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Kear Benjamin P - - 2003
Despite ichthyosaurs being one of the most extensively studied Mesozoic marine reptile groups, there is little documented direct evidence of dietary habits in most taxa. Here, we report the discovery of hatchling-sized marine protostegid turtle remains and an enantiornithine bird (in association with actinopterygian fish and phosphatic nodules) within the ...
Brucet Balmaña, Sandra
Zooplankton community structure (composition, diversity, dynamics and trophic relationships) of Mediterranian marshes, has been analysed by means of a size based approach. In temporary basins the shape of the biomass-size spectra is related to the hydrological cycle. Linear shape spectra are more frequent in flooding situations when nutrient input causes ...
Ripa Jörgen - - 2003
The densities of populations in a community or food web vary as a consequence of both population interactions and environmental (e.g. weather) fluctuations. Populations often respond to the same kinds of environmental fluctuations, and therefore experience correlated environments. Furthermore, some environmental factors change slowly over time, thereby producing positive environmental ...
Poitrineau K - - 2003
Although very common under natural conditions, the consequences of multiple enemies (parasites, predators, herbivores, or even 'chemical' enemies like insecticides) on investment in defence has scarcely been investigated. In this paper, we present a simple model of the joint evolution of two defences targeted against two enemies. We illustrate how ...
Zhang Yixin - - 2003
Energy and nutrient subsidies transported across ecosystem boundaries are increasingly appreciated as key drivers of consumer-resource dynamics. As purveyors of pulsed marine-derived nutrients (MDN), spawning salmon are one such cross-ecosystem subsidy to freshwaters connected to the north Pacific. We examined how salmon carcasses influenced detrital processing in an oligotrophic stream. ...
Tittel Jörg - - 2003
The majority of organisms can be grouped into those relying solely on photosynthesis (phototrophy) or those relying solely on the assimilation of organic substances (heterotrophy) to meet their requirements for energy and carbon. However, a special life history trait exists in which organisms combine both phototrophy and heterotrophy. Such "mixotrophy" ...
Fred R. Musser
Generalist predators are common in most agricultural cropping systems. However, pest control from these predators is often overlooked as a component of integrated pest management (IPM) because the extent of predation is generally unknown and difficult to assess. In western New York sweet corn (Zea mays L.), the primary predators ...
CHRISTOPHER M. PENNUTO
Invertebrate prey have been shown to select suboptimal resource patches in the face of predation (the food-predation risk trade-off). The foraging strategy used by a predator and the environmental context under which an interaction occurs potentially mediates prey responses to predators. Here, I determined whether season, predator presence or alternative ...
Binelli A - - 2003
Several models of varying complexity have been used to predict pollutant concentrations in the higher levels of the food web from those in lower levels, but the role of the biomagnification process in aquatic food chains is still controversial. We used the fugacity-based approach to verify the transfer of PCBs ...
Chowdhury Debashish - - 2003
We incorporate the generic hierarchical architecture of foodwebs into a "unified" model that describes both micro- and macroevolutions within a single theoretical framework. This model describes the microevolution in detail by accounting for the birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms as well as prey-predator interactions on a hierarchical ...
Boone Michelle D - - 2003
The effect of a contaminant on a community may not be easily predicted, given that complex changes in food resources and predator-prey dynamics may result. The objectives of our study were to determine the interactive effects of the insecticide carbaryl and predators on body size, development, survival, and activity of ...
Sinclair A R E - - 2003
There are many cases where animal populations are affected by predators and resources in terrestrial ecosystems, but the factors that determine when one or the other predominates remain poorly understood. Here we show, using 40 years of data from the highly diverse mammal community of the Serengeti ecosystem, East Africa, ...
Maeto Kaoru - - 2003
Quercus crispula (= Q. mongolica var. grosseserrata) is the predominant tree species in cool temperate, mixed broadleaf/conifer forests in northern Japan. We compared 11 years of data on acorn production in a population of Q. crispula, with data on seed-insect populations, to try to answer the following questions: (1) Does ...
Haspel Gal - - 2003
In this article, we provide direct evidence for injection of venom by a wasp into the central nervous system of its cockroach prey. Venomous predators use neurotoxins that generally act at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in different types of prey paralysis. The sting of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa is ...
Tveraa Torkild - - 2003
A central issue in ecology is to what extent food limitation and predation affect animal populations. We studied how survival and reproductive success was related to the female's size in a population of semi-domesticated reindeer during 2 years where there was a large difference in snowfall during winter. The females ...
Fry B - - 2003
Mangrove forests are important coastal wetlands in most of the tropics, but their importance to fisheries is poorly understood. Rationales for conserving these ecosystems are partly based on ideas that mangroves are important to food webs that support fisheries. Here we review use of stable isotopes to test the strength ...
Danner Bradford J - - 2003
In response to increased exposure to predators when searching for food, many prey increase the frequency of antipredator behaviors, potentially reducing foraging rate and food intake. Such direct, nonlethal interactions between predators and prey resulting in reduced food intake can indirectly influence lifecycle development through effects on growth, developmental rate, ...
Southall E J - - 2003
Dermal denticles are unique tooth-like structures embedded in the skin of sharks and rays that protect them from predators and ectoparasites, reduce mechanical abrasion and possibly minimize swimming-induced drag. Here, we show that juvenile lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) also use this body armour to anchor food items near their ...
Noelle Beckman
Although the importance of omnivory in food webs has been established, the community niche of generalist arthropod predators such as praying mantids is usually assumed to be at most bitrophic, feeding on herbivores and other carnivores. As with most predators, mantids often are food limited in nature. Flowering plants in ...
Bergman Daniel A - - 2003
Agonistic behavior is a fundamental aspect of ecological theories on resource acquisition and sexual selection. Crustaceans are exemplary models for agonistic behavior within the laboratory, but agonistic behavior in natural habitats is often neglected. Laboratory studies do not achieve the same ecological realism as field studies. In an attempt to ...
Turner R Eugene - - 2003
Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth in aquatic systems is moving towards a higher incidence of P and Si limitation as a result of increased nitrogen loading, a N:P fertilizer use of 26:1 (molar basis), population growth, and relatively stable silicate loading. This result will likely alter phytoplankton community composition, and ...
Skirvin D J - - 2003
The effect of plant architecture, in terms of leaf hairiness, and prey spatial arrangement, on predation rate of eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot was examined on cut stems of chrysanthemums. Three levels of leaf hairiness (trichome density) were obtained using ...
Jennings Simon - - 2003
Maximum food-chain length has been correlated with resource availability, ecosystem size, environmental stability and colonization history. Some of these correlations may result from environmental effects on predator-prey body size ratios. We investigate relationships between maximum food-chain length, predator-prey mass ratios, primary production and environmental stability in marine food webs with ...
Weis Judith S - - 2003
Studies of effects of the invasive brackish marsh plant Phragmites australis (common reed) on estuarine biota are reviewed. With few exceptions, most field studies indicate that these P. australis-dominated marshes have diverse and abundant benthic biota, and are utilized by nekton, comparable to Spartina alterniflora marshes. However, larval mummichogs, Fundulus ...
Nyström Per - - 2003
The influence of predatory fish on the structure of stream food webs may be altered by the presence of forest canopy cover, and consequent differences in allochthonous inputs and primary production. Eight sites containing introduced brown trout ( Salmo trutta) and eight sites that did not were sampled in the ...
von Elert Eric - - 2003
A key process in freshwater plankton food webs is the regulation of the efficiency of energy and material transfer. Cyanobacterial carbon (C) in particular is transferred very inefficiently to herbivorous zooplankton, which leads to a decoupling of primary and secondary production and the accumulation of cyanobacterial biomass, which is associated ...
Leah M. Laurich
Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are harsh environments for fish, and only two planktivorous species are common in these ecosystems: fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brook sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans). Given their similarities, competition between these species may be high, especially for food resources. We assessed potential ...
Candaten Matteo - - 2003
We show in this paper that the chaotic regimes of many food chain models often enjoy a very peculiar property, known as peak-to-peak dynamics. This means that the maximum (peak) density of the populations of any trophic level can be easily forecasted provided the last two peaks of the same ...
Laurence John A - - 2003
Research aimed at understanding the response of plants to ozone has been conducted for over four decades but little of it has addressed intact natural systems. Even so, there is sufficient scientific information at this time to support air quality standards that will protect natural terrestrial ecosystems from ozone. What ...
Werner D - - 2003
Haematophagous female blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of vertebrate pathogens, namely filarial Dirofilaria, Mansonella, Onchocerca and protozoal Leucocytozoon. Immature stages of Simuliidae inhabit lotic waterways, the sessile larvae filter-feeding and often forming a large proportion of the benthic biomass, usually aggregated in well-oxygenated sections of ...
Stafford Jennifer M - - 2003
Past evaluations of pesticide exposure have been conducted with substantial uncertainty regarding avian consumption of contaminated food items. One question is whether birds consume invertebrates that are killed by a chemical application and that may present an increasing chemical concentration as they desiccate. We addressed the research question in two ...
Garlaschelli Diego - - 2003
The structure of ecological communities is usually represented by food webs. In these webs, we describe species by means of vertices connected by links representing the predations. We can therefore study different webs by considering the shape (topology) of these networks. Comparing food webs by searching for regularities is of ...
Zanette Liana - - 2003
The behaviour literature is full of studies showing that animals in every taxon balance the probability of acquiring food with the risk of being preyed upon. While interactions between food and predators clearly operate at an individual scale, population-scale studies have tended to focus on only one factor at a ...
Reigada R - - 2003
Plankton play an important role in the ecology of the ocean and the climate because of their participation in the global carbon cycle at the base of the food chain. However, damaging plankton blooms can sometimes occur and are initially characterized by sudden transient increases in the phytoplankton population. They ...
A dynamic systems approach to evolutionary branching and its development in an artificial food web is presented. Predator-prey interaction among trophic species with two traits generates a variety of evolutionary branching patterns, depending on interaction strengths and mutation rates. Studying branching patterns in a phenotypic space reveals three branching patterns: ...
Xin-she Yang
A multispecies artificial ecosystem is formulated using cellular automata with species interactions and food chain hierarchy. The constructed finite state automaton can simulate the complexity and self-organized characteristics of the evolving multispecies living ecosystems.
Ruxton Graeme D - - 2003
Arguments on whether Tyrannosaurus rex was likely to have been an active predator or a scavenger have been based on evidence from jaw morphology and/or dentition. Here, we adopt an entirely novel approach, using energetic arguments to estimate the minimum productivity that would be required for an ecosystem to support ...
James G. March
Tropical stream food webs are thought to be based primarily on terrestrial resources (leaf litter) in small forested headwater streams and algal resources in larger, wider streams. In tropical island streams, the dominant consumers are often omnivorous freshwater shrimps that consume algae, leaf litter, insects, and other shrimps. We used ...
Godfrey C. Akani
The food habits of the snake Psammophis phillipsi were studied in the rain-forest region of southeastern Nigeria, where this is the most common snake species of the area. A total of 120 prey items were recorded from 327 specimens (73 juveniles; 55 gravid females); many gravid females contained prey. Lizards ...
Kondoh Michio - - 2003
Ecological theory suggests that complex food webs should not persist because of their inherent instability. "Real" ecosystems often support a large number of interacting species. A mathematical model shows that fluctuating short-term selection on trophic links, arising from a consumer's adaptive food choice, is a key to the long-term stability ...
den Dulk Paul - - 2003
The evolutionary justification by LeDoux (1996) for his dual-route model of fear processing was analyzed computationally by applying genetic algorithms to artificial neural networks. The evolution was simulated of a neural network controlling an agent that gathered food in an artificial world and that was occasionally menaced by a predator. ...
Nichols David S - - 2003
The investigation of prokaryotes in aquatic ecology is often limited to their role in nutrient cycling and the degradation of organic matter. While this aspect of the microbial loop is undoubtedly important, further aspects of bacterial roles in marine food webs exist which have not been fully considered in light ...
Mougeot F - - 2003
A central issue in ecology lies in identifying the importance of resources, natural enemies and behaviour in the regulation of animal populations. Much of the debate on this subject has focused on animals that show cyclic fluctuations in abundance. However, there is still disagreement about the role of extrinsic (food, ...
Luczkovich Joseph J - - 2003
We present a graph theoretic model of analysing food web structure called regular equivalence. Regular equivalence is a method for partitioning the species in a food web into "isotrophic classes" that play the same structural roles, even if they are not directly consuming the same prey or if they do ...
Gnanvossou Désiré - - 2003
Carnivorous arthropods exhibit complex intraspecific and interspecific behaviour among themselves when they share the same niche or habitat and food resources. They should simultaneously search for adequate food for themselves and their offspring and in the meantime avoid becoming food for other organisms. This behaviour is of great ecological interest ...
Cohen Joel E - - 2003
Measuring the numerical abundance and average body size of individuals of each species in an ecological community's food web reveals new patterns and illuminates old ones. This approach is illustrated using data from the pelagic community of a small lake: Tuesday Lake, Michigan, United States. Body mass varies almost 12 ...
Stapp Paul - - 2003
Inputs of energy and nutrients from one ecosystem may subsidize consumers in adjacent ones, with significant consequences for local communities and food webs. We used stable isotope and faecal pellet analysis to quantify use of ocean-derived resources by small mammals on islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Rodents were ...
Kopp, Michael
Trophic polyphenisms are examples of phenotypic plasticity where two or more morphs within a species exploit different food niches. In this context, induced traits that enhance feeding ability on certain prey types have been termed inducible offenses. Here, we describe a prey-induced continuous size polyphenism in the predatory ciliate Lembadion ...
Heldal Hilde Elise - - 2003
Knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish stocks important to Norwegian fisheries is of major importance to Norwegian consumers and fish export industry. In the present study, the bioaccumulation of caesium-137 ((137)Cs) has been investigated in marine food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas. The ...
Nomikou Maria - - 2003
Two phytoseiid species, Euseius scutalis (Athias-Henriot) and Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot), are able to suppress whitefly populations on single plants and are candidate biological control agents for whiteflies such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). These species can feed on pollen and insect-produced honeydew and these food sources are likely to be available ...
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