Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1047
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Rooney Neil - - 2008
Ecologists have long searched for structures and processes that impart stability in nature. In particular, food web ecology has held promise in tackling this issue. Empirical patterns in food webs have consistently shown that the distributions of species and interactions in nature are more likely to be stable than randomly ...
Lancaster Jill - - 2008
In classical theory, species are assumed to achieve dominance through competitive exclusion, but if food resources are limiting, cross-habitat trophic subsidies could also underpin dominance. The impact of dominant species on community dynamics may depend on the energy base of population size. We report on an unusual, spatially subsidized population ...
van der Stap Irene - - 2008
Ecologists have long debated the role of predation in mediating the coexistence of prey species. Theory has mainly taken a bitrophic perspective that excludes the effects of inducible defenses at different trophic levels. However, inducible defenses could either limit or enhance the effects of predation on coexistence, by means of ...
Friman Ville-Petri - - 2008
Productivity is predicted to drive the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of predator-prey interaction through changes in resource allocation between different traits. Here we report results of an evolutionary experiment where prey bacteria Serratia marcescens was exposed to predatory protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila in low- and high-resource environments for approximately 2400 prey ...
Lennon Jay T - - 2008
Predation and parasitism often regulate population dynamics, community interactions, and ecosystem functioning. The strength of these top-down pressures is variable, however, and may be influenced by both ecological and evolutionary processes. We conducted a chemostat experiment to assess the direct and indirect effects of viruses on a marine microbial food ...
Kido, Michael H
Diet of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), introduced by the State of Hawai'i into tropical headwater streams of the Waimea River in the Koke'e area of the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i, was examined in this study through gut content analysis. In Wai'alae Stream, rainbow trout were found to be opportunistic ...
Dumas Julie - - 2008
Although nickel and thallium are present at potentially harmful concentrations in some lakes, there is little information on their bioaccumulation and transfer up aquatic food webs. To measure the propensity of animals for accumulating and transferring these contaminants along food chains, we exposed two common types of invertebrates, an insect ...
Trebatická Lenka - - 2008
Indirect interaction between two competing species via a shared predator may be an important determinant of population and community dynamics. We studied the effect of predation risk imposed by the least weasel Mustela nivalis nivalis on space use, foraging and activity of two competing vole species, the grey-sided vole Myodes ...
Fey Karen - - 2008
Ecosystems of three trophic levels may be bottom-up (by food-plant availability) and/or top-down (by predators) limited. Top-down control might be of greater consequence when the predation impact comes from an alien predator. We conducted a replicated two-factor experiment with field voles (Microtus agrestis) during 2004-2005 on small islands of the ...
Nilsson Erika - - 2008
It is important to understand the role that different predators can have to be able to predict how changes in the predator assemblage may affect the prey community and ecosystem attributes. We tested the effects of different stream predators on macroinvertebrates and ecosystem attributes, in terms of benthic algal biomass ...
Navarrete Sergio A - - 2008
Investigating how food supply regulates the behavior and population structure of predators remains a central focus of population and community ecology. These responses will determine the strength of bottom-up processes through the food web, which can potentially lead to coupled top-down regulation of local communities. However, characterizing the bottom-up effects ...
Smith Craig R - - 2008
The abyssal seafloor covers more than 50% of the Earth and is postulated to be both a reservoir of biodiversity and a source of important ecosystem services. We show that ecosystem structure and function in the abyss are strongly modulated by the quantity and quality of detrital food material sinking ...
Asante Kwadwo Ansong - - 2008
Trace elements (22) and stable isotope ratios (delta15N and delta13C) were analyzed in marine organisms from shallow (SW) and deep-water (DW) of the East China Sea to understand biomagnification and prey source of trace elements. In the benthic marine organisms from DW, delta15N values were negatively correlated with Ba, Cu, ...
Faria Lucas Del Bianco Ldel - - 2009
Prey preference of a predator is commonly used in models to analyze the timely issue of the relation among food web structure, diversity and stability. Given the variety of these terms in ecological literature, this work shows that domains of stability and species coexistence in food webs can be significantly ...
Bretagnolle V - - 2008
1. Understanding how density-dependent and independent processes influence demographic parameters, and hence regulate population size, is fundamental within population ecology. We investigated density dependence in growth rate and fecundity in a recovering population of a semicolonial raptor, the osprey Pandion haliaetus [Linnaeus, 1758], using 31 years of count and demographic ...
Beasley Jeannette M - - 2009
To develop and evaluate a pictorial, web-based version of the NCI diet history questionnaire (Web-PDHQ). The Web-PDHQ and paper version of the DHQ (Paper-DHQ) were administered 4 weeks apart with 218 participants randomised to order. Dietary data from the Web-PDHQ and Paper-DHQ were validated using a randomly selected 4 d ...
Brose U - - 2008
1. In natural communities, populations are linked by feeding interactions that make up complex food webs. The stability of these complex networks is critically dependent on the distribution of energy fluxes across these feeding links. 2. In laboratory experiments with predatory beetles and spiders, we studied the allometric scaling (body-mass ...
Ruzicka, James J.
Previously published in California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Progress Report, 2007, Vol.48; access courtesy of publisher and authors.
Ho Chuan-Kai - - 2008
Although omnivory is common in nature, its impact on trophic interactions is variable. Predicting the food web consequences of omnivory is complicated because omnivores can simultaneously produce conflicting direct and indirect effects on the same species or trophic level. We conducted field and laboratory experiments testing the top-down impacts of ...
Greenwood Michelle J - - 2008
Landscape-driven processes impact the magnitude and direction of cross-ecosystem resource subsidies, but they may also control consumers' numerical and functional responses by altering habitat availability. We investigated effects of the interaction between habitat availability and subsidy level on populations of a riparian fishing spider, Dolomedes aquaticus, using a flood disturbance ...
Branson David H - - 2008
The complex interplay between grasshoppers, weather conditions, and plants that cause fluctuations in grasshopper populations remains poorly understood, and little is known about the ecological processes that generate grasshopper outbreaks. Grasshopper populations respond to interacting extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with yearly and decadal weather patterns and the timing of precipitation ...
Jennings Simon - - 2008
Interacting human and environmental pressures influence the structure and dynamics of marine food webs. To describe and predict the effects of these pressures, theoretical advances need to be supported by a capacity to validate the underlying models and assumptions. Here, we review recent applications of nitrogen stable isotope analysis in ...
Geisz Heidi N - - 2008
Persistent organic pollutants reach polar regions by long-range atmospheric transport and biomagnify through the food web accumulating in higher trophic level predators. We analyzed Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) samples collected from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate current levels of sigmaDDT (p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) in these birds, which are confined to ...
Lafferty Kevin D - - 2008
Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter ...
Holbrook R David - - 2008
The unique chemical and physical properties of engineered nanomaterials that make them attractive for numerous applications also contribute to their unexpected behaviour in the environment and biological systems. The potential environmental risks, including their impact on aquatic organisms, have been a central argument for regulating the growth of the nanotechnology ...
Englund G - - 2008
1. The predatory isopod Saduria entomon (L.) and its amphipod prey Monoporeia affinis (Lindström) are key components of the food web in the northern Baltic Sea, together representing 80-90% of the macrobenthic biomass. We use 20 years of stomach content data for Saduria to investigate how diet dynamics affect the ...
Miller Noam Y NY Department of Psychology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Toronto, Ontario, L5L 1C6 Canada. - - 2008
In many species, group cohesion may be the result of a compromise between opposing forces (e.g. predator avoidance and competition for food). However, little empirical data exists on the dynamics of group cohesion. We present moment-to-moment positional data on zebrafish shoals and analyze temporal changes in inter-individual distances. We demonstrate ...
Tomy Gregg T - - 2008
The extent of trophic transfer of the three diastereoisomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and seven brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners was examined in components of an Arctic marine food web from eastern Canada. Alpha and gamma-HBCD diastereoisomers were detected in all species and total (sigma) HBCD concentrations ranged from 0.6 +/- ...
Bhavsar Satyendra P - - 2008
Biotransformation half-lives (HL) and gut absorption efficiencies (GAE) of PBDE congeners in fish are poorly known and challenging to quantify experimentally. These values are needed in order to accurately assess their food web dynamics, and in turn, for policy development We recently developed a multichemical aquatic food web model, which ...
Peterson Celeste N - - 2008
The community of organisms inhabiting the water-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher-plant Sarracenia purpurea includes arthropods, protozoa and bacteria, and serves as a model system for studies of food web dynamics. Despite the wealth of data collected by ecologists and zoologists on this food web, very little is known about ...
Bersier, Louis-Félix
Understanding the processes underlying food-web structure and organization remains one of the major tasks of ecology. While first attempts were mostly based on niche theory, with body size of species imposing a hierarchical structure for consumer species, it has been recently suggested that phylogenetic constraints may be more fundamental to ...
Blanchet S - - 2008
Using semi-natural stream channels, we estimated the effects of competition and predation exerted by juvenile and adult exotic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on the diel activity pattern of juvenile native Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a secondary consumer. We also evaluated the direct and indirect effects of competition, predation and abiotic ...
Kröpelin S - - 2008
Desiccation of the Sahara since the middle Holocene has eradicated all but a few natural archives recording its transition from a "green Sahara" to the present hyperarid desert. Our continuous 6000-year paleoenvironmental reconstruction from northern Chad shows progressive drying of the regional terrestrial ecosystem in response to weakening insolation forcing ...
Laurila Anssi - - 2008
Antipredator defenses are expected to decrease toward higher latitudes because predation rates are predicted to decrease with latitude. However, latitudinal variation in predator avoidance and defense mechanisms has seldom been studied. We studied tadpole antipredator defenses in seven Rana temporaria populations collected along a 1500-km latitudinal gradient across Sweden, along ...
Tyack Peter - - 2008
Sperm and beaked whales dive to feed on squid and deepwater fish. We have attached sound-and-orientation recording tags to study how these whales use echolocation to forage at depth. Tagged whales are usually silent when starting a dive, but start producing echolocation clicks at a few hundred meters depth, shallower ...
Rich C Nelson - - 2008
Little is known about the effects of different prey species on lizard growth. We conducted a 6-week study to determine the relative effects of prey species on growth parameters of hatchling western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis. Lizards were fed house cricket nymphs, Acheta domesticus, or mealworm larvae, Tenebrio molitor. The ...
Ross Tetjana - - 2008
Models and laboratory experiments show that zooplankton may locate food more easily in turbulent waters, but whether plankton seek or avoid turbulence in the ocean is an open question. It is difficult to measure turbulence and plankton simultaneously and with the necessary spatial resolution using traditional methods (nets and airfoil ...
Doi Hideyuki - - 2008
Subsidy between ecosystems has been considered in many natural ecosystems, and should alter food webs and communities in human-impacted ones. We estimated how drifting plankton from a reservoir contribute to downstream food webs and showed that they alter community structures over a 10-km reach below the dam. To estimate the ...
Thorne Richard E - - 2008
High-frequency acoustic surveys over the past 15 years show that the trophic structure in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, functions as a wasp-waist ecosystem. Three dominant biomasses in PWS are: (1) Pacific herring (2) walleye pollock and (3) the large-bodied copepods (Neocalanus spps.) that dominate the spring zooplankton assemblage. The ...
Marczak Laurie B - - 2008
Rapid growth in response to increased prey abundance may be induced by environmental variability associated with resource subsidies. Spiders living in riparian areas are subject to frequent, episodic bursts of aquatic prey (subsidies). These periods of high resource abundance may occur at different points in recipient consumers' development through variation ...
Dunne Jennifer A - - 2008
A rich body of empirically grounded theory has developed about food webs--the networks of feeding relationships among species within habitats. However, detailed food-web data and analyses are lacking for ancient ecosystems, largely because of the low resolution of taxa coupled with uncertain and incomplete information about feeding interactions. These impediments ...
Tobler Michael - - 2008
Male-biased predation has been described from several epigean species, and in many cases, intrinsic differences between the sexes (such as male ornaments) have been suggested as an explanation. Here we report on male-biased predation of a cave fish (Poecilia mexicana) by an aquatic insect (Belostoma sp.) in a Mexican sulfur ...
Schneider Johanna S - - 2008
Close to 30 forms of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and at least five GnRH receptors have been identified in a wide variety of vertebrates and some invertebrates. One form, now called GnRH II, has the broadest distribution and the most ancient and conserved phylogeny. The distribution of the neurons that ...
Mintenbeck, Katja
Knowledge about food web structure and trophic relationships is essential for the identification of bottlenecks and vulnerable compartments to estimate ecosystem response to environmental alterations and its impact on overall ecosystem functioning. Fish take a central position in the Southern Ocean food web as they provide a major trophic link ...
Nfon Erick - - 2008
The trophic transfer of organic pollutants with varying physical chemical properties was determined in both a pelagic and benthic food chain using delta 15N as a continuous variable for assessing trophic levels. The trophic transfer of organic pollutants through the entire food chain in terms of food chain magnification factors ...
Child Travis - - 2008
A mechanistic understanding of factors influencing the dispersal behavior of metamorph cane toads (Bufo marinus) has direct conservation relevance in Australia. These invasive anurans are toxic to native predators, and if we can predict their distribution across the landscape, we can also predict (and perhaps, manage) the scale of their ...
Butler Jessica L - - 2008
Linkages between detritus-based ("brown") food webs and producer-based ("green") food webs are critical components of ecosystem functionality, but these linkages are hard to study because it is difficult to measure release of nutrients by brown food webs and their subsequent uptake by plants. In a three-month greenhouse experiment, we examined ...
Wiese Francis K - - 2008
Predator-prey relationships are often altered as a result of human activities. Where prey are legally protected, conservation action may include lethal predator control. In the Columbia River basin (Pacific Northwest, USA and Canada), piscivorous predators have been implicated in contributing to a lack of recovery of several endangered anadromous salmonids ...
Ruhl Henry A - - 2008
Research capable of differentiating resource-related community-level change from random ecological drift in natural systems has been limited. Evidence for nonrandom, resource-driven change is presented here for an epibenthic megafauna community in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean from 1989 to 2004. The sinking particulate organic carbon food supply is linked not ...
Frederiksen Morten - - 2008
Fisheries management across the world is moving toward an ecosystem-based approach, implying that fishery effects on nontarget species should be taken into account. However, such effects are often not well understood, partly because, they can be difficult to distinguish from impacts of environmental fluctuations. We evaluated the effects of an ...
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