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Gasol Josep M - - 2002
Bacteria are relevant members of planktonic food webs, both in terms of biomass and production share. The assessment and comprehension of the factors that control bacterial abundance and production are, thus, necessary to understand how carbon and nutrients circulate in planktonic food webs. It is commonly believed that bacterial abundance, ...
ALEJANDRA de VILLA MEZA
Few studies have been conducted on the food habits of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), considered an endangered feline in Mexico. Past studies showed that rodents were the main component of ocelot diet. In our study ocelot prey consumption was measured as frequency of occurrence of prey in scats and then ...
Punzo Fred - - 2002
This object of this study was to determine if early feeding experience can affect subsequent prey choice in lynx spiderlings (Oxyopes salticus), and if so, is it evidence for food/olfactory imprinting. After emergence from the egg sac, three groups of 10 spiderlings were each fed exclusively for a 1-week period ...
Worm Boris - - 2002
A key question in ecology is which factors control species diversity in a community. Two largely separate groups of ecologists have emphasized the importance of productivity or resource supply, and consumers or physical disturbance, respectively. These variables show unimodal relationships with diversity when manipulated in isolation. Recent multivariate models, however, ...
Hop Haakon - - 2002
Food web magnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was determined for the Barents Sea food web using 615N as a continuous variable for assessing trophic levels (TL). The food web investigated comprised zooplankton, ice fauna and fish (poikilotherms, TL 1.7-3.3), and seabirds and seals (homeotherms, TL 3.3-4.2), with zooplankton representing ...
Sobczak William V - - 2002
The importance of algal and detrital food supplies to the planktonic food web of a highly disturbed, estuarine ecosystem was evaluated in response to declining zooplankton and fish populations. We assessed organic matter bioavailability among a diversity of habitats and hydrologic inputs over 2 years in San Francisco Estuary's Sacramento-San ...
Camacho Juan - - 2002
We analyze the properties of seven community food webs from a variety of environments, including freshwater, marine-freshwater interfaces, and terrestrial environments. We uncover quantitative unifying patterns that describe the properties of the diverse trophic webs considered and suggest that statistical physics concepts such as scaling and universality may be useful ...
Neutel Anje-Margriet - - 2002
Increasing evidence that the strengths of interactions among populations in biological communities form patterns that are crucial for system stability requires clarification of the precise form of these patterns, how they come about, and why they influence stability. We show that in real food webs, interaction strengths are organized in ...
Kooi B W - - 2002
We study the consequences of omnivory on the dynamic behaviour of a three species food web under chemostat conditions. The food web consists of a prey consuming a nutrient, a predator consuming a prey and an omnivore which preys on the predator and the prey. For each trophic level an ...
Soucek D J - - 2002
Our aim was to quantify impairment to invertebrate predator populations, particularly to Acroneuria sp. (Plecoptera, Perlidae), downstream of an acid mine drainage-impacted tributary to the North Fork of the Powell River, southwestern Virginia. Predatory insects comprised 9.0 +/- 1.3% of the total abundance at the three stations upstream of the ...
Jordán Ferenc - - 2002
Recent investigations on the structure of complex networks have provided interesting results for ecologists. Being inspired by these studies, we analyse a well-defined set of small model food webs. The extinction probability caused by internal Lotka-Volterra dynamics is compared to the position of species. Simulations have revealed that some global ...
RUSSELL L. BURKE
We studied the food habits of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis sicula, that was introduced to Long Island, New York in 1966. We recovered 436 prey items from 96 lizards. There was no significant relationship between the percentage of lizards without prey items and date of capture. On average, females ...
R. S. Pfannenstiel
Predation on lepidopteran eggs in soybean and corn and the temporal partitioning of predation among the predator species were examined in soybean Glycine max (L.) and sweet corn Zea mays (L.). The complex of predators feeding on lepidopteran eggs [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] and the key predators discovered in this study ...
Lindström Eva S - - 2002
We developed a fast and simple protocol for accurate quantification of small freshwater ciliates by flow cytometry (FCM). The ciliates were stained with several nucleic acid stains such as TO-PRO-1, YO-YO-1 and PicoGreen, and analysed by a commercially available flow cytometer. The method was tested with cultures of the prostomatid ...
Todd J A - - 2002
Molluscan faunal turnover in the Plio-Pleistocene of the tropical western Atlantic has been attributed to drops in temperature or primary productivity, but these competing hypotheses have not been assessed ecologically. To test these alternatives, we compiled data on changing molluscan life habits and trophic composition over 12 million years derived ...
Christaki U - - 2002
We compared the characteristics of ingestion of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus by the marine heterotrophic nanoflagellate Pseudobodo sp. and by a mixed nanoflagellate culture (around 3 microm in size) obtained from an open sea oligotrophic area. Maximum ingestion rate on Synechococcus (2.7 Syn flagellate(-1) h(-1)) was reached at concentrations of 5 ...
Van Dover C L - - 2002
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps are submarine springs where nutrient-rich fluids emanate from the sea floor. Vent and seep ecosystems occur in a variety of geological settings throughout the global ocean and support food webs based on chemoautotrophic primary production. Most vent and seep invertebrates arrive at suitable habitats ...
Montoya Jose M - - 2002
The analysis of some species-rich, well-defined food webs shows that they display the so-called small world behavior shared by a number of disparate complex systems. The three systems analysed (Ythan estuary web, Silwood web and the Little Rock lake web) have different levels of taxonomic resolution, but all of them ...
Symondson W O C - - 2002
Theoretical developments are helping us to comprehend the basic parameters governing the dynamics of the interactions between generalist predators and their many pest and nonpest prey. In practice, however, inter- and intraspecific interactions between generalist predators, and between the predators and their prey, within multispecies systems under the influence of ...
Gray John S - - 2002
Biomagnification is the process where xenobiotic substances are transferred from food to an organism resulting in higher concentrations compared with the source. It is Widely believed that this is a general phenomenon for marine food webs. An analysis of 148 papers with biomagnification in the title shows that under half ...
Tittlemier Sheryl A - - 2002
Concentrations of four possibly naturally produced organohalogens--1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4-tribromo-4,5,5'-trichloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (DBP-Br3Cl3), 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4'-tetrabromo-5,5'-dichloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (DBP-Br4Cl2), 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4',5-pentabromo-5'-chloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (DBP-Br5Cl) and 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexabromo-2,2'-bipyrrole (DBP-Br6)--were quantitated and the extent of their magnification through an entire Arctic marine food web [measured as integrated trophic magnification factors (TMFs)] were calculated. The food web consisted of three zooplankton species (Calanus hyperboreus, Mysis oculata, ...
Smalley Gabriela W - - 2002
Ceratium furca is a primarily photosynthetic dinoflagellate also capable of ingesting other protists. During 1995 and 1996, we documented the abundance of C. furca in Chesapeake Bay and determined grazing rates on prey labeled with fluorescent microspheres. Abundance usually remained below 20 cells ml(-1), although the species was capable of ...
Tadonléké R D - - 2002
Phytoplankton dynamics, bacterial standing stocks and living microbial biomass (derived from ATP measurements, 0.7-200 mm size class) were examined in 1996 in the newly flooded (1995) Sep Reservoir ('Massif Central,' France), for evidence of the importance of the microbial food web relative to the traditional food chain. Phosphate concentrations were ...
Roemer Gary W - - 2002
Island ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to exotic species. Here we show how an introduced prey has led to the wholesale restructuring of an island food web, including the near extinction of an endemic carnivore. Introduced pigs, by providing abundant food, enabled golden eagles to colonize the California Channel Islands. Eagles ...
Lodé T - - 2001
Populations of threatened species, especially predators at the top of the food chain, may be affected by anthropic pressures. The endangered western population of European mink Mustela lutreola has shown a large decline over 50% of its natural range. M. lutreola disappeared from northwestern France between 1984 and 1997, and ...
Hairston N G NG - - 2001
We studied the selection response of the freshwater grazing zooplankter, Daphnia galeata, to increased abundance of cyanobacteria in its environment. Cyanobacteria are a poor-quality and often toxic food. Distinct genotypes of D. galeata were hatched from diapausing eggs extracted from three time horizons in the sediments of Lake Constance, Europe, ...
Hülsmann N - - 2001
Survivorship of ballast-entrained marine heterotrophic protists was examined following freshwater flushing. The recovered taxa, including typical marine rhizopods such as Platyamoeba murchelanoi, Labyrinthula spp, Pontifex maximus, Thecamoeba orbis, and the ciliate Condylostoma arenarium, were reared in waters of various salinities. After 2 months, the original salinity subsample retained five protist ...
Koelmans A A - - 2001
Eutrophication and contamination with micropollutants have been major problems in water quality management. Both problems have been subjected to extensive research and modelling but traditionally are treated separately. Traditional simulation models for aquatic systems can be categorised as eutrophication models, contaminant fate models, food web models and food chain bioaccumulation ...
Wallberg P - - 2001
To study the uptake mechanisms of 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HxCB 153) in microplankton with different feeding strategies, two laboratory communities were used. Trophic transfer of HxCB 153 was tested in a heterotrophic microbial food web consisting of bacteria, flagellates, and ciliates. Passive uptake was tested in a community consisting of algae and ...
Chen X - - 2001
The dynamical theory of food webs has been based typically on local stability analysis. The relevance of local stability to food web properties has been questioned because local stability holds only in the immediate vicinity of the equilibrium and provides no information about the size of the basin of attraction. ...
Rands S A - - 2001
The optimal amount of reserves that a small bird should carry depends upon a number of factors, including the availability of food and environmental predation risk levels. Theory predicts that, if predation risk increases, then a bird should maintain a lower level of reserves. Previous experiments have given mixed results: ...
Mylius S D - - 2001
We analyze the consequences of intraguild predation and stage structure for the possible composition of a three-species community consisting of resource, consumer, and predator. Intraguild predation, a special case of omnivory, induces two major differences with traditional linear food chain models: the potential for the occurrence of two alternative stable ...
Deng Bo - - 2001
Consideration is given to a basic food chain model satisfying the trophic time diversification hypothesis which translates the model into a singularly perturbed system of three time scales. It is demonstrated that in some realistic system parameter region, the model has a unimodal or logistic-like Poincare return map when the ...
Harwood J D - - 2001
"Secondary predation" occurs when one predator feeds on a second predator, which has in turn eaten a target prey. Detection of prey remains within predators using monoclonal antibodies cannot distinguish between primary and secondary predation, potentially leading to quantitative and qualitative food chain errors. We report the first fully replicated ...
Lovegrove B G - - 2001
Predictions associated with opposing selection generating minimum variance in basal metabolic rate (BMR) in mammals at a constrained body mass (CBM; 358 g) were tested. The CBM is presumed to be associated with energetic constraints linked to predation and variable resources at intermediate sizes on a logarithmic mass scale. Opposing ...
Tanner J E. - - 2001
This paper presents the results of a series of habitat selection experiments aimed at determining if juvenile Melicertus latisulcatus generally occur on intertidal sand- and mud-flats as a result of active selection of unvegetated areas, or due to extrinsic factors (e.g. differential predation). In the laboratory, juvenile M. latisulcatus showed ...
Hendriks A J - - 2001
Most of the thousands of substances and species that risk assessment has to deal with are not investigated empirically because of financial, practical, and ethical constraints. To facilitate extrapolation, we have developed a model for accumulation kinetics of organic substances as a function of the octanol-water partition ratio (Kow) of ...
Nelson W A - - 2001
Recent work with the freshwater zooplankton Daphnia has suggested that the quality of its algal prey can have a significant effect on its demographic rates and life-history patterns. Predator-prey theory linking food quantity and food quality predicts that a single system should be able to display two distinct patterns of ...
Persson A - - 2001
Simple models, based on Lotka-Volterra types of interactions between predator and prey, predict that enrichment will have a destabilizing effect on populations and that equilibrium population densities will change at the top trophic level and every second level below. We experimentally tested these predictions in three aquatic food web configurations ...
Simó R - - 2001
Biological production of the volatile compound dimethylsulfide in the ocean is the main natural source of tropospheric sulfur on a global scale, with important consequences for the radiative balance of the Earth. In the late 1980s, a Gaian feedback link between marine phytoplankton and climate through the release of atmospheric ...
Moisey J - - 2001
Concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (alpha, beta, and gamma) and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of alpha-HCH were determined in the Northwater Polynya Arctic marine food web. Relative food web structure was established using trophic level models based on organic delta 15N values. Concentrations of HCH in the samples collected, including water, ...
Sakaguchi M - - 2001
A 40-kDa glycoprotein (gp40) was identified as a Con A-binding adhesive substance of the heliozoon Actinophrys sol for immobilizing and ingesting prey flagellates. Isolation and partial characterization of gp40 showed that: 1) gp40 is a major Con A-binding protein of Actinophrys with a molecular weight of 40 kDa, and is ...
van Baalen M - - 2001
Sigmoid functional responses may arise from a variety of mechanisms, one of which is switching to alternative food sources. It has long been known that sigmoid (Holling's Type III) functional responses may stabilize an otherwise unstable equilibrium of prey and predators in Lotka-Volterra models. This poses the question of under ...
Droz M - - 2001
We propose a lattice model of two populations, predators and prey. The model is solved via Monte Carlo simulations. Each species moves randomly on the lattice and can live only a certain time without eating. The lattice cells are either grass (eaten by prey) or tree (giving cover for prey). ...
Chen X - - 2001
How does the long-term behaviour near equilibrium of model food webs correlate with their short-term transient dynamics? Here, simulations of the Lotka -Volterra cascade model of food webs provide the first evidence to answer this question. Transient behaviour is measured by resilience, reactivity, the maximum amplification of a perturbation and ...
Villafañe V E - - 2001
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) is known to cause a number of detrimental effects in aquatic organisms. The area of Patagonia, which is sometimes under the influence of the Antarctic ozone "hole", occasionally receives enhanced levels of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm). Great efforts have been put into ...
Diaz R J - - 2001
No other environmental variable of such ecological importance to estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems around the world has changed so drastically, in such a short period of time, as dissolved oxygen. While hypoxic and anoxic environments have existed through geological time, their occurrence in shallow coastal and estuarine areas appears ...
Fisk A T - - 2001
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta 15N) were measured in zooplankton (6 species), a benthic invertebrate (Anonyx nugax), Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), seabirds (6 species), and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) collected in 1998 in the Northwater Polynya to examine effects of biological and chemical factors on ...
Kenneth H. Dunton
Measurements of δ13C, δ15N, and C/N for a variety of Antarctic peninsula fauna and flora were used to quantify the importance of benthic brown algae to resident organisms and determine food web relationships among this diverse littoral fauna. δ13C values ranged from−16.8‰ for benthic algal herbivores (limpets) to −29.8‰ for ...
Boer M P - - 2001
The asymptotic behaviour of a model of a tri-trophic food chain in the chemostat is analysed in detail. The Monod growth model is used for all trophic levels, yielding a non-linear dynamical system of four ordinary differential equations. Mass conservation makes it possible to reduce the dimension by 1 for ...
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