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Results 201 - 250 of 1066
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Fyda Janusz - - 2009
Using laboratory microcosms, we studied direct and indirect interactions among different components of bi- and tritrophic communities. Filamentous cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp.) and autotrophic flagellates (Chlorogonium elongatum) were primary producers. The second trophic level was represented by ciliates Furgasonia blochmanni and Pseudomicrothorax dubius grazing on the filamentous cyanobacteria and two filter ...
Lewis Danny - - 2009
1. Entry of substantial numbers of natural enemies from outside a habitat can have profound impacts on food web structure in the recipient habitat, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, including the role of relative predator fitness in source and recipient habitats. We studied a naturally occurring annual movement of ...
Kimbro David L - - 2009
Although invasive species often resemble their native counterparts, differences in their foraging and anti-predator strategies may disrupt native food webs. In a California estuary, we showed that regions dominated by native crabs and native whelks have low mortality of native oysters (the basal prey), while regions dominated by invasive crabs ...
Sabo John L - - 2009
There are three hypothesized controls on food-chain length (FCL): energy supply (or "resource availability"), ecosystem size and disturbance (or "environmental variation"). In this article, the evidence for controls on FCL in freshwater ecosystems is evaluated. First, the various ways FCL can be measured are defined. Food-chain length typically is estimated ...
Srivastava Diane S - - 2009
The flow of energy and nutrients between trophic levels is affected by both the trophic structure of food webs and the diversity of species within trophic levels. However, the combined effects of trophic structure and diversity on trophic transfer remain largely unknown. Here we ask whether changes in consumer diversity ...
De Laender Frederik - - 2009
Bioaccumulation models predict internal concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals by incorporating key gain/loss processes reflecting the ecology of the exposed species and the characteristics of the chemical. Here, we propose a new methodology that uses ecological data and the principle of mass balance in food webs to estimate bioaccumulation in food ...
Petrites Anthony E - - 2009
Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) use biosonar to find insect prey in open areas, but they also find prey near vegetation and even fly through vegetation when in transit from roosts to feeding sites. To evaluate their reactions to dense, distributed clutter, bats were tested in an obstacle array consisting ...
Macinnis, Maura Jan
Metazoan grazing of bacteria represents a potential pathway for the transfer of bacterial production to higher trophic levels. Freshwater cladocerans of the genus Daphnia are able to reduce bacterial abundance in lakes, but many experiments have been restricted to the summer months. It is therefore necessary to test the generality ...
Flynn Kevin J - - 2009
Animals with a gut, when confronted with food supplied ad libitum, can elevate their ingestion rates and inefficiently use the material they ingest. As a consequence, assimilation efficiency (AE) declines, resulting in food-density-dependent inefficiency (f-DDI). A model describing these processes shows that f-DDI can dampen the consequences of oscillations in ...
Baum Julia K - - 2009
1. Top-down control can be an important determinant of ecosystem structure and function, but in oceanic ecosystems, where cascading effects of predator depletions, recoveries, and invasions could be significant, such effects had rarely been demonstrated until recently. 2. Here we synthesize the evidence for oceanic top-down control that has emerged ...
Guillette Lauren M - - 2009
Pit-building antlions, the larvae of a winged adult insect, capture food by digging funnel-shaped pits in sand and then lying in wait, buried at the vertex, for prey to fall inside. The sedentary nature of this sit-and-wait predatory behaviour and, especially, antlions' innate ability to detect prey arrival, do not ...
O'Connor Mary I - - 2009
1. In many ecosystems, predator abundance, composition and diversity vary naturally among seasons and habitats. In addition, predator assemblages are changing due to overharvesting, habitat destruction and species invasions. 2. Predator species composition and richness can influence prey community structure and these effects can cascade to influence plant abundance and ...
Hebert Craig E - - 2009
Food web structure regulates the pathways and flow rates of energy, nutrients, and contaminants to top predators. Ecologically and physiologically meaningful biochemical tracers provide a means to characterize and quantify these transfers within food webs. In this study, changes in the ratios of stable N isotopes (e.g., delta(15)N), fatty acids ...
Michelutti Neal - - 2009
Migratory animals such as seabirds, salmon and whales can transport large quantities of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, greatly enriching recipient food webs. As many of these animals biomagnify contaminants, they can also focus pollutants at toxic levels. Seabirds arguably represent the most significant biovectors of nutrients and contaminants from the ...
Bilu Einat - - 2009
Discussions of intraguild predation (IGP) have assumed that the nutritional quality of intraguild (IG) prey is similar to that of any other prey available to the IG predator. It has been suggested therefore that generalist predators do not distinguish between healthy and parasitized aphids and thus function as facultative predators ...
Frias-Lopez Jorge - - 2009
Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the two most abundant marine cyanobacteria. They represent a significant fraction of the total primary production of the world oceans and comprise a major fraction of the prey biomass available to phagotrophic protists. Despite relatively rapid growth rates, picocyanobacterial cell densities in open-ocean surface waters remain ...
Amundsen Per-Arne - - 2009
1. Parasites permeate trophic webs with their often complex life cycles, but few studies have included parasitism in food web analyses. Here we provide a highly resolved food web from the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake and explore how the incorporation of parasites alters the topology of the web. ...
Milligan, Heather
Freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems are tightly linked by food web interactions. Naturally occurring carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes provide a tool to quantify nutrient flows across ecological boundaries, however their application to freshwater-terrestrial systems has been limited. This thesis evaluated whether stable isotope analysis can be effective in differentiating freshwater ...
De Troch, Marleen
The re-use of faecal pellets in the water column before sinking to the seafloor is known as an important pathway in marine food webs. Especially planktonic copepods seems to be actively use their faecal pellets. Since benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida) live in the vicinity of their pellets, it remains unclear ...
Seymour J R - - 2009
Exploitation of microscale (microm-mm) resource patches by planktonic microorganisms may influence oceanic trophodynamics and nutrient cycling. However, examinations of microbial behavior within patchy microhabitats have been precluded by methodological limitations. We developed a microfluidic device to generate microscale resource patches at environmentally realistic spatiotemporal scales, and we examined the exploitation ...
Thelaus Johanna - - 2009
The natural reservoir of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularaemia, is yet to be identified. We investigated the possibility that Francisella persists in natural aquatic ecosystems between outbreaks. It was hypothesized that nutrient-rich environments, with strong protozoan predation, favour the occurrence of the tularaemia bacterium. To investigate the differences ...
Lecomte Nicolas - - 2009
To what extent top predators - carnivores at the top of food chains - drive or just respond to ecosystem dynamics is a central, but partially unresolved, question in ecology. In this report, we highlight how different research approaches employed in aquatic and terrestrial ecology may have a bearing on ...
Vermaat Jan E - - 2009
The covariance among a range of 20 network structural properties of food webs plus net primary productivity was assessed for 14 published food webs using principal components analysis. Three primary components explained 84% of the variability in the data sets, suggesting substantial covariance among the properties employed in the literature. ...
Kr??ger Bj??rn - - 2009
BACKGROUND: During the Ordovician the global diversity increased dramatically at family, genus and species levels. Partially the diversification is explained by an increased nutrient, and phytoplankton availability in the open water. Cephalopods are among the top predators of today's open oceans. Their Ordovician occurrences, diversity evolution and abundance pattern potentially ...
Sirot Etienne - - 2009
Prey living in groups often partly rely on companions to detect predators. Accordingly, individuals having vigilant neighbors could decrease their own vigilance, engendering a certain level of vigilance coordination in the group. However, when a predator attacks, individuals that spot it react quicker than individuals that follow them and have ...
Brook Barry W - - 2009
Climate change impacts are becoming increasingly evident as 1 degree C warming above pre-industrial temperatures is approached. One of the signature biological effects is a shift towards earlier-timed reproduction. If individual species lack sufficient adaptive plasticity to alter phenology, they will have reduced fitness in a hotter world. Yet, a ...
Spivak Amanda C - - 2009
Food web composition and resource levels can influence ecosystem properties such as productivity and elemental cycles. In particular, herbivores occupy a central place in food webs as the species richness and composition of this trophic level may simultaneously influence the transmission of resource and predator effects to higher and lower ...
Byers James E - - 2009
Growing evidence indicates parasite inclusion in food-web analyses is a logical default. Comparisons of food webs including and excluding host-parasite interactions demonstrate the influence of parasites on community dynamics. Although including parasites is undoubtedly informative, the necessary level of detail exists for only a handful of systems. In a recent ...
Casini Michele - - 2009
Fisheries can have a large impact on marine ecosystems, because the effects of removing large predatory fish may cascade down the food web. The implications of these cascading processes on system functioning and resilience remain a source of intense scientific debate. By using field data covering a 30-year period, we ...
Boyd Eric S - - 2009
Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits ...
McLachlan Athol J - - 2009
Detritus (dead organic matter), largely of terrestrial origin, is superabundant in inland waters but because of its indigestible nature, would appear to be a poor food source for animals. Yet this unpromising material is widely used as food and indeed can be viewed as a defining characteristic of the freshwater ...
Edeline Eric - - 2008
Selection can alter predator-prey interactions. However, whether and how complex food-webs respond to selection remain largely unknown. We show in the field that antagonistic selection from predators and pathogens on prey body-size can be a primary driver of food-web functioning. In Windermere, U.K., pike (Esox lucius, the predator) selected against ...
Prince Emily K - - 2008
Biotic interactions in the plankton can be both complex and dynamic. Competition among phytoplankton is often chemically mediated, but no studies have considered whether allelopathic compounds are modified by biotic interactions. Here, we show that compounds exuded during Karenia brevis blooms were allelopathic to the cosmopolitan diatom Skeletonema costatum, but ...
Chin Karen - - 2008
As the earth faces a warming climate, the rock record reminds us that comparable climatic scenarios have occurred before. In the Late Cretaceous, Arctic marine organisms were not subject to frigid temperatures but still contended with seasonal extremes in photoperiod. Here, we describe an unusual fossil assemblage from Devon Island, ...
Srivastava D S - - 2008
Ecologists have hypothesized that the exponent of species-area power functions (z value) should increase with trophic level. The main explanation for this pattern has been that specialist predators require prior colonization of a patch by their prey, resulting in a compounding of the effects of area up trophic levels. We ...
Gaten Edward - - 2008
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a keystone species in the southern ocean ecosystem where it is the main consumer of phytoplankton and constitutes the main food item of many higher predators. Both food and predators are most abundant at the surface, thus krill hide in the depth of the ocean ...
Pringle Robert M - - 2008
Understanding food-web dynamics requires knowing whether species assemblages are compartmentalized into distinct energy channels, and, if so, how these channels are structured in space. We used isotopic analyses to reconstruct the food web of a Kenyan wooded grassland. Insect prey were relatively specialized consumers of either C3 (trees and shrubs) ...
Walters Annika W - - 2008
Streams experience frequent natural disturbance and are undergoing considerable anthropogenic disturbance due to dam construction and water diversion. Disturbance is known to impact community structure, but its effect on food chain length is still a matter of considerable debate. Theoretical models show that longer food chains are less resilient to ...
Hall Spencer R - - 2009
Epidemiologists increasingly realize that species interactions (e.g. selective predation) can determine when epidemics start and end. We hypothesize here that resource quality can also strongly influence disease dynamics: epidemics can be inhibited when resource quality for hosts is too poor and too good. In three lakes, resource quality for the ...
Sabat Pablo - - 2009
The urine field osmolality in Zonotrichia capensis along a latitudinal gradient in rainfall and temperature in Chile was examined. We also investigated latitudinal variation in the renal traits that mediate how these birds cope with dehydration. We used the delta15N of this species' tissue to investigate whether the reliance on ...
Chen Celia C Department of Biological Sciences, HB 6044, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. - - 2008
The spatial variation of MeHg production, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in marine food webs is poorly characterized but critical to understanding the links between sources and higher trophic levels, such as fish that are ultimately vectors of human and wildlife exposure. This article discusses both large and local scale processes controlling ...
Brose Ulrich - - 2008
Herbivorous top-down forces and bottom-up competition for nutrients determine the coexistence and relative biomass patterns of producer species. Combining models of predator-prey and producer-nutrient interactions with a structural model of complex food webs, I investigated these two aspects in a dynamic food-web model. While competitive exclusion leads to persistence of ...
O'Gorman Eoin J - - 2008
We manipulated the diversity of top predators in a three trophic level marine food web. The food web included four top benthic marine fish predators (black goby, rock goby, sea scorpion and shore rockling), an intermediate trophic level of small fish, and a lower trophic level of benthic invertebrates. We ...
Kullmann Harald - - 2008
Group living has evolved as an adaptation to predation in many animal species. In a multitude of vertebrates, the tendency to aggregate varies with the risk of predation, but experimental evidence for this is less well known in invertebrates. Here, we examine the tendency to aggregate in the freshwater amphipod ...
Murai Ryota - - 2008
The measurement of organotins in the various biotas of coastal food webs with stable nitrogen isotope ratios (delta(15)N), which increase 3.4 per thousand per trophic level, can provide a biomagnification profile of organotins through food web. In this study, various biological samples were collected from three localities in Western Japan ...
Kondoh Michio - - 2008
Understanding what maintains species and perpetuates their coexistence in a network of feeding relationships (the food web) is of great importance for biodiversity conservation. A food web can be viewed as consisting of a number of simple subunits called trophic modules. Intraguild predation (IGP), in which a prey and its ...
Gérard Claudia - - 2009
Community structure and microcystin accumulation of freshwater molluscs were studied before and after cyanobacterial proliferations, in order to assess the impact of toxic blooms on molluscs and the risk of microcystin transfer in food web. Observed decrease in mollusc abundance and changes in species richness in highly contaminated waters were ...
Gracey Andrew Y - - 2008
The physiological strategies that enable organisms to thrive in habitats where environmental factors vary dramatically on a daily basis are poorly understood. One of the most variable and unpredictable habitats on earth is the marine rocky intertidal zone located at the boundary between the terrestrial and marine environments. Mussels dominate ...
Desneux N - - 2008
Generalist insect predators can significantly impact the dynamics of pest populations; and, using alternative prey, they can rapidly establish in disturbed agroecosystems. However, indirect interactions between prey can occur, leading to either increased or decreased predation on focal prey. The present paper demonstrates how alternative prey can disrupt predation by ...
Ng Carla A - - 2008
The global spread of invasive species is changing the structure of aquatic food webs worldwide. The North American Great Lakes have proved particularly vulnerable to this threat. In nearshore areas, invasive benthic species such as dreissenid mussels and round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) have gained dominance in recent years. Such species ...
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