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Wilmers Christopher C - - 2005
Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter ...
Elliott J E - - 2005
Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) now breed successfully in most areas of North America from which they were previously extirpated. The loss during the mid-part of the last century of many of the world's peregrine populations was largely a consequence of impaired reproduction caused by the effects of DDE on eggshell ...
Schmidt B R - - 2005
Species that occupy similar habitats are expected to show convergent phenotypes. If habitats are defined by the presence of predators, then traits that modify vulnerability to predation, including predator-induced phenotypic plasticity, should be similar within habitats. We tested this idea using larvae of six syntopic newt species belonging to the ...
Peet Alison B - - 2005
In this paper, we present a three-level trophic food chain, including intraspecies interaction. In contrast with other analyses, we consider the effect on the third trophic level by the first-level parameters. The model shows complex, as well as, chaotic oscillations. Bifurcation diagrams show period doubling route to chaos and crises. ...
Phillips Donald L - - 2005
Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants; or water bodies, and many others. A common problem is having too many sources to allow a unique solution. We discuss ...
Jiang Lin - - 2005
We investigated the effects of predator diet breadth on the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down control of prey assemblages, using microbial food webs containing bacteria, bacterivorous protists and rotifers, and two different top predators. The experiment used a factorial design that independently manipulated productivity and the presence or absence ...
Arendt Jeffrey D - - 2005
Recent theoretical and empirical work argues that growth rate can evolve and be optimized, rather than always being maximized. Chronically low resource availability is predicted to favour the evolution of slow growth, whereas attaining a size-refuge from mortality risk is predicted to favour the evolution of rapid growth. Guppies (Poecilia ...
Gorokhova Elena - - 2005
Cercopagis pengoi, a recent invader to the Baltic Sea and the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a potential competitor with fish for zooplankton prey. We used stable C and N isotope ratios to elucidate trophic relationships between C. pengoi, zooplankton (microzooplankton, 90-200 microm, mostly copepod nauplii and rotifers; mesozooplankton, >200 microm, ...
Riddell David J - - 2005
The foraging and predator-avoidance behaviors of mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) nymphs and predator-prey interactions were investigated under differing combinations of cadmium concentration and predation risk. Predators consisted of stonefly (Kogotus nonus) nymphs, juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), either alone or in combination. Organisms were exposed to ...
Frenot Yves - - 2005
Alien microbes, fungi, plants and animals occur on most of the sub-Antarctic islands and some parts of the Antarctic continent. These have arrived over approximately the last two centuries, coincident with human activity in the region. Introduction routes have varied, but are largely associated with movement of people and cargo ...
Korpimäki Erkki - - 2005
Comprehensive analyses of long-term (1977-2003) small-mammal abundance data from western Finland showed that populations of Microtus voles (field voles M. agrestis and sibling voles M. rossiaemeridionalis) voles, bank (Clethrionomys glareolus) and common shrews (Sorex araneus) fluctuated synchronously in 3 year population cycles. Time-series analyses indicated that interspecific synchrony is influenced ...
Noonburg Erik G - - 2005
We analyze the transient dynamics of simple models of keystone predation, in which a predator preferentially consumes the dominant of two (or more) competing prey species. We show that coexistence is unlikely in many systems characterized both by successful invasion of either prey species into the food web that lacks ...
Jezbera Jan - - 2005
A modified fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was used to analyze bacterial prey composition in protistan food vacuoles in both laboratory and natural populations. Under laboratory conditions, we exposed two bacterial strains (affiliated with beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria -- Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively) to grazing by three protists: ...
Grosholz Edwin D - - 2005
Biological invasions are rapidly producing planet-wide changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function. In coastal waters of the U.S., >500 invaders have become established, and new introductions continue at an increasing rate. Although most species have little impact on native communities, some initially benign introductions may occasionally turn into damaging invasions, ...
Mayntz David - - 2005
Many herbivores and omnivores adjust their food selection behavior to regulate the intake of multiple nutrients. Carnivores, however, are generally assumed to optimize the rate of prey capture rather than select prey according to nutrient composition. We showed experimentally that invertebrate predators can forage selectively for protein and lipids to ...
Marcello, Gregory James
The purpose of this study was to examine some of the possible causes for the negative density-area relationship reported for the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. I examined predation and food availability in three small and three large forest fragments. Giving up density trays and various odors were used to test ...
Nyström, Per
1. I tested the hypothesis that the potential for non-lethal effects of predators are more important for overall performance of the fast-growing exotic signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana) than for the slower growing native noble crayfish (Astacus astacus L.). I further tested if omnivorous crayfish switched to feed on less ...
Peperzak L - - 2005
In temperate seas such as the North Sea harmful (toxic) algal blooms will probably increase as a result of climate change. This conclusion was reached after investigating the projected effect of climate change for the year 2100 in Dutch coastal waters (4 degrees C temperature rise and increased water column ...
Zurawell Ronald W - - 2005
Cyanobacteria possess many adaptations to develop population maxima or "blooms" in lakes and reservoirs. A potential consequence of freshwater blooms of many cyanobacterial species is the production of potent toxins, including the cyclic hepatotoxins, microcystins (MCs). Approximately 70 MC variants have been isolated. Their toxicity to humans and other animals ...
Zannou Ignace D - - 2005
Interspecific predation and cannibalism are common types of interaction in phytoseiid predator guilds, but the extent and nature of these interactions have not been determined yet in phytoseiid guilds composed of African native and neotropical exotic phytoseiid predators found in cassava habitat in southern Africa. We determined in laboratory experiments ...
Yüksek A - - 2005
Within this study fluctuations in biodiversity of the Golden Horn from past to present are evaluated. Limited studies and observations dating back to 60 years ago pointed out the importance of the Golden Horn as a fishery. Unfortunately, in accordance with increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden ...
Radke Robert J - - 2005
Turbidity can strongly influence predation success of visually oriented fish, especially piscivores such as adult Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). This purely carnivorous species usually becomes a facultative piscivore after two discrete food niche shifts. Perch biomass has been observed to decrease in lakes along the productivity gradient, and then be ...
Hénaut Yann - - 2005
Why do kleptobiotic spiders of the genus Argyrodes seem to be associated with spiders of the genus Nephila worldwide? Observations following introduction of experimental insect prey of different sizes and weights on to host webs revealed that: (1) small prey are more effectively retained on the web of Nephila clavipes ...
Clinchy Michael - - 2004
The never-ending tension between finding food and avoiding predators may be the most universal natural stressor wild animals experience. The 'chronic stress' hypothesis predicts: (i) an animal's stress profile will be a simultaneous function of food and predator pressures given the aforesaid tension; and (ii) these inseparable effects on physiology ...
Rinaldi Sergio - - 2004
When consumers feeding on a resource spend time in avoiding high risks of predation, the predator functional response declines with predator density. While this is well established, less attention has been paid to the dependence of the consumer functional response on predator density. Here we show how the separation of ...
Long, Jeremy Dillon
Marine consumers and their prey display plasticity that affects the outcomes of their dynamic interactions as well as community structure and ecosystem function. Aquatic chemical signals induced plasticity in consumers and prey from a broad range of taxonomy (phytoplankton to fishes), sizes (microscopic to macroscopic), and habitats (pelagic to benthic), ...
Heg Dik - - 2004
Environmental conditions are thought to be responsible for the extent and benefits of cooperative breeding in many animal societies, but experimental tests are scarce. We manipulated predator pressure in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher in Lake Tanganyika, where predators have been suggested to influence helper and breeder survival, helper ...
Layman, Craig Anthony
Much of the world's species diversity is located in tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems, and a better understanding of the ecology of these systems is necessary to stem biodiversity loss and assess community- and ecosystem-level responses to anthropogenic impacts. In this dissertation, I endeavored to broaden our understanding of complex ecosystems ...
Torre Corominas, Ignasi
ABSTRACT: The main objectives of this thesis were to analyse the relative roles of food availability and predation on the distribution, population dynamics and habitat selection of small mammals in Mediterranean areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Main results and conclusions Composition and abundance of small mammals communities can be completely ...
Bengtsson Göran - - 2004
Ecotoxicological endpoints based on behavioral traits (e.g., predator avoidance, feeding, and locomotion) may be more sensitive and give more insights into patterns of sublethal toxicity than survivorship tests. In this study, the density-dependent grazing rate of Daphnia pulex pre-exposed to p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) (insecticide metabolite) and glyphosate (herbicide), via water or ...
Pfandl Karin - - 2004
Current models on protistan size-selective feeding assume that contact probability is the factor that largely explains observed food preferences. Contact probability is generally expected to be positively correlated with prey size and therefore to explain observed food selection for larger prey items. We critically tested these basic assumptions on size-selective ...
Callaghan Terry V - - 2004
Species individualistic responses to warming and increased UV-B radiation are moderated by the responses of neighbors within communities, and trophic interactions within ecosystems. All of these responses lead to changes in ecosystem structure. Experimental manipulation of environmental factors expected to change at high latitudes showed that summer warming of tundra ...
Juen Anita - - 2005
White grubs (larvae of Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are abundant in below-ground systems and can cause considerable damage to a wide variety of crops by feeding on roots. White grub populations may be controlled by natural enemies, but the predator guild of the European species is barely known. Trophic interactions within soil ...
Ruxton G D - - 2004
We elucidate the conditions under which an easy-to-catch edible prey species may evolve to resemble another edible species that is much more difficult to capture ('evasive Batesian mimicry'), and the conditions under which two or more edible but hard-to-catch species evolve a common resemblance ('evasive Mullerian mimicry'). Using two complementary ...
Martin A P - - 2004
That all organisms are born in the company of a parent but die alone is a fundamental biological asymmetry. It has been suggested that this provides a deep-rooted source of spatial pattern formation for microorganisms even at the scale of the population. Such a theory, however, neglects the strong influence ...
Sommer Ulrich - - 2005
We hypothesized that the trophic level of marine copepods should depend on the composition of the protist community. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the phytoplankton composition in mesocosms and measured grazing rates of copepods and mesozooplankton in those mesocosms. Twelve mesocosms with Northeast Atlantic phytoplankton were fertilised with different ...
Holland J M - - 2004
The distribution of aphid predators within arable fields has been previously examined using pitfall traps. With this technique predominantly larger invertebrate species are captured, especially Carabidae, but the technique provides no estimate of density unless mark-recapture is used. However, many other numerically important aphid predators occur in arable fields and ...
Borgå Katrine - - 2004
Recent studies of arctic marine food webs have provided detailed insights regarding the biological and chemical factors that influence the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants in aquatic systems. The present paper summarizes the recent literature with an emphasis on identifying important ecological factors for explaining variability ...
Traas Theo P - - 2004
Environmental quality criteria (EQC) for hydrophobic organic chemicals were calculated with a model for bioaccumulation in food webs. The model was calibrated and verified using polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food webs of shallow lakes. The EQCs in water and sediment were derived based on internal effect concentrations (IECs) for several ...
Kreutzweiser David P - - 2004
A neem-based insecticide, Neemix 4.5, was applied to forest pond enclosures at environmentally realistic concentrations (i.e., below the worst-case expected environmental concentration of 35 microg L(-1)). Crustacean zooplankton communities were examined by multivariate ordination (nonmetric multidimensional scaling) and time-course analyses of population trends among indicator taxa over two field seasons ...
Drossel Barbara - - 2004
We investigate the long-term web structure emerging in evolutionary food web models when different types of functional responses are used. We find that large and complex webs with several trophic layers arise only if the population dynamics is such that it allows predators to focus on their best prey species. ...
Rubbo, Michael
The influence of environmental change on biodiversity has received a significant amount of attention in recent years. Typically, environmental change is modeled in terms of changes in the physical environment that drive shifts in the species composition of ecosystems. Such shifts in the physical environment can result from both natural ...
Zhu M Y - - 2004
A fossil arthropod similar to Fuxianhuia and displaying an exceptionally well-preserved alimentary canal with in situ gut contents is reported from the lower Middle Cambrian (ca. 510 Myr ago) of South China. Three-dimensionally preserved, paired phosphatic nodules, arranged in series along both sides of the gut and containing spherical bacteria, ...
Jost Christian - - 2004
Recognition of the microbial loop as an important part of aquatic ecosystems disrupted the notion of simple linear food chains. However, current research suggests that even the microbial loop paradigm is a gross simplification of microbial interactions due to the presence of mixotrophs-organisms that both photosynthesize and graze. We present ...
Telesh Irena V - - 2004
Different levels of eutrophication and pollution in the Baltic coastal waters in general, and in estuaries particularly define variations in the buffering capacity of ecosystems of these important filter zones between rivers and the adjacent Baltic Proper. Phyto- and zooplankton in the estuaries form important components of the pelagic food ...
Hjermann Dag Ø - - 2004
The vast majority of the world's fisheries are typically managed within a single-species perspective, ignoring the dynamic feedback mechanisms generated by the ecological web of which they are a part. Here we show that the dynamics of the Barents Sea capelin (Mallotus villosus), the world's largest stock of this species, ...
McIntyre Peter B - - 2004
Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity is widespread among aquatic animals, however the relative contributions of behavioral and morphological shifts to reducing risk of predation remain uncertain. We tested the phenotypic plasticity of a Neotropical tadpole ( Rana palmipes) in response to chemical cues from predatory Belostoma water bugs, and how phenotype affects ...
Delille D - - 2004
The very low water temperatures existing in polar oceans that experience seasonal advance and retreat of pack ice do not inhibit the presence of large bacterial populations. Bacteria may contribute significantly to the energy transfers within the Southern Ocean. In the last decades, notable progress has been made in the ...
Logan J David - - 2004
Stoichiometric analysis recognizes that a herbivore is a mixture of multiple chemical elements, especially C, N, and P, that are fixed in various proportions. In the face of a variable quality food supply, herbivores must regulate ingested nutrients to maintain a homeostatic state. We develop a dynamic mathematical model, based ...
Coors Anja - - 2004
In standardized ecotoxicological testing chemicals are investigated under optimal conditions for the test organisms despite the fact that environmental factors such as predation pressure and food availability are important parameters regulating natural populations. Food limitation and predator presence can induce shifts in life-history traits in various Daphnia species, especially trade-offs ...
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