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Sabat Pablo - - 2009
One of the most controversial hypotheses that associate basal metabolic rate (BMR) with food habits and habitat productivity is the food habit hypothesis (FHH). Here we examined the relationship between BMR, diet, and climate among populations of the omnivorous passerine, Zonotrichia capensis (Emberizidae). We used nitrogen stable isotopes to estimate ...
Lindegren Martin - - 2009
Worldwide a number of fish stocks have collapsed because of overfishing and climate-induced ecosystem changes. Developing ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) to prevent these catastrophic events in the future requires ecological models incorporating both internal food-web dynamics and external drivers such as fishing and climate. Using a stochastic food-web model for ...
Levin Lisa A LA Integrative Oceanography Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0218, USA. - - 2009
Continental margins, where land becomes ocean and plunges to the deep sea, provide valuable food and energy resources, and perform essential functions such as carbon burial and nutrient cycling. They exhibit remarkably high species and habitat diversity, but this is threatened by our increasing reliance on the resources that margins ...
Wolkovich Elizabeth Mary - - 2009
Plant invasions have tremendous potential to alter food webs by changing basal resources. Recent studies document how plant invasions may contribute to increased arthropod abundances in detritus-based food webs. An obvious mechanism for this phenomenon-a bottom-up effect resulting from elevated levels of detritus from the invasive plant litter-has not been ...
Gross Thilo - - 2009
Insights into what stabilizes natural food webs have always been limited by a fundamental dilemma: Studies either need to make unwarranted simplifying assumptions, which undermines their relevance, or only examine few replicates of small food webs, which hampers the robustness of findings. We used generalized modeling to study several billion ...
O'Gorman Eoin J - - 2009
The pattern of predator-prey interactions is thought to be a key determinant of ecosystem processes and stability. Complex ecological networks are characterized by distributions of interaction strengths that are highly skewed, with many weak and few strong interactors present. Theory suggests that this pattern promotes stability as weak interactors dampen ...
Brown G E - - 2009
The effects of food ration and social context, as well as possible interactions, on the antipredator behaviour of juvenile rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss were investigated in a pair of laboratory studies. In experiment 1, pairs of dominant and subordinate O. mykiss were exposed to conspecific alarm cues when maintained under ...
Gaonkar Chetan A - - 2010
Zooplankton abundance, biomass, and composition from the ports of Mumbai, India, were studied by selecting 14 stations in and around the area during three different periods between 2001 and 2002 (Nov 01, Apr 02, and Oct 02). The results are compared with the records available since the 1940s. Copepod species ...
O'Connor Mary I - - 2009
Climate change disrupts ecological systems in many ways. Many documented responses depend on species' life histories, contributing to the view that climate change effects are important but difficult to characterize generally. However, systematic variation in metabolic effects of temperature across trophic levels suggests that warming may lead to predictable shifts ...
Tófoli C F CF Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil, 13506-900. - - 2009
Food habits of jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) (Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) were studied between November 2000 and November 2001, in a 24.9 km(2) area of secondary Atlantic Rainforest and eucalypt plantation, in the Serra de Paranapiacaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Analyses of 26 fecal and regurgitate samples, obtained over a stretch ...
Fröbisch Jörg - - 2009
Vertebrates have repeatedly filled and partitioned the terrestrial ecosystem, and have been able to occupy new, previously unexplored habitats throughout their history on land. The arboreal ecospace is particularly important in vertebrate evolution because it provides new food resources and protection from large ground-dwelling predators. We investigated the skeletal anatomy ...
Mayntz David - - 2009
Predator foraging may be affected by previous prey capture, but it is unknown how nutrient balance affects foraging behaviour. Here, we use a trap-building predator to test whether nutrients from previous prey captures affect foraging behaviour. We fed orb-weaving spiders (Zygiella x-notata) prey flies of different nutrient composition and in ...
Stiner Mary C - - 2009
Zooarchaeological research at Qesem Cave, Israel demonstrates that large-game hunting was a regular practice by the late Lower Paleolithic period. The 400- to 200,000-year-old fallow deer assemblages from this cave provide early examples of prime-age-focused ungulate hunting, a human predator-prey relationship that has persisted into recent times. The meat diet ...
Slos Stefanie - - 2009
Despite the potential impact on prey fitness and predator-prey interactions, most studies of predation risk ignore physiological responses and their dependence upon food level and sex. Therefore, we reared male and female larvae of the damselfly Lestes viridis under predator stress (dragonfly larvae) at high and low food levels, and ...
Lazzaro Xavier - - 2009
1. The structure and dynamics of prey populations are shaped by the foraging behaviours of their predators. Yet, there is still little documentation on how distinct predator foraging types control biodiversity, food-web architecture and ecosystem functioning. 2. We experimentally compared the effects of model fish species of two major foraging ...
Previtali M Andrea - - 2009
Precipitation plays an important role in the dynamics of species found in arid and semiarid environments. However, population fluctuations generally are driven by a combination of multiple factors whose relative contribution may vary through time and among species. We monitored fluctuations of species in three trophic levels for >17 years ...
Ingram Travis - - 2009
The features that govern the stability and persistence of species interaction networks, such as food webs, remain elusive, but recent work suggests that the distribution and strength of trophic links play an important role. Potential omnivory-stability relationships have been investigated and debated extensively, but we still have a relatively poor ...
Estes J A - - 2009
Populations of sea otters, seals and sea lions have collapsed across much of southwest Alaska over the past several decades. The sea otter decline set off a trophic cascade in which the coastal marine ecosystem underwent a phase shift from kelp forests to deforested sea urchin barrens. This interaction in ...
Dobson Andy - - 2009
The central organizing theme of this paper is to discuss the dynamics of the Serengeti grassland ecosystem from the perspective of recent developments in food-web theory. The seasonal rainfall patterns that characterize the East African climate create an annually oscillating, large-scale, spatial mosaic of feeding opportunities for the larger ungulates ...
Memmott Jane - - 2009
While food webs have provided a rich vein of research material over the last 50 years, they have largely been the subject matter of the pure ecologist working in natural habitats. While there are some notable exceptions to this trend, there are, as I explain in this paper, many applied ...
McCann Kevin Shear - - 2009
Here, we synthesize a number of recent empirical and theoretical papers to argue that food-web dynamics are characterized by high amounts of spatial and temporal variability and that organisms respond predictably, via behaviour, to these changing conditions. Such behavioural responses on the landscape drive a highly adaptive food-web structure in ...
Dunne Jennifer A - - 2009
Species loss in ecosystems can lead to secondary extinctions as a result of consumer-resource relationships and other species interactions. We compare levels of secondary extinctions in communities generated by four structural food-web models and a fifth null model in response to sequential primary species removals. We focus on various aspects ...
Bodini Antonio - - 2009
In ecosystems, a single extinction event can give rise to multiple 'secondary' extinctions. Conservation effort would benefit from tools that help forecast the consequences of species removal. One such tool is the dominator tree, a graph-theoretic algorithm that when applied to food webs unfolds their complex architecture, yielding a simpler ...
Allesina Stefano - - 2009
The robustness of ecosystems to species losses is a central question in ecology, given the current pace of extinctions and the many species threatened by human impacts, including habitat destruction and climate change. Robustness from the perspective of secondary extinctions has been addressed in the context of food webs to ...
Olff Han - - 2009
In ecosystems, species interact with other species directly and through abiotic factors in multiple ways, often forming complex networks of various types of ecological interaction. Out of this suite of interactions, predator-prey interactions have received most attention. The resulting food webs, however, will always operate simultaneously with networks based on ...
Romanuk Tamara N - - 2009
A central and perhaps insurmountable challenge of invasion ecology is to predict which combinations of species and habitats most effectively promote and prevent biological invasions. Here, we integrate models of network structure and nonlinear population dynamics to search for potential generalities among trophic factors that may drive invasion success and ...
Srinivasu P D N - - 2010
Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the ...
Millon Alexandre - - 2009
1. Changes in community composition are expected to entail cascading effects at different trophic levels within a food web. However, empirical evidence on the impact of changes in prey communities on the population dynamics of generalist predators, and on the extent of possible feedback processes, remains scarce. 2. We analysed ...
Takahashi T - - 2009
Divergent natural selection is thought to play a vital role in speciation, but clear, measurable examples from nature are still few. Among the many possible sources of divergent natural selection, predation pressure may be important because predators are ubiquitous in food webs. Here, we show evidence for divergent natural selection ...
Beauchamp Guy - - 2009
Despite its fundamental relevance to many ecological processes in predator-prey relationships, the functional response, which relates predator intake rate to prey density, remains difficult to document in the field. Here, I document the functional response of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) foraging on a burrowing amphipod Corophium volutator during three field ...
Chelini Marie-Claire - - 2009
Animals present an enormous variety of behavioural defensive mechanisms, which increase their survival, but often at a cost. Several animal taxa reduce their chances of being detected and/or recognized as prey items by freezing (remaining completely motionless) in the presence of a predator. We studied costs and benefits of freezing ...
Kondoh Michio - - 2009
Food-chain length, the number of feeding links from the basal species to the top predator, is a key characteristic of biological communities. However, the determinants of food-chain length still remain controversial. While classical theory predicts that food-chain length should increase with increasing resource availability, empirical supports of this prediction are ...
Pafilis Panayiotis - - 2009
Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards (Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have ...
Banasek-Richter Carolin - - 2009
Food webs depict who eats whom in communities. Ecologists have examined statistical metrics and other properties of food webs, but mainly due to the uneven quality of the data, the results have proved controversial. The qualitative data on which those efforts rested treat trophic interactions as present or absent and ...
Tan Eunice J - - 2009
Many species of the orb-web spider genus Cyclosa often adorn their webs with decorations of prey remains, egg sacs and/or plant detritus, termed ;detritus decorations'. These detritus decorations have been hypothesised to camouflage the spider from predators or prey and thus reduce predation risk or increase foraging success. In the ...
Tomy Gregg T - - 2009
The trophodynamics of per- and polyfluorinated compounds and bromine-based flame retardants were examined in components of a marine food web from the western Canadian Arctic. The animals studied and their relative trophic status in the food web, established using stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta15N), were beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) > ringed ...
Rezende Enrico L - - 2009
A long-standing question in community ecology is whether food webs are organized in compartments, where species within the same compartment interact frequently among themselves, but show fewer interactions with species from other compartments. Finding evidence for this community organization is important since compartmentalization may strongly affect food web robustness to ...
Rohwer Forest - - 2009
Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown ...
Buitenhuis R - - 2010
The relationships between the predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), and their prey, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were investigated to determine the effects of predation on intra-guild or extra-guild prey and predator preference. Life history characteristics of both predatory mites were ...
Beckerman Andrew P - - 2009
Food webs, descriptions of who is eating whom in an ecosystem, are one of the most enduring and influential concepts in ecology. An increasing number of studies are including parasite-host feeding interactions in food webs, each providing evidence that parasites alter our perception of food web structure. Amundsen et al. ...
Kishida Osamu - - 2009
Antagonistic phenotypic plasticity may strongly influence trait evolution in tightly interacting predator-prey pairs as well as the role that trait plasticity plays in community dynamics. Most work on trait plasticity has focused on single predator-prey pairs, but prey must often contend with multiple predators in natural environments. Hence, a better ...
Vannier J - - 2009
Exceptional fossil specimens with preserved soft parts from the Maotianshan Shale (ca 520 Myr ago) and the Burgess Shale (505 Myr ago) biotas indicate that the worldwide distributed bivalved arthropod Isoxys was probably a non-benthic visual predator. New lines of evidence come from the functional morphology of its powerful prehensile ...
Pawar Samraat - - 2009
To understand the dynamics of natural species communities, a major challenge is to quantify the relationship between their assembly, stability, and underlying food web structure. To this end, two complementary aspects of food web structure can be related to community stability: sign structure, which refers to the distributions of trophic ...
Rohner, Christoph
Great homed owls (Bubo virginianus) are among the most opportunistic avian predators. In the subarctic boreal forest, their diet consists mainly of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), which show extreme population cycles with a 8-11 year period. The aim of this thesis was to study the population ecology of great homed ...
Fyda Janusz - - 2009
Using laboratory microcosms, we studied direct and indirect interactions among different components of bi- and tritrophic communities. Filamentous cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp.) and autotrophic flagellates (Chlorogonium elongatum) were primary producers. The second trophic level was represented by ciliates Furgasonia blochmanni and Pseudomicrothorax dubius grazing on the filamentous cyanobacteria and two filter ...
Lewis Danny - - 2009
1. Entry of substantial numbers of natural enemies from outside a habitat can have profound impacts on food web structure in the recipient habitat, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, including the role of relative predator fitness in source and recipient habitats. We studied a naturally occurring annual movement of ...
Kimbro David L - - 2009
Although invasive species often resemble their native counterparts, differences in their foraging and anti-predator strategies may disrupt native food webs. In a California estuary, we showed that regions dominated by native crabs and native whelks have low mortality of native oysters (the basal prey), while regions dominated by invasive crabs ...
Sabo John L - - 2009
There are three hypothesized controls on food-chain length (FCL): energy supply (or "resource availability"), ecosystem size and disturbance (or "environmental variation"). In this article, the evidence for controls on FCL in freshwater ecosystems is evaluated. First, the various ways FCL can be measured are defined. Food-chain length typically is estimated ...
Srivastava Diane S - - 2009
The flow of energy and nutrients between trophic levels is affected by both the trophic structure of food webs and the diversity of species within trophic levels. However, the combined effects of trophic structure and diversity on trophic transfer remain largely unknown. Here we ask whether changes in consumer diversity ...
De Laender Frederik - - 2009
Bioaccumulation models predict internal concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals by incorporating key gain/loss processes reflecting the ecology of the exposed species and the characteristics of the chemical. Here, we propose a new methodology that uses ecological data and the principle of mass balance in food webs to estimate bioaccumulation in food ...
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