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Results 601 - 650 of 1049
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Collins M A - - 2005
Body size trends across environmental gradients are widely reported but poorly understood. Here, we investigate contrasting relationships between size (body mass) and depth in the scavenging and predatory demersal ichthyofauna (800-4800 m) of the North-east Atlantic. The mean size of scavenging fish, identified as those regularly attracted to baited cameras, ...
Fair Jeanne M - - 2006
Our objectives were to determine (1) how much N is transferred into the food web via plants from a wetland receiving not only inputs of treated sewage effluent, but also containing contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), (2) how birds, as consumers, utilize exogenous N and uptake PCBs in relation ...
van Wijngaarden René P A - - 2005
Three experiments were conducted to determine the impact of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (single applications of 0.01 to 10 microg AI litre(-1)) in plankton-dominated nutrient-rich microcosms. The microcosms (water volume approximately 14 litres) were established in the laboratory under temperature, light regimes and nutrient levels that simulated cool 'temperate' and warm ...
Hopewell L - - 2005
Animals allocate the time spent on different behaviours according to nutritional requirements, the distribution of food and the risk of predation. When the perceived predation risk is high, animals primarily behave in ways to increase their safety such as regularly scanning their surroundings, forming large groups and feeding in habitats ...
Simon Olivier - - 2005
At present, ecotoxicological information regarding the impact of natural uranium (U) on freshwater ecosystems via the trophic contamination route is scarce. We generated an experimental trophic food chain involving the prey species, Corbicula fluminea, and a predator, Orconectes limosus, for a 10-day and a 30-day feeding periods (food ration: one ...
Auyuanet Adriana - - 2005
Coherence evolution of two food web models can be obtained under the stirring effect of chaotic advection. Each food web model sustains a three-level trophic system composed of interacting predators, consumers, and vegetation. These populations compete for a common limiting resource in open flows with chaotic advection dynamics. Here we ...
Schallenberg M - - 2005
Environmental studies of the human-pathogenic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni have focused on linking distributions with potential sources. However, in aquatic ecosystems, the abundance of C. jejuni may also be regulated by predation. We examine the potential for grazing by the freshwater planktonic crustacean Daphnia carinata to reduce the survival of C. ...
Costa Pedro R - - 2005
Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents ...
Gilardi Luisella - - 2005
This report provides a brief overview of several reliable Internet resources concerning food toxicology. Some helpful Internet resources have been identified on the basis of quality criteria, of their relevance and the languages availability. The report includes four topic areas, the first provides a brief description of international resources, the ...
Kondoh Michio - - 2006
The adaptive food-web hypothesis suggests that an adaptive foraging switch inverses the classically negative complexity-stability relationships of food webs into positive ones, providing a possible resolution for the long-standing paradox of how populations persist in a complex natural food web. However, its applicability to natural ecosystems has been questioned, because ...
Cherel Yves - - 2005
Cephalopods play a key role in the marine environment but knowledge of their feeding habits is limited by lack of data. Here, we have developed a new tool to investigate their feeding ecology by combining the use of their predators as biological samplers together with measurements of the stable isotopic ...
Jiang Lin - - 2005
We present a simple nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ) model that incorporates adaptive evolution and allometric relations to examine the patterns and consequences of adaptive changes in plankton body size. Assuming stable environmental conditions, the model makes the following predictions. First, phytoplankton should evolve toward small sizes typical of picoplankton. Second, in the ...
Campbell Linda M - - 2005
Total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and 22 other trace elements were measured in ice algae, three species of zooplankton, mixed zooplankton samples, Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and eight species of seabirds to examine the trophodynamics of these metals in an Arctic marine food web. All samples ...
Harwood James D - - 2005
The planting of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins is widespread throughout the world; the prolific increase in their application exposes nontarget organisms to toxins designed to control pests. To date, studies have focused upon the effects of Bt endotoxins on specific herbivores and detritivores, without consideration of their persistence ...
Worm Boris - - 2005
The open oceans comprise most of the biosphere, yet patterns and trends of species diversity there are enigmatic. Here, we derive worldwide patterns of tuna and billfish diversity over the past 50 years, revealing distinct subtropical "hotspots" that appeared to hold generally for other predators and zooplankton. Diversity was positively ...
Rubinoff Daniel - - 2005
Moths and butterflies compose one of the most diverse insect orders, but they are overwhelmingly herbivorous. Less than 0.2% are specialized predators, indicating that lepidopteran feeding habits are highly constrained. We report a Hawaiian caterpillar that specializes on snails, a unique food source requiring an unusual feeding strategy. The caterpillar ...
Biro Peter A - - 2005
Given limited food, prey fishes in a temperate climate must take risks to acquire sufficient reserves for winter and/or to outgrow vulnerability to predation. However, how can we distinguish which selective pressure promotes risk-taking when larger body size is always beneficial? To address this question, we examined patterns of energy ...
Ito Hiroshi C - - 2006
A reaction-diffusion model describing the evolutionary dynamics of a food-web was constructed. In this model, predator-prey relationships among organisms were determined by their position in a two-dimensional phenotype space defined by two traits: as prey and as predator. The mutation process is expressed with a diffusion process of biomass in ...
Hu Jianying - - 2005
4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) is of particular concern because of its ubiquity in aquatic environment and its endocrine-disrupting effects in aquatic organisms. On the basis of its octanol-water partition coefficient (104.6), it has a potential to bioaccumulate in aquatic food webs. However, there are no reported field studies on the trophodynamics of ...
Sundström L Fredrik - - 2005
Substantial evidence from the animal kingdom shows that there is a trade-off between benefits and costs associated with rapid somatic growth. One would therefore expect growth rates under natural conditions to be close to an evolutionary optimum. Nevertheless, natural selection in many salmonid species appears to be toward larger size ...
Arita Masanori - - 2005
The notion of scale-freeness and its prevalence in both natural and artificial networks have recently attracted much attention. The concept of scale-freeness is enthusiastically applied to almost any conceivable network, usually with affirmative conclusions. Well-known scale-free examples include the internet, electric lines among power plants, the co-starring of movie actors, ...
Luz-Burgoa K - - 2005
Galapagos finches, have motivated much theoretical research aimed at understanding the processes associated with the formation of the species. Inspired by them, in this paper we investigate the process of sympatric speciation in a simple food web model. For that we modify the individual-based Penna model that has been widely ...
Grenier J Letitia - - 2005
The study of ecological convergence, the evolution of similar traits on multiple occasions in response to similar conditions, is a powerful method for developing and testing adaptive hypotheses. However, despite the great attention paid to geographic variation and the foraging ecology of birds, surprisingly few cases of convergent or parallel ...
Ruxton Graeme D - - 2005
A previous experiment with birds searching for caterpillars in an aviary demonstrated a highly counterintuitive result, that the rate at which a forager encounters prey does not increase linearly with prey density. Here, I demonstrate that if search rate increases over time then this can produce exactly the observed type ...
Frank Kenneth T - - 2005
Removal of top predators from ecosystems can result in cascading effects through the trophic levels below, completely restructuring the food web. Cascades have been observed in small-scale or simple food webs, but not in large, complex, open-ocean ecosystems. Using data spanning many decades from a once cod-dominated northwest Atlantic ecosystem, ...
Pohnert Georg - - 2005
Numerous coexisting species can be observed in the open oceans. This includes the complex community of the plankton, which comprises all free floating organisms in the sea. Traditionally, nutrient limitation, competition, predation, and abiotic factors have been assumed to shape the community structure in this environment. Only in recent years ...
Davidson Keith - - 2005
Laboratory experiments were conducted to study nitrogen (N) regeneration by the heterotrophic marine dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina when ingesting phytoplankton prey of two different species and of two alternative carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Experiments were conducted in the presence of L-methionine sulfoximine (MSX) which acts as a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. Utilisation by ...
STANLEY H. FAETH
Human activities dramatically change the abundance, diversity, and composition of species. However, little is known about how the most intense human activity, urbanization, alters food webs and trophic structure in biological communities. Studies of the Phoenix area, situated amid the Sonoran Desert, reveal some surprising alterations in the control of ...
Guerra-García J M - - 2005
The population of the caprellid Metaprotella sandalensis Mayer (Crustacea: Amphipoda) associated with the seaweed Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh was studied on a spatial scale in relation to the influence of physico-chemical factors on the coral reef system at Mauritius Island. Some areas of the coast of Mauritius are currently ...
Valkama Jari - - 2005
Whether predators can limit their prey has been a topic of scientific debate for decades. Traditionally it was believed that predators take only wounded, sick, old or otherwise low-quality individuals, and thus have little impact on prey populations. However, there is increasing evidence that, at least under certain circumstances, vertebrate ...
Caquet Thierry - - 2005
Ecotoxicological effects of the diphenyl ether herbicide fomesafen, applied alone or in combination with the adjuvant Agral 90 (mixture of polyethoxylated derivatives of nonylphenol), were assessed on planktonic communities in 18-m3 outdoor mesocosms during a nine-month study. Four mesocosms were treated with fomesafen only (nominal concentration: 40 microg/L), four were ...
Marples Nicola M - - 2005
Animals that are brightly colored have intrigued scientists since the time of Darwin, because it seems surprising that prey should have evolved to be clearly visible to predators. Often this self-advertisement is explained by the prey being unprofitable in some way, with the conspicuous warning coloration helping to protect the ...
Haspel Gal - - 2005
Unlike predators, which immediately consume their prey, parasitoid wasps incapacitate their prey to provide a food supply for their offspring. We have examined the effects of the venom of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa on the metabolism of its cockroach prey. This wasp stings into the brain of the cockroach ...
Eurich Christian W - - 2005
We consider the effect of distributed delays in predator-prey models and ecological food webs. Whereas the occurrence of delays in population dynamics is usually regarded a destabilizing factor leading to the extinction of species, we here demonstrate complementarily that delay distributions yield larger stability regimes than single delays. Food webs ...
Loeuille Nicolas - - 2005
Explaining the structure of terrestrial and aquatic food webs remains one of the most important challenges of ecological theory. Most existing models use emergent properties of food webs, such as diversity and connectance as parameters, to determine other food-web descriptors. Lower-level processes, in particular adaptation (whether by behavioral, developmental, or ...
Sarkar R R - - 2005
Plankton is the basis of the entire aquatic food chain. Phytoplankton, in particular, occupies the first trophic level. Plankton performs services for the Earth: it serves as food for marine life, gives off oxygen and also absorbs half of the carbon dioxide from the Earth's atmosphere. The dynamics of a ...
Fraser Alison J - - 2005
Two aspects of bioaccumulation in an aquatic food web are explored. First, the possible implications of cannibalism, including the scavenging of conspecifics, as a factor influencing food web bioaccumulation and biomagnification are explored by examining the behavior of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a simple aquatic food web consisting of ...
Bascompte Jordi - - 2005
The stability of ecological communities largely depends on the strength of interactions between predators and their prey. Here we show that these interaction strengths are structured nonrandomly in a large Caribbean marine food web. Specifically, the cooccurrence of strong interactions on two consecutive levels of food chains occurs less frequently ...
Bastolla Ugo - - 2005
This is the second of two papers dedicated to the relationship between population models of competition and biodiversity. Here, we consider species assembly models where the population dynamics is kept far from fixed points through the continuous introduction of new species, and generalize to such models the coexistence condition derived ...
Wilmers Christopher C - - 2005
Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter ...
Elliott J E - - 2005
Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) now breed successfully in most areas of North America from which they were previously extirpated. The loss during the mid-part of the last century of many of the world's peregrine populations was largely a consequence of impaired reproduction caused by the effects of DDE on eggshell ...
Schmidt B R - - 2005
Species that occupy similar habitats are expected to show convergent phenotypes. If habitats are defined by the presence of predators, then traits that modify vulnerability to predation, including predator-induced phenotypic plasticity, should be similar within habitats. We tested this idea using larvae of six syntopic newt species belonging to the ...
Peet Alison B - - 2005
In this paper, we present a three-level trophic food chain, including intraspecies interaction. In contrast with other analyses, we consider the effect on the third trophic level by the first-level parameters. The model shows complex, as well as, chaotic oscillations. Bifurcation diagrams show period doubling route to chaos and crises. ...
Phillips Donald L - - 2005
Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants; or water bodies, and many others. A common problem is having too many sources to allow a unique solution. We discuss ...
Jiang Lin - - 2005
We investigated the effects of predator diet breadth on the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down control of prey assemblages, using microbial food webs containing bacteria, bacterivorous protists and rotifers, and two different top predators. The experiment used a factorial design that independently manipulated productivity and the presence or absence ...
Arendt Jeffrey D - - 2005
Recent theoretical and empirical work argues that growth rate can evolve and be optimized, rather than always being maximized. Chronically low resource availability is predicted to favour the evolution of slow growth, whereas attaining a size-refuge from mortality risk is predicted to favour the evolution of rapid growth. Guppies (Poecilia ...
Gorokhova Elena - - 2005
Cercopagis pengoi, a recent invader to the Baltic Sea and the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a potential competitor with fish for zooplankton prey. We used stable C and N isotope ratios to elucidate trophic relationships between C. pengoi, zooplankton (microzooplankton, 90-200 microm, mostly copepod nauplii and rotifers; mesozooplankton, >200 microm, ...
Riddell David J - - 2005
The foraging and predator-avoidance behaviors of mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) nymphs and predator-prey interactions were investigated under differing combinations of cadmium concentration and predation risk. Predators consisted of stonefly (Kogotus nonus) nymphs, juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), either alone or in combination. Organisms were exposed to ...
Frenot Yves - - 2005
Alien microbes, fungi, plants and animals occur on most of the sub-Antarctic islands and some parts of the Antarctic continent. These have arrived over approximately the last two centuries, coincident with human activity in the region. Introduction routes have varied, but are largely associated with movement of people and cargo ...
Korpimäki Erkki - - 2005
Comprehensive analyses of long-term (1977-2003) small-mammal abundance data from western Finland showed that populations of Microtus voles (field voles M. agrestis and sibling voles M. rossiaemeridionalis) voles, bank (Clethrionomys glareolus) and common shrews (Sorex araneus) fluctuated synchronously in 3 year population cycles. Time-series analyses indicated that interspecific synchrony is influenced ...
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