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Trussell Geoffrey C - - 2006
Classical views of trophic cascades emphasize the primacy of consumptive predator effects on prey populations to the transmission of indirect effects [density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)]. However, trophic cascades can also emerge without changes in the density of interacting species because of non-consumptive predator effects on prey traits such as foraging ...
Wrona Frederick J - - 2006
Changes in climate and ultraviolet radiation levels in the Arctic will have far-reaching impacts, affecting aquatic species at various trophic levels, the physical and chemical environment that makes up their habitat, and the processes that act on and within freshwater ecosystems. Interactions of climatic variables, such as temperature and precipitation, ...
Frederiksen Morten - - 2006
1. Abundant mid-trophic pelagic fish often play a central role in marine ecosystems, both as links between zooplankton and top predators and as important fishery targets. In the North Sea, the lesser sandeel occupies this position, being the main prey of many bird, mammal and fish predators and the target ...
Kuhn Carey E - - 2006
For many marine predators knowledge of foraging behavior is limited to inferences based on changes in diving or movement patterns at sea. This results in an incomplete and potentially inaccurate view of the foraging ecology of a species. This study examined the use of stomach temperature telemetry to identify and ...
Gebühr C - - 2006
The phytotelmata of the North American pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea are colonised by a great variety of aquatic organisms and, thus, provide an ideal model to study trophic interactions in small freshwater ecosystems. Although algae are discussed as a potential food source for predators, little is known about the structure ...
Boonstra Rudy - - 2006
1. Across the vast boreal forests of North America, no population cycles in Clethrionomys species occur. In Eurasia, by contrast, some Clethrionomys populations of the same species undergo regular 3-5-year cycles. We examined the effects of nutrients, food, competitors, predators and climate on population limitation in the northern red-backed vole ...
Haven Jackie - - 2006
To assess consumer response to potential graphics, slogans, and messages for the consumer interface of the MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Qualitative research conducted in two phases, composed of focus groups and Web-TV testing. Professional market research facilities in Baltimore, MD, and Chicago, IL, and Web-TV. Phase 1,77 adults in 10 ...
Howard Erinn C - - 2006
Flux of dimethylsulfide (DMS) from ocean surface waters is the predominant natural source of sulfur to the atmosphere and influences climate by aerosol formation. Marine bacterioplankton regulate sulfur flux by converting the precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) either to DMS or to sulfur compounds that are not climatically active. Through the discovery ...
Crawford, RJM; Marine & ...
African penguins <i>Spheniscus demersus</i> live in the Benguela and western Agulhas ecosystems off southern Africa. Their numbers decreased throughout the 20th century from at least 1.5 million to about 0.18 million adults, although different regional trends were apparent. They feed to a large extent on shoaling epipelagic fish, notably anchovy ...
Burd Martin - - 2006
Conflict among siblings over parental investment, particularly over parental feeding, is a feature of family life in many kinds of animals. In some bird species, the size of prey items provided to juveniles has been implicated as a cause of aggressive competition among sibling chicks, because prey size determines whether ...
Meager Justin J - - 2006
We examined the effect of turbidity (0.5-14 beam attenuation m(-1)) and predator attack speed (150 and 296 cm s(-1)) on escape responses of juvenile cod Gadus morhua in the laboratory. We triggered escape responses using a predator model and measured escape timing, direction and locomotor performance. We also measured responsiveness ...
McCauley Douglas J - - 2006
Many large mammal species are declining in African savannas, yet we understand relatively little about how these declines influence other species. Previous studies have shown that the removal of large herbivorous mammals from large-scale, replicated experimental plots results in a dramatic increase in the density of small mammals, an increase ...
Zanette Liana - - 2006
Although the possibility that food and predators may interact in limiting avian populations has long been recognized, there have been few attempts to test this experimentally in the field. We conducted a manipulative food addition experiment on the demography of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) across sites that varied in predator ...
Gotelli Nicholas J - - 2006
Plant and animal population sizes inevitably change following habitat loss, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. We experimentally altered habitat volume and eliminated top trophic levels of the food web of invertebrates that inhabit rain-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Path models that incorporated ...
Namkung Young - - 2006
Despite a growing concern over food safety issues, as well as a growing dependence on the Internet as a source of information, little research has been done to examine the presence and relevance of food safety-related information on Web sites. The study reported here conducted Web site analysis in order ...
Brose Ulrich - - 2006
It has been suggested that differences in body size between consumer and resource species may have important implications for interaction strengths, population dynamics, and eventually food web structure, function, and evolution. Still, the general distribution of consumer-'resource body-size ratios in real ecosystems, and whether they vary systematically among habitats or ...
Borrett Stuart R - - 2007
Large-scale structural patterns commonly occur in network models of complex systems including a skewed node degree distribution and small-world topology. These patterns suggest common organizational constraints and similar functional consequences. Here, we investigate a structural pattern termed pathway proliferation. Previous research enumerating pathways that link species determined that as pathway ...
de Senerpont Domis Lisette N - - 2007
Mismatches between predator and prey due to climate change have now been documented for a number of systems. Ultimately, a mismatch may have far-reaching consequences for ecosystem functioning as decoupling of trophic relationships results in trophic cascades. Here, we examine the potential for climate change induced mismatches between zooplankton and ...
Hebert Craig E - - 2006
Disruption of natural food webs is becoming a commonplace occurrence as a result of human activities. Considering this, there is a need to improve our ability to define food web structure as well as to detect and understand the implications of trophodynamic change. This requires the development, validation, and application ...
Gasparini, S.
During spring blooms 1998 and 1999, three complementary methods were used to evaluate the in situ feeding activities of the dominant copepod species of the Belgian coastal zone: gut pigment content analysis using HPLC, the <sup>14</sup>C tracer method, and cell count experiments. The results obtained by all three methods consistently ...
Beckerman Andrew P - - 2006
Food webs, the networks of feeding links between species, are central to our understanding of ecosystem structure, stability, and function. One of the key aspects of food web structure is complexity, or connectance, the number of links expressed as a proportion of the total possible number of links. Connectance (complexity) ...
Inger Richard - - 2006
1. Individual variability in prey preferences can have marked effects on many demographic parameters from individual survival and fecundity to the vital rates of entire populations. A population level response is ultimately determined by individual prey choices; however, the effect of individual dietary choice is often overlooked. 2. We determined ...
Weber Kristi - - 2006
Americans are spending an increasing amount of time using "new media" like the Internet. There has been little research examining food and beverage Web sites' content and marketing practices, especially those that attract children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of food- and ...
Wilf Peter - - 2006
Food web recovery from mass extinction is poorly understood. We analyzed insect-feeding damage on 14,999 angiosperm leaves from 14 latest Cretaceous, Paleocene, and early Eocene sites in the western interior United States. Most Paleocene floras have low richness of plants and of insect damage. However, a low-diversity 64.4-million-year-old flora from ...
Maxwell T A D - - 2006
Abundance-body size relationships are widely observed macroecological patterns in complete food webs and in taxonomically or functionally defined subsets of those webs. Observed abundance-body size relationships have frequently been compared with predictions based on the energetic equivalence hypothesis and, more recently, with predictions based on energy availability to different body ...
Rutz Christian - - 2006
Investigating food-limitation in generalist predators is difficult, because they can switch to alternative prey, when one of their staple prey becomes scarce. Apart from data on the dynamics of the predator population, a robust study requires: (i) a documentation of the predator's entire prey base; and (ii) an experimental or ...
Estrada Ernesto - - 2007
We analyse the robustness of food webs against species loss by considering the influence of several structural factors of the networks, such as connectance, degree distribution and expansibility. The last concept refers to the absence of structural bottlenecks in the food web, whose removal separate the network into large isolate ...
Mullowney Paul - - 2007
Techniques from queueing theory can be used to model the growth of individuals in a stochastic environment where the growth rate cannot exceed some physiological maximum. In the simplifying case where there are no metabolic costs and the individual has an unlimited gut size, a general theory for the probability ...
Roy Shovonlal - - 2007
Enrichment in resource availability theoretically destabilizes predator-prey dynamics (the paradox of enrichment). However, a minor change in the resource stoichiometry may make a prey toxic for the predator, and the presence of toxic prey affects the dynamics significantly. Here, theoretically we explore how, at increased carrying capacity, a toxic prey ...
Jezbera Jan - - 2006
An experiment designed to examine food preferences of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) grazing on bacterioplankton was performed in the freshwater Rímov reservoir (Czech Republic). Water samples were size-fractionated to obtain < 5 microm filtrate containing bacteria and HNF. To manipulate resource availability, < 5 microm treatments were incubated in dialysis bags ...
Gandhi Nilima - - 2006
A multichemical food web model has been developed to estimate the biomagnification of interconverting chemicals in aquatic food webs. We extended a fugacity-based food web model for single chemicals to account for reversible and irreversible biotransformation among a parent chemical and transformation products, by simultaneously solving mass balance equations of ...
Rooney Neil - - 2006
Untangling the influence of human activities on food-web stability and persistence is complex given the large numbers of species and overwhelming number of interactions within ecosystems. Although biodiversity has been associated with stability, the actual structures and processes that confer stability to diverse food webs remain largely unknown. Here we ...
Lafferty Kevin D - - 2006
Parasitism is the most common animal lifestyle, yet food webs rarely include parasites. The few earlier studies have indicated that including parasites leads to obvious increases in species richness, number of links, and food chain length. A less obvious result was that adding parasites slightly reduced connectance, a key metric ...
Arii Ken - - 2007
One of the key measures that have been used to describe the topological properties of complex networks is the "degree distribution", which is a measure that describes the frequency distribution of number of links per node. Food webs are complex ecological networks that describe the trophic relationships among species in ...
Eby Lisa A - - 2006
The establishment of exotic game fishes to enhance recreational fisheries through authorized and unauthorized stocking into freshwater systems is a global phenomenon. Stocked fishes are often top predators that either replace native top predators or increase the species richness of top predators. Many direct effects of stocking have been documented, ...
Purnell Mark A - - 2006
1. The threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus is an important model organism in studies of genomic and phenotypic evolution, adaptation and speciation. Fossil Gasterosteus offer the potential to test models derived from studies of extant fishes over true evolutionary time-scales. Competition for food resources, for example, plays an important part in ...
Pelletier E - - 2006
Organisms living in coastal waters are exposed to anthropogenic contaminants from terrestrial drainage, ice melting and maritime traffic and to enhanced UVB radiation (UVBR; 280-320 nm) caused by decreased concentrations of ozone in the stratosphere. This article reviews available information about the combined effects of UVBR and selected hydrosoluble contaminants ...
Long Zachary T - - 2006
1. Allometric theory makes specific predictions about how density, and consequently biomass, scale with organism size within trophic levels, across trophic levels and across food webs. 2. Diversity-yield relationships suggest that more diverse food webs can sometimes support more biomass through mechanisms involving niche complementarity or selection effects that are ...
Belzile Claude - - 2006
UV irradiance has a broad range of effects on marine planktonic organisms. Direct and indirect effects on individual organisms have complex impacts on food-web structure and dynamics, with implications for carbon and nutrient cycling. Mesocosm experiments are well suited for the study of such complex interrelationships. Mesocosms offer the possibility ...
Filippini Manuela - - 2006
The discovery of an abundant and diverse virus community in oceans and lakes has profoundly reshaped ideas about global carbon and nutrient fluxes, food web dynamics, and maintenance of microbial biodiversity. These roles are exerted through massive viral impact on the population dynamics of heterotrophic bacterioplankton and primary producers. We ...
Sábato Marco Aurélio Lima - - 2006
It is well established in the scientific literature that animal prey species reduce their activity at times of high predation risk. In the case of nocturnal animals this occurs when there is a full moon; however, the response of predators to the changes in their prey behaviour is relatively unknown. ...
van de Wolfshaar K E - - 2006
Growth in body size during ontogeny often results in changes in diet, leading to life-history omnivory. In addition, growth is often dependent on food density. Using a physiologically structured population model, we investigated the effects of these two aspects of individual growth in a system consisting of two size-structured populations, ...
Cross W F - - 2006
Although the effects of nutrient enrichment on consumer-resource dynamics are relatively well studied in ecosystems based on living plants, little is known about the manner in which enrichment influences the dynamics and productivity of consumers and resources in detritus-based ecosystems. Because nutrients can stimulate loss of carbon at the base ...
Wise David H - - 2006
The effectiveness of generalist predators in biological control may be diminished if increased availability of alternative prey causes individual predators to decrease their consumption of crop pests. Farming practices that enhance densities of microbidetritivores in the detrital food web can lead to increased densities of generalist predators that feed on ...
Smee Delbert L - - 2006
The lethal and nonlethal impacts of predators in marine systems are often mediated via reciprocal detection of waterborne chemical signals between consumers and prey. Local flow environments can enhance or impair the chemoreception ability of consumers, but the effect of hydrodynamics on detection of predation risk by prey has not ...
Halpern Benjamin S - - 2006
Global-scale changes in anthropogenic nutrient input into marine ecosystems via terrestrial runoff, coupled with widespread predator removal via fishing, have created greater urgency for understanding the relative role of top-down versus bottom-up control of food web dynamics. Yet recent large-scale studies of community regulation in marine ecosystems have shown dramatically ...
Sims David W - - 2006
Movements of wide-ranging top predators can now be studied effectively using satellite and archival telemetry. However, the motivations underlying movements remain difficult to determine because trajectories are seldom related to key biological gradients, such as changing prey distributions. Here, we use a dynamic prey landscape of zooplankton biomass in the ...
Hudson Peter J - - 2006
Historically, the role of parasites in ecosystem functioning has been considered trivial because a cursory examination reveals that their relative biomass is low compared with that of other trophic groups. However there is increasing evidence that parasite-mediated effects could be significant: they shape host population dynamics, alter interspecific competition, influence ...
Hu Jianying - - 2006
Organotins, especially tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), are of particular concern due to their ubiquity in the aquatic environment and theirtoxicityto aquatic organisms. This study reports field studies on trophic magnification factors (TMF) of TBT and TPT in a marine food web. TBT, TPT, and their metabolites in plankton, five ...
Ortega Yvette Katina - - 2006
Although exotic plant invasions threaten natural systems worldwide, we know little about the specific ecological impacts of invaders, including the magnitude of effects and underlying mechanisms. Exotic plants are likely to impact higher trophic levels when they overrun native plant communities, affecting habitat quality for breeding songbirds by altering food ...
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