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Kong F - - 2008
Knowledge of the disintegration kinetics of food particulates in the human stomach is essential for assessing the bioaccessibility of nutrients in solid foods and understanding stomach emptying. The objective of this study was to develop a model stomach system and to investigate the kinetics of food disintegration. Our system consisted ...
Hattori Y - - 2008
Although a shortened dental arch has been reported to provide sufficient subjective chewing ability, the loss of molar occlusion significantly reduces trituration ability, and may result in an impaired digestive function including delayed gastric emptying. This study investigated the effect of the experimental loss of molar occlusion on gastric emptying ...
Kong F - - 2008
Knowledge of the disintegration of solid foods in human stomach is essential to assess the bioavailability of nutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A comprehensive review of food gastric digestion, focusing on disintegration of solid foods, is presented. Most of the research reviewed in this paper is contained in the ...
Untersmayr Eva - - 2008
Digestion assays with simulated gastric fluid have been introduced for characterization of food proteins to imitate the effect of stomach proteolysis on dietary compounds in vitro. By using these tests, dietary proteins can be categorized as digestion-resistant class 1 (true allergens triggering direct oral sensitization) or as labile class 2 ...
Hladik Pavel - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Gastric banding for morbid obesity is among the least mutilating of procedures used in bariatric surgery and is classified as a restrictive surgical method. Although it is widespread, so far, however the mechanism responsible has not been fully explained. METHODS AND RESULTS: The authors present the preliminary results from ...
Capasso R - - 2008
The gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Signals from the gastrointestinal tract generally function to limit ingestion in the interest of efficient digestion. These signals may be released into the bloodstream or may activate afferent neurones that carry information to the ...
Liu Chun - - 2008
Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric cancer. Data also suggest that high ...
Karhunen L J - - 2008
Short-term regulation of food intake controls what, when and how much we eat within a single day or a meal. This regulation results from an integrated response to neural and humoral signals that originate from the brain, gastrointestinal (GI) tract and adipose tissue. In the GI tract, multiple sites including ...
Sidhu Anupender Singh - - 2008
The junction between the esophagus and the stomach is a specialized region, composed of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and its adjacent anatomical structures, the gastric sling and crural diaphragm. Together these structures work in a coordinated manner to allow ingested food into the stomach while preventing reflux of gastric contents ...
Boza Camilo - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery has evolved into multiple forms in the last decades, combining food restriction and malabsorption. The aim of this study was to develop a new technique based on food restriction and early stimulation of the distal gut, thus maintaining the alimentary tract continuity. METHODS: Thirty-two Yorkshire pigs, weight ...
Tang Sheng-Qiu - - 2008
Obestatin, a novel 23 amino acid amidated peptide encoded by the same gene with ghrelin, was initially reported to reduce food intake, body weight gain, gastric emptying and suppress intestinal motility through an interaction with the orphan receptor GPR39. However, recently reports have shown that above findings had been questioned ...
Cassilly D - - 2008
Gastric emptying of digestible solids occurs after trituration of food particles. Non-digestible solids are thought to empty with phase III of the migrating motor complex (MMC). The aim of this study was to determine if a non-digestible capsule given with a meal empties from the stomach with return of the ...
Aviv R - - 2008
Food ingestion increases fundic impedance (FI) and reduces antral slow wave rate (SWR). Our aim was to determine if such changes can be integrated into an algorithm for automatic eating detection (AED). When incorporated in implantable medical devices, AED can time treatment to food intake without need for patient input. ...
Fruhwald Sonja - - 2008
Critical illness affects gastrointestinal motility - not only as a primary problem, which brings the patient to the intensive care unit (ICU), but also as a complication consecutive to the ICU stay. Motility disturbances may result from impaired function of gastrointestinal muscle, pacemaker cell function and nerve activity. The most ...
Furnes M W - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIM: Gastric bypass (GB) is usually designed to restrict food intake and to induce malabsorption. Gastric hormones have been thought to play a role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. The aim of the present study was to analyze feeding behavior after total gastrectomy (Gx) or GB ...
Aelen Paul - - 2008
Neural Gastric Electrical Stimulation (NGES) is a new method for invoking gastric contractions under microprocessor control. However, optimization of this technique using feedback mechanisms to minimize power consumption and maximize effectiveness has been lacking. The present work proposes a prototype feedback-controlled neural gastric electrical stimulator for the treatment of obesity. ...
Kumar K Ganesh - - 2008
We demonstrated previously that food intake traits map to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on proximal chromosome 17, which encompasses Glp1r (glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor), encoding an important modulator of gastric emptying. We then confirmed this QTL in a B6.CAST-17 congenic strain that consumed 27% more carbohydrate and 17% more ...
Sanmiguel Claudia P - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to validate the use of impedance for measurement of antral contractions and to determine the relationship between food-induced changes in gastric motility and satiation. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: In Experiment 1, three dogs were implanted with an antral strain gauge and bipolar electrodes ...
Thor P J - - 2007
The gastrointestinal tract represents the most important extra pineal source of melatonin. Presence of melatonin (M) suggests that this hormone is somehow involved in digestive pathophysiology. Release of GI melatonin from serotonin-rich enterochromaffin EC cells of the GI mucosa suggest close antagonistic relationship with serotonin (S) and seem to be ...
Wang Gene-Jack - - 2008
Gastric distention during meal ingestion activates vagal afferents, which send signals from the stomach to the brain and result in the perception of fullness and satiety. Distention is one of the mechanisms that modulates food intake. We measured regional brain activation during dynamic gastric balloon distention in 18 health subjects ...
Aelen P - - 2008
Neural gastric electrical stimulation (NGES) could be a new technique for treating obesity. However, chronic animal experimentation exploring the efficacy of this therapy is lacking. In this study we investigated the utility of retrograde NGES in a chronic canine model. Nine mongrel dogs (26.8 +/- 5.2 kg) underwent laparoscopic implantation ...
Podczeck Fridrun - - 2007
A study in human volunteers has been designed to evaluate the influence of different food regimes on the gastric emptying of 3 mm and 10 mm diameter tablets. Dextrose and beef drinks were used as liquid food; a mixture of minced beef and mashed potato (shepherd's pie) was used as ...
Neilson Andrew P - - 2007
Catechins were subjected to in vitro gastric and small intestinal digestion. EGCG, EGC, and ECG were significantly degraded at all concentrations tested, with losses of 71-91, 72-100, and 60-61%, respectively. EC and C were comparatively stable, with losses of 8-11 and 7-8%, respectively. HLPC-ESI-MS/MS indicated that EGCG degradation under simulated ...
Américo M F - - 2007
Abnormal intragastric distribution of food (IDF) and a phasic contractility in the proximal stomach have been related to dyspeptic symptoms. Thus, the behaviour of the stomach and the proximal region, in particular, continues to attract attention and demand for reliable and comfortable techniques. The aims of this study were to ...
Pan Y - - 2008
AIM: To evaluate effects of reconstruction procedures on post-operative outcomes and nutritional status after total gastrectomy. METHODS: The study group comprised 704 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent total gastrectomy between December 1985 and December 2003. Six alimentary reconstruction procedures were performed, including jejunal continuity [Braun, modified Braun I ...
Ambatipudi Kiran - - 2008
We have documented the antimicrobial activity of pouch secretions of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, over the period leading up to birth and after birth of the young animal. This activity was greatest against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and highest at the time of birth. Fractionation of the pouch secretions ...
Ouyang Hui - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of long pulse gastric electrical stimulation (GES) at a tachygastrial frequency on food intake, gastric tone and gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of twelve dogs implanted with electrodes and a gastric cannula, 6 underwent truncal vagotomy. Stimulus consisted of long pulses with a ...
Pinna W - - 2007
Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ...
Yin Jieyun - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the therapeutic potential of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) for obesity. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of IES on food intake, gastric tone, gastric accommodation, and its possible pathway. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Ten normal dogs and six dogs with ...
Zhang Jing - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Tachygastria is known to be associated with gastric hypomotility. This study investigated the effect of tachygastrial electrical stimulation (TES) on food intake and its effects on gastric motility. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Five experiments were performed to study the effects of TES on gastric slow waves, gastric tone, accommodation, ...
Cammisotto P G - - 2007
Leptin is a hormone that plays a central role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Originally discovered in mature white adipocytes, it was subsequently isolated from the gastric mucosa. This tissue contains a large number of epithelial endocrine and exocrine cells secreting leptin in the blood stream ...
Moutinho I L D - - 2007
Tartrazine is one of the most widely used artificial foods, drugs and cosmetic dyes. It is a nitrous derivative and is known to cause allergic reactions such as asthma and urticaria, as well as having been the focus of studies on mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to its transformation into aromatic ...
Mitrovic B - - 2007
The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically (137)Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 ...
Spiller R - - 2006
Patients complaining of 'chronic diarrhoea' usually mean the passage of loose, urgent stools. Chronic diarrhoea is a feature of malabsorption; it may also be seen in the 'dumping syndrome' which follows gastric surgery, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, bile salt malabsorption and in malabsorption of simple sugars including most commonly lactose, ...
Stenström Björn - - 2006
Bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y or mini-gastric bypass) is designed to limit food intake by creating a small gastric pouch and to reduce nutrient absorption by bypassing the long limb of the intestine. We report 1-year follow-up results after micro-gastric bypass in rats. Micro-gastric bypass was performed by anastomosis of the esophagus ...
Mitsunaga Tetsuya - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: There are various treatment strategies for gastroesophageal varices in children. We studied the therapeutic value of endoscopic variceal clipping (EVC) and ligation (EVL). METHODS: Four hundred ninety-nine endoscopic examinations performed between 1991 and 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. F2 and F3 varices with red color signs on follow-up endoscopy were ...
Ouyang Hui - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Satiation has recently been shown to be associated with gastric volume or gastric tone. Electrical stimulation has been shown to reduce food intake and increase gastric volume, or reduce gastric tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between gastric or intestinal electrical stimulation (GES/IES)-induced increase ...
Jackson S J SJ MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK. - - 2007
To assess the suitability of the 13C-octanoic acid breath test for measuring gastric emptying in circumstances other than the post-absorptive state, a preliminary study was performed where 6 hourly spaced isoenergetic meals preceded the determination of gastric emptying of a subsequent 2 MJ meal. Emptying was measured in three individuals ...
McGaw Iain J - - 2006
Gastric evacuation and gut contraction rates were followed in the graceful crab Cancer gracilis during exposure to low salinity. Crabs were fed a radio-opaque meal and then exposed to 100% seawater (SW), 80%SW or 60%SW; passage of digesta was followed using a fluoroscope. Exposure to low salinity increased the time ...
Lassen Kristoffer - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the available documentation addressing the introduction of early food after major upper gastrointestinal surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: No high-quality trials, recent or old, have addressed this topic. A few attempts have been identified. Information is extracted from papers discussing other topics of postoperative care in this ...
Anderson C D - - 2006
A mechanism for the development of bloat in salmonids is proposed and explained in terms of the physiology of digestion and osmoregulation in fish. Understanding the causal factors for bloat enables control measures to be identified. In farmed salmonids, the chyme produced during the digestion of nutrient-rich pelleted foods that ...
Feinle-Bisset C - - 2006
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, which are frequently exacerbated by meal ingestion. While subgroups of FD patients exhibit a range of disturbances in upper gastrointestinal motor function, including delayed gastric emptying and abnormal intragastric meal distribution, which may reflect impaired proximal gastric relaxation and/or antral dysmotility, ...
Xu Junying - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Sibutramine, a serotonin-norepinephrine uptake inhibitor, has been used for treating obesity. However, its possible mechanisms involving gastric motility have not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sibutramine on gastric accommodation and antral motility. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The study was performed in ...
Kimura Yoshitaka - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The influence of mastication and swallowing on gastric motor function was evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG) and abdominal ultrasonography. METHODS: The subjects were 30 elderly patients with tubal feeding without mastication and swallowing (T group) and 30 elderly controls who processed food by mastication and swallowing (C group). Gastric motor ...
Untersmayr Eva - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of the stomach as the primary location of protein digestion is very well recognized, leading to classification of proteins as digestion-resistant or digestion-labile. This review analyses the role of gastric digestion in food allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: Hindrance of gastric digestion by elevation of the gastric ...
Vaisman Nachum - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIM: Gastric emptying is determined by food consistency, pH, osmolality, lipid and calorie content as well as the presence of different nutrients in the duodenal lumen. Control of gastric emptying is essential for ensuring optimal digestion. The present study tested the hypothesis that due to its different precipitation ...
Ikegaya Hiroshi - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: A 30-year-old woman with a 2-year history of bulimia nervosa and severe abdominal pain after excessive food consumption visited our emergency room. Her abdomen showed marked generalized distension. METHOD: Aspiration of the gastric contents was not successful, and despite efforts to resuscitate her, the patient died. RESULT: An autopsy ...
Spelzini Darío - - 2006
The influence of the phase volume ratio and polymer pausidispersity on chymosin and pepsin partition in polyethylenglycol-phosphate aqueous two-phase systems was studied. Both proteins showed a high affinity for the polyethylenglycol rich phase with a partition coefficient from 20 to 100 for chymosin and from 20 to 180 for pepsin, ...
Endo Shunji - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Jejunal pouch reconstruction is used to provide reservoir function after total gastrectomy, but controversy remains regarding pouch functions and quality of life (QOL). In this study, pouch motility was studied in conjunction with postoperative QOL. METHODS: Pouch motility of 23 patients with jejunal pouch interposition after total gastrectomy was ...
Nouaille S - - 2006
Unlike Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, the gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis does not possess the SecDF protein, a component of the secretion (Sec) machinery involved in late secretion stages and required for the high-capacity protein secretion in B. subtilis. In this study, we complemented the L. lactis Sec ...
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