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Akieda-Asai Sayaka S 1University of - - 2014
CCK and leptin are anorectic hormones produced in the small intestine and white adipose tissue, respectively. Investigating how these hormones act together as an integrated anorectic signal is important for elucidating the mechanisms by which energy balance is maintained. We found here that coadministration of subthreshold CCK and leptin, which ...
Arellanes-Licea Elvira Del Carmen ED Departamento de Neurobiología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro, Qro, 76230, - - 2014
Daytime restricted feeding promotes the re-alignment of the food entrained oscillator (FEO). Endocrine cues whose secretion is regulated by the transition of fasting and feeding cycles converge in the FEO. The present study aimed to investigate ghrelin, GH and IGF-1 system, since their release depends on rhythmic and nutritional factors, ...
Kotagale Nandkishor R NR Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Shrimati Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur 441 002, MS, - - 2014
The potent orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been considered as a possible endogenous ligand for a subpopulation of sigma receptors (SigR). However, their mutual interaction with reference to feeding behavior remains poorly understood. In the present study, we explored the possible interaction between sigma1 receptors (Sig1R) agonist, pentazocine, and ...
White Jordan T JT Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, USA; Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Natural populations display a variety of reproductive responses to environmental cues, but the underlying physiology that causes these responses is largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that heritable variation in reproductive traits can be described by heritable variation in ...
Ladyman Sharon R SR S Ladyman, Department of Anatomy, and Centre for Neuroendocrinology, University of Otago, Dunedin, 9054, New - - 2014
Among the numerous physiological changes that accompany lactation is the suppression of the reproductive axis. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible role for the kisspeptin system in the restoration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis during late lactation in rats, using a food restriction model that allows manipulation ...
Kocho-Schellenberg Margaret M Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, - - 2014
Recent gene association studies have implicated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) systems in several psychiatric disorders associated with stressor exposure, and we have argued that many of the behavioral consequences of repeated stressor exposure may depend on the expression of PACAP in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). ...
Kim Eun Ran ER Division of Endocrinology & Metabolic Disease, Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, - - 2013
Xenin is a gut hormone that reduces food intake partly by acting through the hypothalamus. However, the mechanism of hypothalamic xenin action is not fully understood. To identify xenin-regulated genes in the hypothalamus, we compared expression levels of metabolism-related genes in the hypothalamus between saline-treated control and xenin-treated mice. Intraperitoneal ...
Rak-Mardyla A A Department of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Chair of Animal Physiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland. - - 2013
Based on the available data, it was shown that ghrelin is involved in a series of physiological processes such as regulation of food intake, body weight, and cardiovascular or immune function. Recent studies have shown that ghrelin also plays an important role in the regulation of female reproduction. Information exists ...
Schmidt Kim L - - 2013
Variation in early environmental conditions can have long-term effects on physiology and behaviour, a process referred to as developmental programming. In particular, exposure to early-life stressors can have long-term effects on regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Although these effects have been well documented in mammals, less ...
Brunetti Luigi - - 2013
Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine that is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of chemerin on food intake, body weight and hypothalamic peptidergic and aminergic modulators which play a pivotal role in feeding regulation ...
Gobush K S - - 2013
We validate fecal glucocorticoid (GC) and thyroid (T3) hormone metabolite measures in the Critically Endangered Hawaiian monk seal for the first time, and examine variation in the concentrations of these hormones in individuals across the species' range. We test hypotheses that monk seals from declining subpopulations have relatively high GCs ...
Lucas Nicolas - - 2013
Anti-α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) polyclonal antibodies have been used for α-MSH neutralization in functional studies, but the results are sometime inconsistent with the antibody expected blocking properties. The present study aimed to determine if rabbit (Rb) anti-α-MSH immunoglobulins (Ig) may inhibit or enhance α-MSH signaling on melanocortin receptor type 4 (MC4R) ...
Yoshimura Mitsuhiro - - 2013
We examined the effects of serotonin (5-HT) depletion induced by peripheral injection of 5-HT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) on the expression of feeding-regulating peptides expressions by using in situ hybridization histochemistry in adult male Wistar rats. PCPA pretreatment had no significant effect on basal levels of oxytocin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), ...
Bridges Nicola - - 2013
Prader Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic condition caused by loss of the paternal copy of a region of imprinted genes on chromosome 15. There is severe muscular hypotonia in the neonatal period, with the onset of hyperphagia and food-seeking behaviour in childhood. All individuals with PWS have developmental delay. ...
Eguizábal Gabina V - - 2013
One of the current standard approaches to the study of animal welfare is measuring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, frequently in association with behavioral assessment. We studied the effects of food-based environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity and behavior in zoo-housed collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla; n = 5). We successfully validated measurements of fecal cortisol metabolites ...
Tuziak Sarah M - - 2013
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is classically known for its role in regulating teleost fish skin color change for environmental adaptation. Recent evidence suggests that MCH also has appetite-stimulating properties. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptide family has dual roles in endocrine control of reproduction and energy status in fish. Atlantic cod (Gadus ...
Keogh Kat - - 2013
Food should be given the same status as medicine in the battle against malnutrition and dehydration in hospitals, according to the National Nurses Nutrition Group (NNNG).
Skibicka Karolina P - - 2013
A number of appetite-regulating gut hormones alter behaviors linked to reward, anxiety/mood, memory and cognitive function, although for some of these (notably GLP-1 and CCK) the endogenous signal may be CNS-derived. From a physiological perspective it seems likely that these hormones, whose secretion is altered by nutritional status and by ...
Duan M M State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China; Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Conservation of Aquatic Organisms, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P. R. - - 2013
The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although ...
Rui Liangyou - - 2013
Body weight is determined by a balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Multiple neural circuits in the brain have evolved to process information about food, food-related cues and food consumption to control feeding behavior. Numerous gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce and secrete satiety hormones in response to food consumption and ...
Lawson Elizabeth A - - 2013
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-mediated hypercortisolemia has been demonstrated in anorexia nervosa (anorexia), a psychiatric disorder characterized by food restriction despite low body weight. While CRH is anorexigenic, downstream cortisol stimulates hunger. Using a food-related fMRI paradigm, we have demonstrated hypoactivation of brain regions involved in food motivation in women with ...
Begg Denovan P - - 2013
Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, ...
Machado Tania Diniz - - 2013
Abstract Chronic stress increases anxiety and encourages intake of palatable foods as "comfort foods". This effect seems to be mediated by altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the current study, litters of Wistar rats were subjected to limited access to nesting material (Early-Life Stress group - ELS) or standard ...
Zhao K K Research & Development, Department of Veterans Affairs, Greater Los Angeles Health Care System, Los Angeles, CA 90073, - - 2013
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a neuropeptide contained in neural terminals innervating brainstem vagal motor neurons, enhances vagal outflow to modify multisystemic visceral functions and food intake. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are accompanied by impaired vagal functioning. We examined the possibility that impaired brainstem TRH action may contribute to the ...
Bazhan Nadezhda - - 2013
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide with serious consequences such as diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. Emotional stress is considered to be one of the main reasons of obesity development in humans. However, there are some contradictory results, which should be addressed. First of all stress induces ...
Zhong Chengrong - - 2013
In fish, food intake and feeding behavior are crucial for survival, competition, growth and reproduction. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit an enhanced growth rate, increased food intake and higher feed conversion rate. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of feeding regulation in GH-transgenic (TG) fish are not clear. In this ...
Thiry Celine - - 2013
Most European people have selenium (Se) intake inferior to recommended values that are considered necessary to ensure the beneficial action of antioxidant selenoproteins. People could therefore tend to have recourse to Se-enriched food supplements (FS) aiming to increase their Se body level. On the Belgian market, three main types of ...
Steinert R E - - 2013
Nutrient ingestion triggers numerous changes in gastrointestinal (GI) peptide hormone secretion that affect appetite and eating. Evidence for these effects comes from research in laboratory animals, healthy humans, and, increasingly, obese patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, which has marked effects on GI hormone function and is currently the ...
Monteleone Palmiero P Department of Psychiatry, University of Naples SUN, Naples, Italy. - - 2013
Hedonic eating differentiates from homeostatic eating on two main aspects: the first one is that eating occurs when there is no need for calorie ingestion and the second one is that the food is consumed exclusively for its gustatory and rewarding properties. Gastroeneteric hormones such as ghrelin, colecystokinin-33 (CCK) and ...
Yosten Gina L C - - 2013
Food intake is a complex, multifaceted process that involves the integration of numerous nutritional signals and behavioral outputs. Dozens of centrally acting peptide hormones that contribute to the control of appetite and food intake have been identified. Two recently described peptide hormones, neuronostatin and nesfatin-1, both act in the brain ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2013
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide belonging to a family of neuropeptides that includes urocortins, urotensin I, and sauvagine in vertebrates. CRH and urocortin act as anorexigenic factors for satiety regulation in fish. In a goldfish model, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of CRH has been shown to affect not only ...
Cahill Shaina - - 2013
Seasonal fluctuations in food availability show a tight association with seasonal variations in body weight and food intake. Seasonal variations in food intake, energy storage, and expenditure appear to be a widespread phenomenon suggesting they may have evolved in anticipation for changing environmental demands. These cycles appear to be driven ...
Matsuda Kouhei K Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Innovative Life Science, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555, Japan. Electronic - - 2013
Summary: Food intake is a fundamental for animals to surviving and keeping offspring. The hypothalamic region of the brain and the brain stem in vertebrates are a center that plays an important role in the control of feeding and its related behaviors including locomotor and psychomotor activities. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating ...
Maria Ines Perez Millan PM Laboratory of Pituitary Regulation, Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine-CONICET, Vuelta de Obligado 2490. Buenos Aires 1428, - - 2013
Prolactin, a pleiotropic hormone secreted by lactotropes, has reproductive and metabolic functions. Chronically elevated prolactin levels increase food intake, but in some hyperprolactinemic states such as in the global dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) knockout mouse, food intake is not increased. Here, we conduct a cell-specific genetic dissection study using conditional ...
Ortega Van A VA Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph Guelph, ON, - - 2013
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), urotensin I (UI) and serotonin (5-HT) are generally recognized as key regulators of the anorexigenic stress response in vertebrates, yet the proximal effects and potential interactions of these central messengers on food intake in salmonids are not known. Moreover, no study to date in fishes has compared ...
Patton Danica F DF Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC, - - 2013
Circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology are generated by central and peripheral circadian oscillators entrained by periodic environmental or physiological stimuli. A master circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is directly entrained by daily light-dark (LD) cycles, and coordinates the timing of other oscillators by direct and indirect ...
Volkoff Hélène - - 2012
In this study, the effects of peripheral (intraperitoneal) injections of D-amphetamine on feeding behavior were assessed in goldfish. Compared with the saline-injected group, amphetamine injections decreased food intake at doses ranging from 1 to 75 μg/g, but not 0.5 μg/g, but increased locomotor behavior, as indicated by the increased number of total ...
Ahmed H H - - 2012
<strong> </strong> A number of factors involved in the control of energy balance and metabolism act as modulators of gonadal axis. Ghrelin, a peptide secreted from the stomach and hypothalamus, has emerged as an orexigenic food intake controlling signal acting upon hypothalamus. Recently, the potential reproductive role of ghrelin has ...
Weidlich S - - 2012
The two most important environmental factors controlling the release of trypsin in G.bimaculatus are temperature and food consumption. Food consumption is in turn controlled by food availability (quantity), food quality (contained nutrients, inhibitors), developmental stage, age, sex and the daily light-dark cycle. The secretion of trypsin was higher at an ...
Fu Rong-Guo - - 2012
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ghrelin can act as a signal for mealtime hunger and meal initiation. Amygdala is indispensable in appetitive behavior motivated by learned emotions. This study was to investigate the alteration of ghrelin in the amygdala of rats with chronic renal failure (CRF) and its relation with uremic anorexia. METHODS: SD ...
Perdue Bonnie M - - 2012
The ability to discriminate between quantities has been observed in many species. Typically, when an animal is given a choice between two sets of food, accurate performance (i.e., choosing the larger amount) decreases as the ratio between two quantities increases. A recent study reported that elephants did not exhibit ratio ...
Dehghan M - - 2012
Dehghan M., Ilow R., Zatonska K., Szuba A., Zhang X., Mente A. & Regulska-Ilow B. (2012) Development, reproducibility and validity of the food frequency questionnaire in the Poland arm of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study. J Hum Nutr Diet. ABSTRACT: Background:  A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is ...
Hassouna Rim - - 2012
Ghrelin and obestatin are two gut-derived peptides originating from the same ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene (GHRL). While ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and food intake and inhibits γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) neurons, obestatin blocks these effects. In Humans, GHRL gene polymorphisms have been associated with ...
Dehghan Mahshid - - 2012
The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is the most commonly used method for ranking individuals based on long term food intake in large epidemiological studies. The validation of an FFQ for specific populations is essential as food consumption is culture dependent. The aim of this study was to develop a Semi-quantitative ...
Nishiguchi Ryo - - 2012
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, of which several structural variants exist. A molecular form known as GnRH2 ([His(5) Trp(7) Tyr(8)]GnRH, also known as chicken GnRH II) is widely distributed in vertebrates except for rodents, and has recently been implicated in the regulation ...
Bewick Gavin A GA Section of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Peptide hormones are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients and communicate information regarding the current state of energy balance to the brain. These hormones regulate appetite, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. They can act either via the circulation at target peripheral tissues, by activation of the vagus ...
Aguirre Juan S - - 2011
The effects of electron beam irradiation and heat treatments on the variability of inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores (CECT 131/ATCC 10876) and of the lag phase of single surviving cells have been studied. In general, dispersion in the number of survivors increased as the stress became more intense. A polynomial ...
Nakano Masanori - - 2012
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection causes several hundred cases of food poisoning every year in Japan. In severe cases, this type of food poisoning can be fatal. In the present study, we examined the induction of HSP70 in E. coli O157:H7 cells at various temperatures and the thermotolerance of E. ...
Løvdal Irene Stranden - - 2011
Sublethal heat treatment may activate dormant spores and thereby potentiate the conversion of spores to vegetative cells. As the germinated spore is known to possess lower heat resistance than its dormant counterpart, it has been postulated that double heat treatment, i.e., spore heat activation followed by germination and then by ...
Ryu Jee-Hoon - - 2011
More than 90% of elementary school students in Korea have lunch provided by a school feeding program. This study examined nonheated foods, foods in which final ingredients were added after cooking ("heated/nonheated foods"), and desserts for microbial contamination levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens. We obtained a total of ...
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