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Results 351 - 400 of 635
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Urbain J L - - 1995
We evaluated intragastric food distribution and antral motor activity in patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: A standard gastric emptying test and dynamic imaging of the antrum were used to characterize gastric antral motility disturbances and to correlate them with total and compartmental gastric emptying in 25 dyspeptic patients. RESULTS: We ...
Exton M S - - 1995
The reduction of food intake in response to bacteria is posited to be a favourable host reaction. This report attempted to examine whether gastric emptying is involved in the known conditionability of this response. Additionally, this study investigated the role of prostaglandins in the conditioned anorexic response. To investigate this ...
Brouns F - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of either carbohydrate content or osmolarity on gastric emptying rate in normal healthy subjects. METHODS: In total 12 test drinks were ingested as a single 8 mL/kg per body weight bolus on an empty stomach. Six of these drinks ...
Seeley R J - - 1995
Meal size does not change in response to food being restricted to the stomach by occlusion of the pylorus. This result has been used as evidence for a gastric model of meal termination where feedback arising solely from the stomach is taken to underlie satiation. Such data provide support for ...
Serfaty-Lacrosniere C - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Low gastric pH is generally believed to be an important factor in intestinal mineral absorption. Thus, hypochlorhydria could be an important risk factor for mineral malabsorption and the development of marginal mineral status. We studied whether the hypochlorhydria associated with treatment with the anti-ulcer medication omeprazole, a potent gastric ...
Southgate D A - - 1995
Many factors potentially influence the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of the various species of sugars occurring in the human diet. Experimental evidence indicates that the source of sugars in foods does not in itself affect the rate of absorption or the metabolism of the sugars. However, the form in which ...
Nakane Y - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the optimum reconstruction procedure after total gastrectomy in terms of the quality of life of the patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Gastric replacement with various enteric reservoirs has been used to improve the postprandial symptoms and nutrition of patients after total gastrectomy. However, the effect of each ...
Morie T - - 1995
A new series of 4-amino-5-chloro-2-ethoxybenzamides 3b--f and 5--8 bearing six- and seven-membered heteroalicycles was prepared and evaluated for gastroprokinetic activity. Compounds 3b--e, derived by replacement of the morpholine oxygen of 4-amino-N-[(4-benzyl-2-morpholinyl)methyl]-5- chloro-2-ethoxybenzamide (3a) with other atoms (sulfur, nitrogen and carbon), generally exhibited a potent gastric emptying activity. N-(4-Benzyl-3-morpholinyl)methylbenzamide (5a) and ...
Croci T - - 1995
We investigated the influence of the nonpeptide neurotensin receptor antagonist, SR 48692, administered orally, on gastric emptying and on acute defaecation. SR 48692 dose-dependently (ED50 approximately 0.7 microgram kg-1) increased gastric emptying of a food suspension, but it had no effect on that of a non-caloric meal. SR 48692 also ...
Medhus A - - 1995
The present study elucidates whether the phase of the migrating motor complex (MMC) present at the moment of food intake modulates postprandial motor response and rate of gastric emptying of caloric meals. Eight healthy male volunteers with a mean age of 26 years were examined twice. During water-perfused gastroduodenal manometry, ...
Poitras P - - 1995
Whether mastication of food by teeth is a physiological contributor in the process of nutrient digestion remains a debatable issue. In this study we sought to determine whether mastication could influence the gastric emptying of solid food. In 8 edentulous patients, we measured the gastric emptying of a test meal ...
Valetti C - - 1994
Dithiothreitol (DTT) blocks the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi transport of newly synthesized immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules, whereas 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) allows secretion of unpolymerized Igs otherwise retained intracellularly by disulphide interchange reactions. To understand this dichotomy, we have compared the effects of DTT and 2ME on the assembly, intracellular transport, and secretion of ...
Carmel R - - 1994
Food-cobalamin absorption depends on the initial release of cobalamin from its binders in food. Therefore, the characterization of patients' gastric juices and their behavior in this process was undertaken. Pentagastrin-stimulated gastric juice specimens from three patients with severe food-cobalamin malabsorption, six patients with mild malabsorption, and five patients with normal ...
Barlow A P - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the gastric pH at different levels in the stomach under varying physiological circumstances. METHODS: Simultaneous 24-hour ambulatory gastric pH monitoring was performed with multiple electrodes in 24 normal subjects, divided into groups of six, to study the influence of food, the ...
Hogan D L - - 1994
The gastroduodenal epithelium is covered by an adherent mucus layer into which bicarbonate is secreted by surface epithelial cells. This mucus-bicarbonate barrier is an important first line of defence against damage by gastric acid and pepsin, and has been demonstrated in all species including human. Similar to gastric acid secretion, ...
Atherton J C - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Local delivery of therapeutic agents to the stomach may be a useful strategy in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. We aimed to see whether the intragastric distribution and gastric retention of a therapeutic agent could be improved, either by giving omeprazole or by dosing after a meal. METHODS: ...
Bursztein-De Myttenaere S - - 1994
Intravenous administration of nutrients can suppress oral food intake. Inhibition of gastric emptying (GE) is a potential explanation for this process. Inhibition of GE during parenteral nutrition (PN) and attenuation of this by parenteral nutrition enriched with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) was examined in nine healthy males maintained on standard ...
Simone A - - 1994
This paper describes a methodology for measuring and assessing changes in canine oral malodor with the intent that it can be used to evaluate products designed to make pets' breath more acceptable to their owners. Ten judges, able to discriminate and rank malodorous chemical compounds, were trained as a formal ...
Meyer J H - - 1994
Dietary fat is ingested in three forms: 1) in solid food, 2) as aqueous emulsions, and 3) as unemulsified, liquid oil. On the basis of a scant previous literature, we postulated that liquid fat (emulsions or oils) would empty from the stomach at speeds that varied with the amounts ingested ...
Mahé S - - 1994
The purpose of this work was to determine exogenous and endogenous contributions to the overall nitrogen flux in the upper jejunum in humans. After the ingestion of water or 8 g of [15N]casein, the behavior of gastro-jejunal nitrogen and electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-) movements were studied in seven volunteers using ...
Mende P - - 1994
Pyrrolidinone was identified in food and tobacco samples by gas chromatography combined with NO-specific chemiluminescence detection (TEA). Up to 77 mg/kg pyrrolidinone were detected in cocoa powders, coffee, coffee surrogates, dried vegetables and tobacco leaves. When treated with excess nitrite under acidic conditions, N-nitrosopyrrolidinone was formed in concentrations up to ...
Carmel R - - 1994
Two entities of considerable recent interest, Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach and food-cobalamin malabsorption, are each intimately associated with gastric abnormalities. A possible connection between the two entities thus suggested itself and prompted us to study 98 subjects with low serum cobalamin levels but normal Schilling test results and ...
Schmotzer W B - - 1994
To provide long-term gastric fistulas for collection of third-compartment gastric contents, Janeway mucosal tube gastrostomy was performed, using a gastrointestinal stapling instrument, in 6 castrated adult male llamas. Mean operative time (+/- SEM) was 65 +/- 4.16 minutes. All llamas survived the 6-week study period. Of the 6 llamas, 5 ...
Mistiaen W - - 1994
Anterior gastric wall stapling combined with posterior truncal vagotomy has been used as a new and adequate gastric acid output-reducing procedure. Severing the posterior vagal trunk as well as stapling the anterior gastric wall could impair gastric emptying. In this study, the gastric emptying rate for solid food, using a ...
Thörn S E - - 1994
The effects of a thoracic epidural analgesia with morphine or bupivacaine on gastroduodenal motility during the fasted state and after food intake were evaluated in healthy volunteers. Nine volunteers were studied on two occasions, separated by at least 2 weeks, and were randomly allocated to receive either epidural morphine or ...
Evered M D - - 1993
We have investigated the development and maintenance of schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) when ingested water (and food) was allowed to drain from the stomach. Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were prepared with permanent gastric cannulas and, after recovery, their body weight was reduced to 80%. Water intake was measured, with cannulas open ...
Washington N - - 1993
The aim of this study was the separate measurement of reflux of food and acid into the oesophagus in 37 healthy, ambulant subjects. This was performed by radiolabelling the food and monitoring its reflux with a small directional gamma detector, which was placed externally over the oesophagus, and connected to ...
Rayner D V - - 1993
The influence of the cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist MK-329 (0.1 mg/kg) on short-term control of voluntary food intake and gastric emptying was studied in five pigs. Arterial injection of MK-329 abolished the inhibition of intake resulting from duodenal infusion of emulsified fat (Intralipid, 24 g/h). However, MK-329 only reduced the inhibition ...
Moyer A E - - 1993
Fructose, as compared with other sugars, may have a suppressant effect on subsequent food intake and may result in a different selection of macronutrients. The research investigating these effects and the possible underlying mechanisms of action is reviewed. These mechanisms include fructose's effects on the rate of gastric emptying, concentrations ...
McAleese P - - 1993
Gastric emptying times and symptoms were recorded in 18 patients after total gastrectomy and either a 15-cm J-pouch (n = 10) or a standard esophagojejunal anastomosis (n = 8). A solid test meal labeled with 99mTc was used to compare the emptying times. The postoperative symptoms and nutritional status were ...
Virchenko S B - - 1993
In chronic experiments in dogs the evacuatory and absorptive duodenal functions and the level of duodenogastric reflux (DGR) in sham-operated dogs and dogs with transected Treitz ligament (TL) and resected duodenojejunal junction (DJJ) were studied. The electrophysiologic characteristics of the antrum, duodenum, and DJJ in sham-operated dogs were examined. It ...
Kfoury E - - 1993
Forty-five cases of failed vertical banded gastroplasty were converted to gastric bypass with distal Roux-en-Y constructed with a 250 cm alimentary limb and a 150 cm common channel. The gastroenterostomy is side-to-side, unrestricted and is at least 3 cm wide. We believe that this wide anastomosis is responsible for the ...
Huertas J R - - 1993
Plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), secretin and gastrin were studied in four saphenous vein-catheterized dogs during the first 12 h after ingestion of a standard solid meal. Under these conditions we found significant postprandial increases in secretion only, which rose from a basal value of 219 +/- 27 ...
Desai M A - - 1993
The in vitro effect of ammonium bicarbonate buffer on mucus H+ permeability is reported here. The diffusional resistance of mucus and water was demonstrated to be dependent on buffer concentration, and the contrast between the two types of layers was most pronounced for low buffer concentration near neutrality. Moreover, the ...
Hall J A - - 1992
Using radiopaque particles mixed with food, gastric emptying was assessed in healthy dogs not subjected to surgery, in healthy dogs 9 to 35 days after circumcostal gastropexy, and, in dogs 1 to 54 months after surgical treatment and recovery from gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Circumcostal gastropexy surgery did not alter the ...
McCarthy D O - - 1992
BACKGROUND: The current study was undertaken to determine if changes in gastric emptying contribute to tumor-induced anorexia. METHODS: Rats were implanted with the Walker 256 carcinoma, and food intake was measured daily. On days 0, 8, and 15, the rats were fasted overnight, gavage fed a bolus of liquid food, ...
McCarthy D O - - 1992
Interleukin-1 is a small molecular weight peptide that is thought to mediate much of the acute phase response to infection, including fever and anorexia and gastric stasis. In the present study, we examined the effects of recombinant human IL-1 alpha (rhIL-1a) on food intake and gastric emptying, and the role ...
Bado A - - 1992
Intravenous bombesin produced a dose-related stimulation of luminal gastric somatostatin output and a concomitant dose-dependent inhibition of food intake in the gastric fistula cat. Maximal food intake inhibition was observed at 1,280 pmol.kg-1.h-1 and corresponded to 65 +/- 7% (P less than 0.01). These effects of bombesin were dose dependently ...
Flanagan L M - - 1992
Several diverse treatments that stimulate pituitary secretion of oxytocin (OT) in rats produce a parallel inhibition of gastric motility and food intake. The present experiments demonstrate that injection of hypertonic saline (HS) is another such treatment. Systemic administration of large doses of OT had no effect on gastric motility. Lesions ...
Carp H - - 1992
A noninvasive method to determine the actual stomach contents of parturients may help to identify factors responsible for delayed gastric emptying as well as define the risk of aspiration of gastric contents in individual patients. Therefore, we tested the ability of ultrasound imaging to identify noninvasively the stomach contents of ...
Uijtdehaage S H - - 1992
This study investigated the effect of food ingestion on motion sickness severity and its physiological mechanisms. Forty-six fasted subjects were assigned either to a meal group or to a no-meal group. Electrogastrographic (EGG) indices (normal 3 cpm activity and abnormal 4-9 cpm tachyarrhythmia) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured ...
Huertas J R - - 1992
The comparative effect of truncal vagotomy and associated pyloroplasty and orally administrated pirenzepine (75 mg, 1 h before food intake) on the exocrine pancreatic secretory response to food was studied in conscious dogs. Both pirenzepine administration and truncal vagotomy totally abolished the pancreatic hydromineral and organic secretory response to food ...
König F - - 1992
In six dogs, a selective proximal vagotomy, gastric vagotomy, and truncal vagotomy were performed successively. Basal and postprandial cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in the peripheral blood were measured by radioimmunoassay. After all the different types of vagotomy, especially after truncal vagotomy, an increased postprandial secretion of CCK was found compared with ...
Campbell B J - - 1991
Chickens treated with the H+/K+ ATPase inhibitor omeprazole, to inhibit gastric acid secretion, failed to gain weight and showed decreased food intake compared with controls. The gastrin antagonist PD134308 reversed the action of omeprazole on food intake. Since exogenous gastrin decreased food intake, and since omeprazole increased plasma gastrin concentrations, ...
Stafford K J - - 1991
The Kafue lechwe is endemic to the Kafue Flats area of Zambia. It is semi-aquatic in habit, feeding upon grasses above and below the waterline. The volume of the lechwe rumen is 17 L in the male and 14 L in the female. It has strong and definite pillars. The ...
Kerrigan D D - - 1991
The commonly accepted model for gastric emptying suggests that the 'antral mill' is responsible for the triturition and subsequent emptying of solid food from the stomach. Little is known about the contribution to solid emptying made by other digestive mechanisms such as acid-pepsin secretion. We have investigated the effect of ...
Nunes M P - - 1991
A serological survey for canine visceral (VL) and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has been carried out during 1984-1989, to assess the effects of the prophylactic measures adopted in areas where there was a risk of transmission of the diseases in Rio de Janeiro. A previous serological survey (1982/83) had detected ...
Pak C Y - - 1991
The effect of meals on the physiological and physicochemical actions of potassium citrate was examined in 8 patients with nephrolithiasis maintained on a constant metabolic dietary regimen. Potassium citrate (20 mEq. 3 times per day), whether given with food or on an empty stomach, significantly increased urinary pH, citrate and ...
Merki H S - - 1991
The antisecretory effects of H2-receptor antagonists are limited by food ingestion. The contributions of the cephalic-vagal and gastrinergic mechanisms to this interaction were examined in two 14-hour randomized, cross-over studies in 24 healthy volunteers. In the first study, either ranitidine or placebo was administered IV by a pH-feedback-controlled infusion pump ...
Christian P E - - 1991
Reports on the existence of a lag phase before solid-food gastric emptying are conflicting. We studied solid-phase gastric emptying in ten normal-weight male subjects using two opposed cameras and continuous monitoring. Each ingested a 300-g meal containing 99mTc-labeled liver pate. Identical computer-interfaced cameras continuously monitored gastric activity from anterior and ...
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