
Layman Craig A - - 2007
Much research has focused on identifying species that are susceptible to extinction following ecosystem fragmentation, yet even those species that persist in fragmented habitats may have fundamentally different ecological roles than conspecifics in unimpacted areas. Shifts in trophic role induced by fragmentation, especially of abundant top predators, could have transcendent ...
Zwirglmaier Katrin - - 2008
Marine cyanobacteria of the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are important contributors to global primary production occupying a key position at the base of marine food webs. The genetically diverse nature of each genus is likely an important reason for their successful colonization of vast tracts of the world's oceans, a ...
Manrod Jennifer D - - 2008
It is widely accepted that providing stimulus enrichment is an important part of the development and maintenance of behavior and well-being in mammals. However, extending this idea to non-avian reptiles has barely been explored, certainly as an aid to cognitive development. Monitor lizards have a reputation for being highly curious ...
Hillis Derek G - - 2007
The effects of monensin, an antibiotic widely used in the poultry and beef industry, were evaluated on zooplankton community structure and population dynamics. Monensin was added to 12 000 L aquatic microcosms as a single treatment at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500 microg/L, and they were evaluated over a ...
Lin Hsing-Juh - - 2007
The estuary of the Danshuei River, a hypoxic subtropical estuary, receives a high rate of untreated sewage effluent. The Ecopath with Ecosim software system was used to construct a mass-balanced trophic model for the estuary, and network analysis was used to characterize the structure and matter flow in the food ...
Cheney Karen L - - 2007
Mimetic species have evolved to resemble other species to avoid predation (protective mimicry) or gain access to food (aggressive mimicry). Mimicry systems are frequently tripartite interactions involving a mimic, model and 'signal receiver'. Changes in the strength of the relationship between model and signal receiver, owing to shifting environmental conditions, ...
Abrams Peter A - - 2007
How does competition between resources affect the interaction between consumer species that share those resources? Existing theory suggests that high resource competition can lead to mutualism. However, this is based on an analysis that need only apply near equilibrium, and experimental demonstrations of such mutualism are rare. Two alternative approaches ...
Harwood James D - - 2007
The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a pest of soybeans in Asia, and in recent years has caused extensive damage to soybeans in North America. Within these agroecosystems, generalist predators form an important component of the assemblage of natural enemies, and can exert significant pressure on prey populations. ...
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