Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 636
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Hoksch Beatrix - - 2002
The optimal reconstruction protocol after total gastrectomy is still a matter of debate. Pouch reconstructions are developed to create a larger reservoir for food, to provide a barrier against intestinoesophageal reflux, and to lengthen the food transit time. Preservation of the duodenal passage should result in better physiologic regulation of ...
Lange Carlos E - - 2002
Gregarina ronderosi n. sp. is described based on life cycle observations conducted on nymphs and adults of its natural host, the grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus. Following ingestion of oocysts by the host, parasite development occurs between the epithelium and the food mass in the midgut and gastric caeca. Gametocysts are liberated ...
Lavin J H JH Slimming World, Clover Nook Road, Alfreton, Derbyshire, UK. - - 2002
To investigate mechanisms by which specific sugars affect feeding behaviour. In an initial study, gastric emptying rate and appetite were measured following ingestion of lemon flavoured solutions of sucrose, maltose (2160 kJ, 575 ml) and water control (67 kJ, 575 ml) given in randomised order on separate days to six ...
Holzer P - - 2001
Gastroduodenal mucosal defense is composed of structural features of the mucosa, cellular monitors of pending or actual injury, and a web of effector cells that protect the mucosa from damage and govern its recovery from injury. By virtue of these systems, the gastroduodenal mucosa can cope with the harmful ingredients ...
French S J - - 2001
Direct infusion of specific nutrients or foods into different areas of the gastrointestinal tract, and techniques to distend the stomach, are useful tools enabling eating behaviour to be studied without the influence of orosensory factors. Using these techniques, the role of nutrients on gastrointestinal mechanisms of satiation as well as ...
Hellström P M - - 2001
The slowing of gastric emptying is an important mechanism for the satiating effect of gut peptide signaling. After food intake, cholecystokinin (CCK), as well as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), are released from the gastrointestinal tract to mediate satiety. In humans, CCK and the GLP-1 have been found ...
Geliebter A A New York Obesity Research Center, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Department of Medicine, WH-10, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1111 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10025, USA. - - 2001
One function of the stomach is as a reservoir for food; hence, the stomach's capacity may limit the amount of food ingested. A stomach with a large capacity has been associated with bigger test meals. We compared the stomach capacity of three groups of women: normal (n=10), obese (n=11), and ...
Asakawa A - - 2001
This study was designed to investigate the effects of cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), a recently discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide, on food intake, anxiety, oxygen consumption and gastric emptying in mice. Intracerebroventricular (i. c. v.) injection of CART (1 - 100 pmol) markedly reduced food intake in a dose-related manner. A significant decrease ...
Achour L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To compare gastric emptying of a solid and a liquid nutritional rehabilitation food. DESIGN: Cross-over trial. Eight volunteers took, in random order at least 1 week apart, 2100 kJ of a solid and a liquid nutritional rehabilitation food with added labelled [13C] glycine. SETTING: Research ward for healthy volunteers. ...
Weber M - - 2001
Observations on food tolerance in dogs have shown that some breeds, especially the giant breeds, have a greater digestive sensitivity. One of the consequences common in these breeds is a higher faecal water content and a poor faecal quality. This could be explained, at least in part, by limited digestive ...
Abo M - - 2001
The motor response induced by intraluminal distension of the small intestine has been well investigated. However, little is known of the myoelectrical response to intraluminal distension. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oral- and anal-side distension on jejunal slow waves in dogs. The study was ...
Flint A A Research Department of Human Nutrition, Center for Food Research, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. - - 2001
Peripheral infusions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in humans have been shown to inhibit gastrointestinal motility and decrease hunger and energy intake. However, these investigations used supraphysiological doses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a GLP-1 infusion in a physiological dose on appetite sensations, energy intake, ...
Smith G P - - 2001
Sham feeding occurs when ingested food is prevented from accumulating in the stomach and small intestine by surgical intervention. Sham feeding permits the investigation of the orosensory controls of meal size in the absence of postingestive controls. This unit details preoperative preparation, surgery, postoperative care and maintenance, and test procedures ...
Nakane Y - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the optimum pouch reconstruction after total gastrectomy, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the usefulness between PR and PI in terms of quality of life. METHODOLOGY: Thirty patients younger than 70 years of age were selected and randomly classified into the following 2 groups: pouch and ...
Chesney C J - - 2001
Twelve papers giving original data on canine food sensitivity in an acceptable form were reviewed, and the disorder was confirmed in 390 dogs. Most of the papers did not give either the criteria by which dogs were included in a trial, or information about dogs which had undergone a trial ...
Reidelberger R D - - 2001
CCK is a physiological inhibitor of gastric emptying and food intake. The pancreatic peptide amylin exerts similar actions, yet its physiological importance is uncertain. Objectives were to compare the dose-dependent effects of intravenous infusion of amylin and CCK-8 on gastric emptying and food intake in rats, and to assess whether ...
Puchalski T A - - 2001
A mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was used to assess lansoprazole effects on gastric pH. The irreversible inactivation of the H+/K+-ATPase enzyme by lansoprazole controls the secretion rate of H+ ions and gastric pH values. The basal circadian rhythm of gastric acid production was taken into account as well as the effects ...
Re R - - 2001
There is considerable interest in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the diet and their bioactivity in vivo. Little is known, however, of the preabsorption events in the gastric lumen on the breakdown or isomerisation of dietary carotenoids. In this study the effects of the acidic environment found in the gastric ...
Tsagarakis S - - 2001
Aberrant gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor expression in bilaterally hyperplastic adrenals or unilateral adrenal adenomas is a rare form of adrenal hyperfunction. So far, only few cases have been described. In all these cases, cortisol was the predominant steroid released in a food-dependent manner, leading to the development of non-ACTH-dependent ...
Leahy A - - 2001
AIM: To investigate gastric pacemaker activity in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease using the electrogastrogram. PATIENTS: Forty patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (20 with acid reflux, 20 with the additional symptom of food regurgitation) and 30 asymptomatic controls. METHODS: Patients were studied using an electrogastrogram, oesophageal manometry, and 24 hour ambulatory oesophageal ...
van Duynhoven Y T - - 2001
Helicobacter pylori colonizes and grows in human gastric epithelial tissue and mucus. Its presence is associated with gastritis and there is substantial evidence that it causes peptic and duodenal ulcers and chronic gastritis. Since 1994, H. pylori has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. In industrialized countries, as many as ...
Carmel R - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: Food-cobalamin malabsorption is common in patients with low cobalamin levels. However, characterization of affected subjects has been limited. The aim of this study was to analyze demographic and gastric data in a large study population. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively in 202 subjects (43 volunteers and 159 patients) who ...
Lin H C - - 2001
Intestinal transit is accelerated by volume distension and slowed by nutrient load. We hypothesized that the accelerating effect of volume distension might overcome the slowing effect of nutrient. To test this hypothesis, we compared intestinal transit in five dogs equipped with duodenal and mid-intestinal fistulas. The proximal half of the ...
Waterhouse E T - - 2000
The properties of the new pectin-based anti-reflux agent Aflurax (Ferrosan) were studied in vitro and in vivo. Aflurax had a significantly higher in vitro raft strength than the placebo which was matched to the active except for the pectin (4.66+/-2.10 and 0. 22+/-0.04 g, respectively). In the modified Rossett and ...
Cohen H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The common but incompletely understood entity of malabsorption of food bound cobalamin is generally presumed to arise from gastritis and/or achlorhydria. AIM: To conduct a systematic comparative examination of gastric histology and function. SUBJECTS: Nineteen volunteers, either healthy or with low cobalamin levels, were prospectively studied without prior knowledge ...
Mistiaen W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if geometrical correction is necessary in the study of gastric emptying rate (GER) for liquids, using a low-energy radionuclide, such as 99mTc. Solid test meals were considered the reference. METHODS: Both solid and liquid GERs were investigated using regional analysis. Anterior ...
Uchiyama M - - 2000
Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM) on intestinal motility in short bowel syndrome (SBS) were studied in conscious canines in both acute and chronic phases following 80% massive distal small bowel resection (MSBR). TM was administered orally to beagles with MSBR or as controls in the postprandial and fasting states, and ...
McCarthy D O - - 2000
Interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are thought to mediate the onset of anorexia with infection. Animal studies suggest that gastric stasis accompanies IL-1-induced anorexia, and that food intake and gastric emptying of IL-1-injected rats are improved by pretreatment with ibuprofen (ibu), an inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. ...
Deng D - - 2000
N-(Nitrosomethyl)urea (NMU) was characterized in carcinogenic nitrosated fish sauce recently (Deng et al. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1998, 46, 202-205; Biomed. Environ. Sci. 1999, 12, 54-61). To study the possibility of intragastric synthesis of NMU, experimental mini-pigs surgically fitted with a flexible stomach cannula and human volunteers were used. Fish ...
Maciorkowska E - - 2000
The authors performed simultaneous evaluation of histological changes in gastric and duodenal mucosa, phenotypic evaluation of mononuclear cells infiltration and the levels of selected cytokines of gastric mucosa in children with diagnosed food allergy. It was determined that IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-alpha were produced locally within alimentary tract mucosa; ...
Katschinski M - - 2000
Palatable cephalic stimuli induce a simultaneous activation of gastrointestinal motility, gastric acid and pancreatic enzyme secretion, as well as, release of the gastrointestinal hormones gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide. Cholinergic neural input is the dominant mediator of these responses with cholecystokinin and gastrin acting as additional stimulatory modulators. Central cholinergic circuits, ...
Näslund E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The method of choice for studying gastric emptying is dependent on several factors. The aim of the present study was to assess the concordance between solid gastric emptying, using a scintigraphic technique as gold standard, and gastric emptying as measured with parcetamol tracer and polyethylene glycol (PEG) dilution. METHODS: ...
Nakane Y - - 2000
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There have been many reports proposing some advantages of pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for gastric ulcer compared to the conventional distal gastrectomy. However, it is not clear whether similar results will be obtained from the patients with early gastric cancer. METHODOLOGY: Of 50 patients with early gastric cancer, 25 underwent pylorus-preserving ...
Chen J - - 2000
In many applications, usefulness of conventional hydrogels is limited by their slow swelling. To improve the swelling property of the conventional hydrogels, we have synthesized superporous hydrogels (SPHs) which swell fast to equilibrium size in minutes due to water uptake by capillary wetting through numerous interconnected open pores. The swelling ...
Kitano M - - 2000
Rat stomach ECL cells are rich in histamine and chromogranin A-derived peptides, such as pancreastatin. Gastrin causes the parietal cells to secrete acid by flooding them with histamine from the ECL cells. In the past, gastric histamine release has been studied using anaesthetized, surgically manipulated animals or isolated gastric mucosa, ...
Terry P - - 2000
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the strongest known risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. For long-term sufferers with severe symptoms, the excess risk may exceed 40-fold. GER has also been shown to increase the risk of cancers of the gastric cardia more than fourfold. Several foods, including dietary fat, chocolate, mints, coffee, ...
Hoksch B - - 1999
HYPOTHESIS: Ideal reconstruction after gastrectomy should ensure that the patient has a sufficiently large enteric reservoir to accommodate normal meals. Little is known about the transit of food after different methods of stomach reconstruction. The hypothesis of this trial was that food transit after gastrectomy is delayed by a pouch ...
Timm K I - - 1999
This is a description of the radiographic appearance of the normal gastrointestinal tract of neonatal crias with survey and contrast radiography, including transit times for the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Radiographs of the abdomen of six healthy neonatal llama crias positioned in right lateral and dorsal recombency were ...
Park S C - - 1999
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DS11 phytase (DS11 phytase) and Aspergillus ficuum phytase (AF phytase) activities were investigated by measuring the release of phosphate from phytate in animal feedstuff such as wheat bran, corn meal, soybean meal and rice flour at pH 5 and 7. In all the tested feedstuff, the enzymatic activity ...
Stöver A G - - 1999
yqxM is a Bacillus subtilis gene of unknown function residing in an operon with sipW, which encodes a signal peptidase, and tasA, which encodes an antibiotic protein secreted in a sipW-dependent manner. YqxM was undetectable during growth in a variety of rich media, including Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, or in minimal ...
Ishitake T - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of gastric motility suppression by exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV). METHODS: The gastric motility was evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG) under food intake and autonomic nerve blocking agents in ten healthy volunteers. Sinusoidal vertical vibration with a frequency of 4 Hz (1.0 ms(-2) rms) was given ...
Le Blanc-Louvry I - - 1999
Following gastrectomy, the longer is a Roux-Y limb constructed to restore digestive continuity the higher the frequency of postoperative symptoms. The aim of this experimental study was to test how the level of the jejunal transection and the length of the Roux limb affect the motility of the constructed limb ...
Hishinuma S - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Following pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD), most surgeons use gastrointestinal reconstruction with an end-to-side duodenojejunostomy placed distally to the pancreatojejunostomy and choledochojejunostomy. In contrast, the authors have consistently used PPPD with the Imanaga reconstruction (PPPD-Imanaga) which consists of end-to-end duodeno- jejunostomy, end-to-side pancreatojejunostomy and choledochojejunostomy, performed in that order. In this ...
Pralong F P - - 1999
Stimulation ofcortisol secretion by food intake has been implicated in the pathogenesis of some cases of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome, via an aberrant response of the adrenal glands to gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). We report here a novel case of food-dependent Cushing's syndrome in a patient with bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. ...
Kwiatek M A - - 1999
Many radiopharmaceuticals and test meals that are used to measure gastric emptying are less than optimal. A vegetable-based solid meal, such as rice, labelled with a radiopharmaceutical that also has the capacity to measure gastric emptying of liquids, is likely to be ideal. The role of Technegas as a radioisotopic ...
Aktas A - - 1999
The study was designed to investigate the effect of trimebutine maleate, a drug used in both hyperkinetic and hypokinetic motility disorders, on gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia having prolonged gastric emptying rates and to compare the parameters used for the determination of the lag period observed during the ...
Ponson A E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Surgery for morbid obesity has increased since the introduction of the adjustable gastric bands. Their advantage is the adjustability of the band, which can be inflated or deflated percutaneously according to weight loss without altering the anatomy of the stomach. We present 5 cases of leakage of the Swedish ...
Asakawa A - - 1999
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastric emptying plays an important role in regulating food intake. This study was designed to investigate whether intraperitoneally injected urocortin reduces gastric emptying, feeding, and body weight in lean and ob/ob obese mice. METHODS: Food intake and body weight were measured after intraperitoneal injections of one of ...
Buemann B - - 1999
D-Tagatose is a stereoisomer of D-fructose which is poorly absorbed in the small intestine and may, therefore, have potential as a reduced calorie bulk sweetener. However, one of the major limitations is the use of malabsorbed sugars is that their consumption may be associated with gastric discomfort. This is due ...
Kunze C P - - 1999
99mTc-Pertechnetate, 99mTc-mebrofenin, 99mTc-disofenin, 99mTc-sulfur colloid, and 99mTc-Dowex resin beads were evaluated for in vitro stability as a label for both dry extruded, and canned dog food for gastric emptying scintigraphy. A sample of each radiolabeled diet was added to water, gastric juice, intestinal juice, or gastric juice followed by intestinal ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >