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Zhang Jiang - - 2010
Food webs can be regarded as energy transporting networks in which the weight of each edge denotes the energy flux between two species. By investigating 21 empirical weighted food webs as energy flow networks, we found several ubiquitous scaling behaviors. Two random variables A(i) and C(i) defined for each vertex ...
Lindegren Martin - - 2010
Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels and properly including uncertainty. The methodology presented here assesses the combined ...
Ianora Adrianna - - 2010
Traditionally, diatoms have been regarded as providing the bulk of the food that sustains the marine food chain and important fisheries. However, this view was challenged almost two decades ago on the basis of laboratory and field studies showing that when copepods, the principal predators of diatoms, feed on certain ...
Small Gaston E - - 2010
A central tenet of ecological stoichiometry is that consumer elemental composition is relatively independent of food resource nutrient content. Although the P content of some invertebrate consumer taxa can increase as a consequence of P-enriched food resources, little is known about how ecosystem nutrient loading can affect the elemental composition ...
Chase Jonathan M - - 2010
Habitat isolation is well known to alter patterns of species' abundance, richness, and the ratios of predators : prey. Less clear, however, is how isolation alters interactions within food webs. Here, we present the results from an experiment performed in artificial ponds (mesocosms) manipulating habitat isolation crossed with a predator ...
Johnson Pieter T J - - 2010
Recent efforts to include parasites in food webs have drawn attention to a previously ignored facet of foraging ecology: parasites commonly function as prey within ecosystems. Because of the high productivity of parasites, their unique nutritional composition and their pathogenicity in hosts, their consumption affects both food-web topology and disease ...
van der Hammen Tessa - - 2010
When intraguild predation is reciprocal, i.e. two predator species kill and feed on each other, theory predicts that well-mixed populations of the two species cannot coexist. At low levels of the shared resource, only the best competitor exists, whereas if the level of the common resource is high, the first ...
Lef?vre Emilie - - 2010
Recently, molecular environmental surveys of the eukaryotic microbial community in lakes have revealed a high diversity of sequences belonging to uncultured zoosporic fungi. Although they are known as saprobes and algal parasites in freshwater systems, zoosporic fungi have been neglected in microbial food web studies. Recently, it has been suggested ...
Choy Emily S - - 2010
At Cape Vera (Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada), a seabird colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) congregates and releases nutrients through the deposition of guano to the coastal terrestrial environment, thus creating nutrient-fertilized habitats important to insects, birds, and mammals. Here we determined whether mercury was similarly enriched in various terrestrial ...
Rip Jason M K - - 2010
Large-scale changes to the world's ecosystem are resulting in the deterioration of biostructure-the complex web of species interactions that make up ecological communities. A difficult, yet crucial task is to identify food web structures, or food web motifs, that are the building blocks of this baroque network of interactions. Once ...
Minto W J - - 2010
The aim of this work was to evaluate whether diel vertical migration of microcrustaceans from Lake Monte Alegre is related to invertebrate predators, namely larvae of Chaoborus brasiliensis. The hypothesis tested in the experiments was that the migratory behaviour of prey would depend on physical contact with Chaoborus brasiliensis larvae ...
Berger-Tal Oded - - 2010
Predator-prey interactions are usually composed of behaviorally sophisticated games in which the values of the strategies of foraging prey individuals may depend on those of their predators, and vice versa. Therefore, any change in the behavior of the predator should result in changes to the behavior of the prey. However, ...
Gouhier Tarik C - - 2010
Synchrony has fundamental but conflicting implications for the persistence and stability of food webs at local and regional scales. In a constant environment, compensatory dynamics between species can maintain food web stability, but factors that synchronize population fluctuations within and between communities are expected to be destabilizing. We studied the ...
O'Gorman Eoin J - - 2010
1. We established complex marine communities, consisting of over 100 species, in large subtidal experimental mesocosms. We measured the strength of direct interactions and the net strength of direct and indirect interactions between the species in those communities, using a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches. 2. Theoretical predictions of ...
Carreon-Martinez L - - 2010
Characterization of energy flow in ecosystems is one of the primary goals of ecology, and the analysis of trophic interactions and food web dynamics is key to quantifying energy flow. Predator-prey interactions define the majority of trophic interactions and food web dynamics, and visual analysis of stomach, gut or fecal ...
Adams Layne G - - 2010
Wolves (Canis lupus) in North America are considered obligate predators of ungulates with other food resources playing little role in wolf population dynamics or wolf prey relations. However, spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhyncus spp.) are common throughout wolf range in northwestern North America and may provide a marine subsidy affecting inland ...
Costa Michel I da Silveira - - 2010
An Integrated Pest Management is formulated as a threshold policy. It is shown that when this strategy is applied to a food web consisting of generalist, specialist predators and endemic and pest prey, the dynamics can be stable and useful from the pest control point of view, despite the dynamical ...
Kaartvedt Stein - - 2010
The prototype of Meganyctiphanes norvegica diel vertical migration (DVM) behaviour comprises ascent around dusk, feeding near the surface at night, and descent at dawn, explained as a trade-off between feeding and predator avoidance in an environment where both food and risk of predation is highest near surface. Light is the ...
Barnes Carolyn - - 2010
Predator-prey body size relationships influence food chain length, trophic structure, transfer efficiency, interaction strength, and the bioaccumulation of contaminants. Improved quantification of these relationships and their response to the environment is needed to parameterize food web models and describe food web structure and function. A compiled data set comprising 29582 ...
Nakazawa Takefumi - - 2010
Characterizing relationships between individual body size and trophic niche position is essential for understanding how population and food-web dynamics are mediated by size-dependent trophic interactions. However, whether (and how) intraspecific size-trophic relationships (i.e., trophic ontogeny pattern at the population level) vary with time remains poorly understood. Using archival specimens of ...
Jonker Rudy M - - 2010
Understanding stopover decisions of long-distance migratory birds is crucial for conservation and management of these species along their migratory flyway. Recently, an increasing number of Barnacle geese breeding in the Russian Arctic have delayed their departure from their wintering site in The Netherlands by approximately one month and have reduced ...
Parsons Michael H - - 2010
Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials ...
Jalali Mohammad Amin - - 2010
The ability of a natural enemy to tolerate a wide temperature range is a critical factor in the evaluation of its suitability as a biological control agent. In the current study, temperature-dependent development of the two-spotted ladybeetle A. bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) ...
Shackell Nancy L - - 2010
Globally, overfishing large-bodied groundfish populations has resulted in substantial increases in their prey populations. Where it has been examined, the effects of overfishing have cascaded down the food chain. In an intensively fished area on the western Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic, the biomass of prey species increased exponentially (doubling time ...
Cohen Joel E - - 2009
Many studies have aimed to understand food webs by investigating components such as trophic links (one consumer taxon eats one resource taxon), tritrophic interactions (one consumer eats an intermediate taxon, which eats a resource), or longer chains of links. We show here that none of these components (links, tritrophic interactions, ...
Davis John M - - 2010
Increased nutrient mobilization by human activities represents one of the greatest threats to global ecosystems, but its effects on ecosystem productivity can differ depending on food web structure. When this structure facilitates efficient energy transfers to higher trophic levels, evidence from previous large-scale enrichments suggests that nutrients can stimulate the ...
Walsh Matthew R - - 2010
Early theories of life-history evolution predict that increased predation on young/small individuals selects for delayed maturation and decreased reproductive effort, but such theory only considers changes in mortality. Predators reduce prey abundance and increase food to survivors. Theory that incorporates such indirect effects yields different predictions. Trinidadian killifish, Rivulus hartii, ...
Hironaga Ryo - - 2010
Extinction affected food web structure in paleoecosystems. Recent theoretical studies that examined the effects of extinction intensity on food web structure on ecological time scales have considered extinction to involve episodic events, with pre-extinction food webs becoming established without dynamics. However, in terms of the paleontological time scale, food web ...
Kaspari Michael - - 2009
Litter invertebrates are notoriously patchy at small scales. Here we show that the abundance of 10 litter taxa also varies 100-fold at landscape and regional scales across 26 forest stands in Peru and Panama. We contrast three hypotheses that link gradients of abundance to ecosystem biogeochemistry. Of 14 factors considered ...
De Laender Frederik - - 2010
The majority of ecotoxicological enclosure experiments monitor species abundances at different chemical concentrations. Here, we present a new modelling approach that estimates changes in food web flows from such data and show that population- and food web level effects are revealed that are not apparent from abundance data alone. For ...
Stouffer Daniel B - - 2010
Understanding food-web persistence is an important long-term objective of ecology because of its relevance in maintaining biodiversity. To date, many dynamic studies of food-web behaviour--both empirical and theoretical--have focused on smaller sub-webs, called trophic modules, because these modules are more tractable experimentally and analytically than whole food webs. The question ...
B?naru Daniela - - 2010
The present study shows how marine commercial fish food webs dramatically changed in the north-western Black Sea on both pelagic and benthic environments. Fisheries landings, diversity and equitability strongly decreased between 1965-1970 and 2001-2005. Fishes adapted their feeding behaviour to the increasingly low species diversity of the Black Sea communities. ...
Hammill Edd - - 2010
A vast body of literature exists documenting the morphological, behavioural and life history changes that predators induce in prey. However, little attention has been paid to how these induced changes feed back and affect the predators' life history and morphology. Larvae of the phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans are intermediate predators ...
Yeakel Justin D - - 2009
Cooperation is the cornerstone of lion social behavior. In a notorious case, a coalition of two adult male lions from Tsavo, southern Kenya, cooperatively killed dozens of railway workers in 1898. The "man-eaters of Tsavo" have since become the subject of numerous popular accounts, including three Hollywood films. Yet the ...
Metzger Keith A - - 2009
Studies of the functional morphology of feeding have typically not included an analysis of the potential for the kinematics of the gape cycle to vary based on the material properties of the prey item being consumed. Variation in prey properties is expected not only to reveal variation in feeding function, ...
Faria L D B - - 2009
Food webs usually display an intricate mix of trophic interactions where multiple prey are common. In this context omnivory has been the subject of intensive analysis regarding food web stability and structure. In a three species omnivory setting it is shown that the modeling of prey preference by the top ...
Haynes Kyle J - - 2009
In many study systems, populations fluctuate synchronously across large regions. Several mechanisms have been advanced to explain this, but their importance in nature is often uncertain. Theoretical studies suggest that spatial synchrony initiated in one species through Moran effects may propagate among trophically linked species, but evidence for this in ...
Beninc?? Elisa - - 2009
Coupling of several predator-prey oscillations can generate intriguing patterns of synchronization and chaos. Theory predicts that prey species will fluctuate in phase if predator-prey cycles are coupled through generalist predators, whereas they will fluctuate in anti-phase if predator-prey cycles are coupled through competition between prey species. Here, we investigate predator-prey ...
Vucic-Pestic Olivera - - 2010
1. Functional responses quantify the per capita consumption rates of predators depending on prey density. The parameters of these nonlinear interaction strength models were recently used as successful proxies for predicting population dynamics, food-web topology and stability. 2. This study addressed systematic effects of predator and prey body masses on ...
Nakata Kensuke - - 2010
Focusing attention is a way for animals to search for and to obtain food efficiently. This study examines whether a sit-and-wait forager, the orb-web spider Cyclosa octotuberculata, focuses its attention on limited foraging areas. Video records of foraging activity revealed that the spiders detected prey trapped in the west and ...
Azanza Rhodora V - - 2010
For the first time the potential of Noctiluca scintillans, a non-toxic mixotrophic dinoflagellate, in bioconverting and/or excreting saxitoxin has been illustrated, thus contributing to the limited knowledge on the aspects of toxin pathways in the food chain/web and predator-prey preferences. Noctiluca growth rate increased with higher Pyrodinium concentration but the ...
Cagnolo Luciano - - 2009
Not all species are likely to be equally affected by habitat fragmentation; thus, we evaluated the effects of size of forest remnants on trophically linked communities of plants, leaf-mining insects, and their parasitoids. We explored the possibility of differential vulnerability to habitat area reduction in relation to species-specific and food-web ...
Ponton Dominic E - - 2010
Nickel (Ni) is a widespread contaminant present at toxic concentrations in aquatic systems in the vicinity of some mining and smelting operations. However, its accumulation by aquatic animals has been little studied and there are few biomonitors for this metal. Recently, larvae of the aquatic insect Chaoborus were shown to ...
Malzahn Arne M - - 2010
Nutritional imbalances between predator and prey are the rule rather than the exception at the lower end of food webs. We investigated the role of different grazers in the propagation of nutritionally imbalanced primary production by using the same primary producers in a three-trophic-level food chain and a four-trophic-level food ...
Carey Michael P - - 2010
Top predators can have different foraging modes that may alter their interactions and effects on food webs. Interactions between predators may be non-additive resulting from facilitation or interference, whereas their combined effects on a shared prey may result in emergent effects that are risk enhanced or risk reduced. To test ...
Barton Brandon T - - 2009
This experimental study tests new theory for multiple predator effects on communities by using warming to alter predator habitat use and hence direct and indirect interactions in a grassland food web containing two dominant spider predator species, a dominant grasshopper herbivore and grass and herb plants. Experimental warming further offers ...
Ford John K B - - 2010
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are large predators that occupy the top trophic position in the world's oceans and as such may have important roles in marine ecosystem dynamics. Although the possible top-down effects of killer whale predation on populations of their prey have received much recent attention, little is known ...
Estók Péter - - 2010
Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed ...
Kohzu Ayato - - 2009
Overgrazing often lowers species richness and productivity of grassland communities. For Mongolian grassland ecosystems, a lack of detailed information about food-web structures makes it difficult to predict the effects of overgrazing on species diversity and community composition. We analysed the delta13C and delta15N signatures of herbaceous plants, arthropods (grouped by ...
Henry Anna E - - 2009
To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and beverages advertised ...
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