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Woodward Guy - - 2010
Fresh waters are particularly vulnerable to climate change because (i) many species within these fragmented habitats have limited abilities to disperse as the environment changes; (ii) water temperature and availability are climate-dependent; and (iii) many systems are already exposed to numerous anthropogenic stressors. Most climate change studies to date have ...
Sarmento Hugo - - 2010
Previsions of a warmer ocean as a consequence of climatic change point to a 2-6 degrees C temperature rise during this century in surface oceanic waters. Heterotrophic bacteria occupy the central position of the marine microbial food web, and their metabolic activity and interactions with other compartments within the web ...
Bengtson Nash Susan - - 2010
In order to investigate the extent to which Perfluorinated Contaminants (PFCs) have permeated the Southern Ocean food web to date, a range of Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and Antarctic-migratory biota were analysed for key ionic PFCs. Based upon the geographical distribution pattern and ecology of biota with detectable vs. non-detectable PFC burdens, ...
Romero Gustavo Q - - 2010
1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction. 2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna ...
Schofield Oscar - - 2010
Climate change will alter marine ecosystems; however, the complexity of the food webs, combined with chronic undersampling, constrains efforts to predict their future and to optimally manage and protect marine resources. Sustained observations at the West Antarctic Peninsula show that in this region, rapid environmental change has coincided with shifts ...
Hoegh-Guldberg Ove - - 2010
Marine ecosystems are centrally important to the biology of the planet, yet a comprehensive understanding of how anthropogenic climate change is affecting them has been poorly developed. Recent studies indicate that rapidly rising greenhouse gas concentrations are driving ocean systems toward conditions not seen for millions of years, with an ...
Borgå Katrine - - 2010
Climate change is expected to alter environmental distribution of contaminants and their bioaccumulation due to changes in transport, partitioning, carbon pathways, and bioaccumulation process rates. Magnitude and direction of these changes and resulting overall bioaccumulation in food webs is currently not known. The present study investigates and quantifies the effect ...
Tirok Katrin - - 2010
The individual functional traits of different species play a key role for ecosystem function in aquatic and terrestrial systems. We modeled a multispecies predator-prey system with functionally different predator and prey species based on observations of the community dynamics of ciliates and their algal prey in Lake Constance. The model ...
Park Hong-Hyun - - 2010
Predation, development, and oviposition experiments were conducted to evaluate Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a potential biological control agent for tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae), which can be a serious pest of greenhouse tomatoes. Results showed that A. swirskii attacked all developmental stages of A. lycopersici ...
Travers Marc - - 2010
Predator-induced changes in physiology and behaviour may negatively affect a prey's birth rate. Evidence of such indirect predator effects on prey demography remains scarce in birds and mammals despite invertebrate and aquatic studies that suggest ignoring such effects risks profoundly underestimating the total impact of predators. We report the first ...
Solić M - - 2010
Vranjic Basin, in the eastern part of KastelaBay (middle Adriatic Sea), received municipal wastewater until offshore submarine outfalls were finished in November 2004. To identify the responses of the microbial community to changes in the trophic status of the marine environment, two 4-year periods were compared: a eutrophic period (2001-2004) ...
Kratina Pavel - - 2010
1. Intraguild predation is widespread in nature despite its potentially destabilizing effect on food web dynamics. 2. Anti-predator inducible defences affect both birth and death rates of populations and have the potential to substantially modify food web dynamics and possibly increase persistence of intraguild prey. 3. In a chemostat experiment, ...
Staniczenko Phillip P A - - 2010
Food web structure plays an important role when determining robustness to cascading secondary extinctions. However, existing food web models do not take into account likely changes in trophic interactions ('rewiring') following species loss. We investigated structural dynamics in 12 empirically documented food webs by simulating primary species loss using three ...
McHugh Peter A - - 2010
The number of trophic transfers occurring between basal resources and top predators, food chain length (FCL), varies widely in the world's ecosystems for reasons that are poorly understood, particularly for stream ecosystems. Available evidence indicates that FCL is set by energetic constraints, environmental stochasticity, or ecosystem size effects, although no ...
Brockmark S - - 2010
Theory suggests that habitat structure and population density profoundly influence the phenotypic development of animals. Here, we predicted that reduced rearing density and increased structural complexity promote food search ability, anti-predator response and the ability to forage on novel prey, all behavioural skills important for surviving in the wild. Brown ...
Rossberg Axel G - - 2010
A question central to modelling and, ultimately, managing food webs concerns the dimensionality of trophic niche space, that is, the number of independent traits relevant for determining consumer-resource links. Food-web topologies can often be interpreted by assuming resource traits to be specified by points along a line and each consumer's ...
Jonasson Sara - - 2010
beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria, has been proposed to be the causative agent of devastating neurodegenerative diseases on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. Because cyanobacteria are widespread globally, we hypothesized that BMAA might occur and bioaccumulate in other ecosystems. Here we ...
Culp Jennifer - - 2010
To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A ...
Smallegange Isabel M - - 2010
1. Ideal-free distribution theory assumes that in a patchy environment foragers maximize fitness and hence their feeding rate by balancing gains from more food against losses from more competition. Ultimately, individuals cannot increase their feeding rate by moving to another patch and they distribute themselves over patches in proportion to ...
Morozov Andrew Yu - - 2010
Food-web population models are rather sensitive to parameterization of functional response in predation terms. Theoretical studies predict enhancing of ecosystems' stability for a functional response of sigmoid type (Holling type III). The choice of a correct type of response is especially important for modelling outcome of grazing control of algal ...
Montagnes David J S - - 2010
Since the introduction of the microbial loop concept, awareness of the role played by protozooplankton in marine food webs has grown. By consuming bacteria, and then being consumed by metazooplankton, protozoa form a trophic link that channels dissolved organic material into the "classic" marine food chain. Beyond enhancing energy transfer ...
Sukhdeo Michael V K - - 2010
This review examines the historical origins of food web theory and explores the reasons why parasites have traditionally been left out of food web studies. Current paradigms may still be an impediment because, despite several attempts, it remains virtually impossible to retrofit parasites into food web theory in any satisfactory ...
Choh Yasuyuki - - 2010
Theory on intraguild (IG) predation predicts that coexistence of IG-predators and IG-prey is only possible for a limited set of parameter values, suggesting that IG-predation would not be common in nature. This is in conflict with the observation that IG-predation occurs in many natural systems. One possible explanation for this ...
von Berg Karsten - - 2010
Prey from the decomposer subsystem may help sustain predator populations in arable fields. Adding organic residues to agricultural systems may therefore enhance pest control. We investigated whether resource addition (maize mulch) strengthens aboveground trophic cascades in winter wheat fields. Evaluating the flux of the maize-borne carbon into the food web ...
Carrillo Daniel - - 2010
The red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an important pest of palms (Arecaceae) and other species within the Zingiberaceae, Musaceae and Strelitziaceae families. Raoiella indica was discovered in the USA (Palm Beach and Broward counties, Florida) late in 2007, and it subsequently spread to other Florida counties. The ...
Zhang Jiang - - 2010
Food webs can be regarded as energy transporting networks in which the weight of each edge denotes the energy flux between two species. By investigating 21 empirical weighted food webs as energy flow networks, we found several ubiquitous scaling behaviors. Two random variables A(i) and C(i) defined for each vertex ...
Lindegren Martin - - 2010
Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels and properly including uncertainty. The methodology presented here assesses the combined ...
Ianora Adrianna - - 2010
Traditionally, diatoms have been regarded as providing the bulk of the food that sustains the marine food chain and important fisheries. However, this view was challenged almost two decades ago on the basis of laboratory and field studies showing that when copepods, the principal predators of diatoms, feed on certain ...
Small Gaston E - - 2010
A central tenet of ecological stoichiometry is that consumer elemental composition is relatively independent of food resource nutrient content. Although the P content of some invertebrate consumer taxa can increase as a consequence of P-enriched food resources, little is known about how ecosystem nutrient loading can affect the elemental composition ...
Chase Jonathan M - - 2010
Habitat isolation is well known to alter patterns of species' abundance, richness, and the ratios of predators : prey. Less clear, however, is how isolation alters interactions within food webs. Here, we present the results from an experiment performed in artificial ponds (mesocosms) manipulating habitat isolation crossed with a predator ...
Johnson Pieter T J - - 2010
Recent efforts to include parasites in food webs have drawn attention to a previously ignored facet of foraging ecology: parasites commonly function as prey within ecosystems. Because of the high productivity of parasites, their unique nutritional composition and their pathogenicity in hosts, their consumption affects both food-web topology and disease ...
van der Hammen Tessa - - 2010
When intraguild predation is reciprocal, i.e. two predator species kill and feed on each other, theory predicts that well-mixed populations of the two species cannot coexist. At low levels of the shared resource, only the best competitor exists, whereas if the level of the common resource is high, the first ...
Lef?vre Emilie - - 2010
Recently, molecular environmental surveys of the eukaryotic microbial community in lakes have revealed a high diversity of sequences belonging to uncultured zoosporic fungi. Although they are known as saprobes and algal parasites in freshwater systems, zoosporic fungi have been neglected in microbial food web studies. Recently, it has been suggested ...
Choy Emily S - - 2010
At Cape Vera (Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada), a seabird colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) congregates and releases nutrients through the deposition of guano to the coastal terrestrial environment, thus creating nutrient-fertilized habitats important to insects, birds, and mammals. Here we determined whether mercury was similarly enriched in various terrestrial ...
Rip Jason M K - - 2010
Large-scale changes to the world's ecosystem are resulting in the deterioration of biostructure-the complex web of species interactions that make up ecological communities. A difficult, yet crucial task is to identify food web structures, or food web motifs, that are the building blocks of this baroque network of interactions. Once ...
Minto W J - - 2010
The aim of this work was to evaluate whether diel vertical migration of microcrustaceans from Lake Monte Alegre is related to invertebrate predators, namely larvae of Chaoborus brasiliensis. The hypothesis tested in the experiments was that the migratory behaviour of prey would depend on physical contact with Chaoborus brasiliensis larvae ...
Berger-Tal Oded - - 2010
Predator-prey interactions are usually composed of behaviorally sophisticated games in which the values of the strategies of foraging prey individuals may depend on those of their predators, and vice versa. Therefore, any change in the behavior of the predator should result in changes to the behavior of the prey. However, ...
Gouhier Tarik C - - 2010
Synchrony has fundamental but conflicting implications for the persistence and stability of food webs at local and regional scales. In a constant environment, compensatory dynamics between species can maintain food web stability, but factors that synchronize population fluctuations within and between communities are expected to be destabilizing. We studied the ...
O'Gorman Eoin J - - 2010
1. We established complex marine communities, consisting of over 100 species, in large subtidal experimental mesocosms. We measured the strength of direct interactions and the net strength of direct and indirect interactions between the species in those communities, using a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches. 2. Theoretical predictions of ...
Carreon-Martinez L - - 2010
Characterization of energy flow in ecosystems is one of the primary goals of ecology, and the analysis of trophic interactions and food web dynamics is key to quantifying energy flow. Predator-prey interactions define the majority of trophic interactions and food web dynamics, and visual analysis of stomach, gut or fecal ...
Adams Layne G - - 2010
Wolves (Canis lupus) in North America are considered obligate predators of ungulates with other food resources playing little role in wolf population dynamics or wolf prey relations. However, spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhyncus spp.) are common throughout wolf range in northwestern North America and may provide a marine subsidy affecting inland ...
Costa Michel I da Silveira - - 2010
An Integrated Pest Management is formulated as a threshold policy. It is shown that when this strategy is applied to a food web consisting of generalist, specialist predators and endemic and pest prey, the dynamics can be stable and useful from the pest control point of view, despite the dynamical ...
Kaartvedt Stein - - 2010
The prototype of Meganyctiphanes norvegica diel vertical migration (DVM) behaviour comprises ascent around dusk, feeding near the surface at night, and descent at dawn, explained as a trade-off between feeding and predator avoidance in an environment where both food and risk of predation is highest near surface. Light is the ...
Barnes Carolyn - - 2010
Predator-prey body size relationships influence food chain length, trophic structure, transfer efficiency, interaction strength, and the bioaccumulation of contaminants. Improved quantification of these relationships and their response to the environment is needed to parameterize food web models and describe food web structure and function. A compiled data set comprising 29582 ...
Nakazawa Takefumi - - 2010
Characterizing relationships between individual body size and trophic niche position is essential for understanding how population and food-web dynamics are mediated by size-dependent trophic interactions. However, whether (and how) intraspecific size-trophic relationships (i.e., trophic ontogeny pattern at the population level) vary with time remains poorly understood. Using archival specimens of ...
Jonker Rudy M - - 2010
Understanding stopover decisions of long-distance migratory birds is crucial for conservation and management of these species along their migratory flyway. Recently, an increasing number of Barnacle geese breeding in the Russian Arctic have delayed their departure from their wintering site in The Netherlands by approximately one month and have reduced ...
Parsons Michael H - - 2010
Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials ...
Jalali Mohammad Amin - - 2010
The ability of a natural enemy to tolerate a wide temperature range is a critical factor in the evaluation of its suitability as a biological control agent. In the current study, temperature-dependent development of the two-spotted ladybeetle A. bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) ...
Shackell Nancy L - - 2010
Globally, overfishing large-bodied groundfish populations has resulted in substantial increases in their prey populations. Where it has been examined, the effects of overfishing have cascaded down the food chain. In an intensively fished area on the western Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic, the biomass of prey species increased exponentially (doubling time ...
Cohen Joel E - - 2009
Many studies have aimed to understand food webs by investigating components such as trophic links (one consumer taxon eats one resource taxon), tritrophic interactions (one consumer eats an intermediate taxon, which eats a resource), or longer chains of links. We show here that none of these components (links, tritrophic interactions, ...
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