Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1043
< 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 >
Peperzak L - - 2005
In temperate seas such as the North Sea harmful (toxic) algal blooms will probably increase as a result of climate change. This conclusion was reached after investigating the projected effect of climate change for the year 2100 in Dutch coastal waters (4 degrees C temperature rise and increased water column ...
Zurawell Ronald W - - 2005
Cyanobacteria possess many adaptations to develop population maxima or "blooms" in lakes and reservoirs. A potential consequence of freshwater blooms of many cyanobacterial species is the production of potent toxins, including the cyclic hepatotoxins, microcystins (MCs). Approximately 70 MC variants have been isolated. Their toxicity to humans and other animals ...
Zannou Ignace D - - 2005
Interspecific predation and cannibalism are common types of interaction in phytoseiid predator guilds, but the extent and nature of these interactions have not been determined yet in phytoseiid guilds composed of African native and neotropical exotic phytoseiid predators found in cassava habitat in southern Africa. We determined in laboratory experiments ...
Yüksek A - - 2005
Within this study fluctuations in biodiversity of the Golden Horn from past to present are evaluated. Limited studies and observations dating back to 60 years ago pointed out the importance of the Golden Horn as a fishery. Unfortunately, in accordance with increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden ...
Radke Robert J - - 2005
Turbidity can strongly influence predation success of visually oriented fish, especially piscivores such as adult Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). This purely carnivorous species usually becomes a facultative piscivore after two discrete food niche shifts. Perch biomass has been observed to decrease in lakes along the productivity gradient, and then be ...
Hénaut Yann - - 2005
Why do kleptobiotic spiders of the genus Argyrodes seem to be associated with spiders of the genus Nephila worldwide? Observations following introduction of experimental insect prey of different sizes and weights on to host webs revealed that: (1) small prey are more effectively retained on the web of Nephila clavipes ...
Clinchy Michael - - 2004
The never-ending tension between finding food and avoiding predators may be the most universal natural stressor wild animals experience. The 'chronic stress' hypothesis predicts: (i) an animal's stress profile will be a simultaneous function of food and predator pressures given the aforesaid tension; and (ii) these inseparable effects on physiology ...
Rinaldi Sergio - - 2004
When consumers feeding on a resource spend time in avoiding high risks of predation, the predator functional response declines with predator density. While this is well established, less attention has been paid to the dependence of the consumer functional response on predator density. Here we show how the separation of ...
Long, Jeremy Dillon
Marine consumers and their prey display plasticity that affects the outcomes of their dynamic interactions as well as community structure and ecosystem function. Aquatic chemical signals induced plasticity in consumers and prey from a broad range of taxonomy (phytoplankton to fishes), sizes (microscopic to macroscopic), and habitats (pelagic to benthic), ...
Heg Dik - - 2004
Environmental conditions are thought to be responsible for the extent and benefits of cooperative breeding in many animal societies, but experimental tests are scarce. We manipulated predator pressure in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher in Lake Tanganyika, where predators have been suggested to influence helper and breeder survival, helper ...
Layman, Craig Anthony
Much of the world's species diversity is located in tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems, and a better understanding of the ecology of these systems is necessary to stem biodiversity loss and assess community- and ecosystem-level responses to anthropogenic impacts. In this dissertation, I endeavored to broaden our understanding of complex ecosystems ...
Torre Corominas, Ignasi
ABSTRACT: The main objectives of this thesis were to analyse the relative roles of food availability and predation on the distribution, population dynamics and habitat selection of small mammals in Mediterranean areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Main results and conclusions Composition and abundance of small mammals communities can be completely ...
Bengtsson Göran - - 2004
Ecotoxicological endpoints based on behavioral traits (e.g., predator avoidance, feeding, and locomotion) may be more sensitive and give more insights into patterns of sublethal toxicity than survivorship tests. In this study, the density-dependent grazing rate of Daphnia pulex pre-exposed to p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) (insecticide metabolite) and glyphosate (herbicide), via water or ...
Pfandl Karin - - 2004
Current models on protistan size-selective feeding assume that contact probability is the factor that largely explains observed food preferences. Contact probability is generally expected to be positively correlated with prey size and therefore to explain observed food selection for larger prey items. We critically tested these basic assumptions on size-selective ...
Callaghan Terry V - - 2004
Species individualistic responses to warming and increased UV-B radiation are moderated by the responses of neighbors within communities, and trophic interactions within ecosystems. All of these responses lead to changes in ecosystem structure. Experimental manipulation of environmental factors expected to change at high latitudes showed that summer warming of tundra ...
Juen Anita - - 2005
White grubs (larvae of Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are abundant in below-ground systems and can cause considerable damage to a wide variety of crops by feeding on roots. White grub populations may be controlled by natural enemies, but the predator guild of the European species is barely known. Trophic interactions within soil ...
Ruxton G D - - 2004
We elucidate the conditions under which an easy-to-catch edible prey species may evolve to resemble another edible species that is much more difficult to capture ('evasive Batesian mimicry'), and the conditions under which two or more edible but hard-to-catch species evolve a common resemblance ('evasive Mullerian mimicry'). Using two complementary ...
Martin A P - - 2004
That all organisms are born in the company of a parent but die alone is a fundamental biological asymmetry. It has been suggested that this provides a deep-rooted source of spatial pattern formation for microorganisms even at the scale of the population. Such a theory, however, neglects the strong influence ...
Sommer Ulrich - - 2005
We hypothesized that the trophic level of marine copepods should depend on the composition of the protist community. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the phytoplankton composition in mesocosms and measured grazing rates of copepods and mesozooplankton in those mesocosms. Twelve mesocosms with Northeast Atlantic phytoplankton were fertilised with different ...
Holland J M - - 2004
The distribution of aphid predators within arable fields has been previously examined using pitfall traps. With this technique predominantly larger invertebrate species are captured, especially Carabidae, but the technique provides no estimate of density unless mark-recapture is used. However, many other numerically important aphid predators occur in arable fields and ...
Borgå Katrine - - 2004
Recent studies of arctic marine food webs have provided detailed insights regarding the biological and chemical factors that influence the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants in aquatic systems. The present paper summarizes the recent literature with an emphasis on identifying important ecological factors for explaining variability ...
Traas Theo P - - 2004
Environmental quality criteria (EQC) for hydrophobic organic chemicals were calculated with a model for bioaccumulation in food webs. The model was calibrated and verified using polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food webs of shallow lakes. The EQCs in water and sediment were derived based on internal effect concentrations (IECs) for several ...
Kreutzweiser David P - - 2004
A neem-based insecticide, Neemix 4.5, was applied to forest pond enclosures at environmentally realistic concentrations (i.e., below the worst-case expected environmental concentration of 35 microg L(-1)). Crustacean zooplankton communities were examined by multivariate ordination (nonmetric multidimensional scaling) and time-course analyses of population trends among indicator taxa over two field seasons ...
Drossel Barbara - - 2004
We investigate the long-term web structure emerging in evolutionary food web models when different types of functional responses are used. We find that large and complex webs with several trophic layers arise only if the population dynamics is such that it allows predators to focus on their best prey species. ...
Rubbo, Michael
The influence of environmental change on biodiversity has received a significant amount of attention in recent years. Typically, environmental change is modeled in terms of changes in the physical environment that drive shifts in the species composition of ecosystems. Such shifts in the physical environment can result from both natural ...
Zhu M Y - - 2004
A fossil arthropod similar to Fuxianhuia and displaying an exceptionally well-preserved alimentary canal with in situ gut contents is reported from the lower Middle Cambrian (ca. 510 Myr ago) of South China. Three-dimensionally preserved, paired phosphatic nodules, arranged in series along both sides of the gut and containing spherical bacteria, ...
Jost Christian - - 2004
Recognition of the microbial loop as an important part of aquatic ecosystems disrupted the notion of simple linear food chains. However, current research suggests that even the microbial loop paradigm is a gross simplification of microbial interactions due to the presence of mixotrophs-organisms that both photosynthesize and graze. We present ...
Telesh Irena V - - 2004
Different levels of eutrophication and pollution in the Baltic coastal waters in general, and in estuaries particularly define variations in the buffering capacity of ecosystems of these important filter zones between rivers and the adjacent Baltic Proper. Phyto- and zooplankton in the estuaries form important components of the pelagic food ...
Hjermann Dag Ø - - 2004
The vast majority of the world's fisheries are typically managed within a single-species perspective, ignoring the dynamic feedback mechanisms generated by the ecological web of which they are a part. Here we show that the dynamics of the Barents Sea capelin (Mallotus villosus), the world's largest stock of this species, ...
McIntyre Peter B - - 2004
Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity is widespread among aquatic animals, however the relative contributions of behavioral and morphological shifts to reducing risk of predation remain uncertain. We tested the phenotypic plasticity of a Neotropical tadpole ( Rana palmipes) in response to chemical cues from predatory Belostoma water bugs, and how phenotype affects ...
Delille D - - 2004
The very low water temperatures existing in polar oceans that experience seasonal advance and retreat of pack ice do not inhibit the presence of large bacterial populations. Bacteria may contribute significantly to the energy transfers within the Southern Ocean. In the last decades, notable progress has been made in the ...
Logan J David - - 2004
Stoichiometric analysis recognizes that a herbivore is a mixture of multiple chemical elements, especially C, N, and P, that are fixed in various proportions. In the face of a variable quality food supply, herbivores must regulate ingested nutrients to maintain a homeostatic state. We develop a dynamic mathematical model, based ...
Coors Anja - - 2004
In standardized ecotoxicological testing chemicals are investigated under optimal conditions for the test organisms despite the fact that environmental factors such as predation pressure and food availability are important parameters regulating natural populations. Food limitation and predator presence can induce shifts in life-history traits in various Daphnia species, especially trade-offs ...
Hallett T B - - 2004
Large-scale climatic indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with population dynamics, variation in demographic rates and values of phenotypic traits in many species. Paradoxically, these large-scale indices can seem to be better predictors of ecological processes than local climate. Using detailed data from a population of Soay ...
Devlin Robert H - - 2004
Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms requires determination of their fitness and invasiveness relative to conspecifics and other ecosystem members. Cultured growth hormone transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have enhanced feeding capacity and growth, which can result in large enhancements in body size (>7-fold) relative to nontransgenic salmon, but ...
Ruxton Graeme D - - 2004
Among extant vertebrates, only the 23 species of vulture are obligate scavengers. We use an energetic modelling approach to explore the constraints imposed by an obligate scavenging lifestyle, and to ask whether obligate scavengers must always be avian and generally large-bodied users of soaring flight. Our model found that aerial ...
Teng Jack - - 2004
Using simple food webs, we address how the interactions of food web structure and energetic flows influence dynamics. We examine the effect of food web topologies with equivalent energetics (i.e., trophic interactions are equivalent at each trophic level), following which we vary energetic flows to include weak and strong interactions ...
Reimchen T E - - 2004
Sexual dimorphism is widespread in nature and can be influenced by sex-specific natural selection resulting from ecological differences between the sexes. Here we show that contrasting life-history pressures and temporal shifts in ecology can exert a strong influence on the evolution of sexual dimorphism. The bony spines exhibited by stickleback ...
Finke Deborah L - - 2004
Food web complexity is thought to weaken the strength of terrestrial trophic cascades in which strong impacts of natural enemies on herbivores cascade to influence primary production indirectly. Predator diversity can enhance food web complexity because predators may feed on each other and on shared prey. In such cases, theory ...
Zhou Shu-Rong - - 2004
The existences of the Allee effect at the local population level and of the Allee-like effect at the metapopulation level are important for both ecology and conservation. Although there have been a great many papers on the Allee effect, they have mainly referred to only local populations and have not ...
Preisser Evan L - - 2004
Herbivore outbreaks and the accompanying devastation of plant biomass can have enormous ecological effects. Climate directly affects such outbreaks through plant stress or alterations in herbivore life-history traits. Large-scale variation in climate can indirectly affect outbreaks through trophic interactions, but the magnitude of such effects is unknown. On the California ...
Kreutzweiser David P - - 2004
A neem-based insecticide, Neemix 4.5, was applied to forest pond enclosures at concentrations of 10, 17, and 28 microg l(-1) azadirachtin (the active ingredient). At these test concentrations, significant, concentration-dependent reductions in numbers of adult copepods were observed, but immature copepod and cladoceran populations were unaffected. There was no evidence ...
Philpott Stacy M - - 2004
In food web studies, taxonomically unrelated predators are often grouped into trophic levels regardless of their relative importance on prey assemblages, multiple predator effects, or interactions such as omnivory. Ants and birds are important predators likely to differentially shape arthropod assemblages, but no studies have compared their effects on a ...
Tomy Gregg T - - 2004
The extent of bioaccumulation of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers (alpha, beta, and gamma) was determined in the Lake Ontario pelagic food web using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Concentrations of the alpha-isomer were consistently higher than that of the gamma-isomer. The beta-isomer was below method detection limits in all samples. ...
Rothe, Jan
Stable isotope techniques were used to identify regeneration patterns in the trophic structure of the reassembling communities in order to describe the development of a disturbed grassland ecosystem (Steudnitz) that had been subjected to anthropogenic pollution for more than 30 years. Mean values of the frequency distribution of [delta]<sup>15</sup>N differences ...
Nowak Martin A - - 2004
To explain the evolution of cooperation by natural selection has been a major goal of biologists since Darwin. Cooperators help others at a cost to themselves, while defectors receive the benefits of altruism without providing any help in return. The standard game dynamical formulation is the 'Prisoner's Dilemma', in which ...
Arii K - - 2004
Previous studies have shown that high-resolution, empirical food webs possess a non-random network structure, typically characterized by uniform or exponential degree distributions. However, the empirical food webs that have been investigated for their structural properties represent local communities that are only a subset of a larger pool of regionally coexisting ...
Weithoff Guntram - - 2004
Herbivore populations are commonly restricted by resource limitation, by predation or a combination of the two. Food supplement experiments are suitable for investigating the extent of food limitation at any given time. The main part of this study was performed in an extremely acidic lake (pH 2.7) where the food ...
Ruess Liliane - - 2004
This study analyses trophic interactions between soil fungi, micro- and mesofauna in microcosm experiments. The trophic shift of 15N and fatty acids (FAs) was investigated in different food chains, which comprised either two (fungi and grazers) or three (fungi, nematodes and Collembola) levels. Contrary to the widely accepted assumption of ...
Keller Gerta - - 2004
Since the early l990s the Chicxulub crater on Yucatan, Mexico, has been hailed as the smoking gun that proves the hypothesis that an asteroid killed the dinosaurs and caused the mass extinction of many other organisms at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 65 million years ago. Here, we report evidence from ...
< 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 >