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Nakano Masanori - - 2012
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection causes several hundred cases of food poisoning every year in Japan. In severe cases, this type of food poisoning can be fatal. In the present study, we examined the induction of HSP70 in E. coli O157:H7 cells at various temperatures and the thermotolerance of E. ...
Løvdal Irene Stranden - - 2011
Sublethal heat treatment may activate dormant spores and thereby potentiate the conversion of spores to vegetative cells. As the germinated spore is known to possess lower heat resistance than its dormant counterpart, it has been postulated that double heat treatment, i.e., spore heat activation followed by germination and then by ...
Ryu Jee-Hoon - - 2011
More than 90% of elementary school students in Korea have lunch provided by a school feeding program. This study examined nonheated foods, foods in which final ingredients were added after cooking ("heated/nonheated foods"), and desserts for microbial contamination levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens. We obtained a total of ...
Moreira María del R Mdel - - 2011
The use of edible coatings and mild heat shocks is proposed as postharvest treatments to prevent microbial deterioration of refrigerated broccoli. Minimally processed broccoli was coated with either chitosan or carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) combined or not with a previous application of a mild heat shock. The evolution of microbial populations (mesophilic, ...
Huang Wen-San - - 2011
The independent evolutionary origin of a complex trait, within a lineage otherwise lacking it, provides a powerful opportunity to test hypotheses on selective forces. Territorial defense of an area containing resources (such as food or shelter) is widespread in lizards but not snakes. Our studies on an insular population of ...
Novak Nicole L - - 2011
The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over ...
Litman Jessica R - - 2011
Stark contrasts in clade species diversity are reported across the tree of life and are especially conspicuous when observed in closely related lineages. The explanation for such disparity has often been attributed to the evolution of key innovations that facilitate colonization of new ecological niches. The factors underlying diversification in ...
Ushikai Miharu - - 2011
Urocortin 3 (Ucn3) is recognized as a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, which plays an important role in regulating food intake. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV)administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased food intake ...
Lei Yong - - 2011
Intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) has been introduced as a potential therapy for obesity. However, it is unknown whether the effects of IES on gastrointestinal motility and food intake are location-specific. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of "appendix" (cecum in dog) electrical stimulation (AES) on gastric ...
Hagan John - - 2011
The millions of survivors who fled from attacks to Sudanese-controlled displacement camps and the refugee camps in Chad are the living ghosts of the Darfur genocide. The 1948 Genocide Convention incorporates extermination by mass killing and elimination through forced migration as two distinct elements of genocide. Genocide scholars and public ...
Hellström P M - - 2011
Gastric emptying is the first step in the metabolic endocrine cascade that takes place after food intake. The incretin hormones originating in the gut, particularly GLP-1, exert multiple antihyperglycaemic actions such as enhancement of glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppression of glucagon secretion, slowing of gastric emptying with an ensuing decrease in ...
Danby F William Bill - - 2011
Acne is a manifestation of hormonal overstimulation of the pilosebaceous units of genetically susceptible individuals. Endogenous reproductive and growth hormones, exogenous reproductive hormones, insulin and endogenous insulin-like growth hormone-1, sourced from and stimulated by dairy and high glycemic load foods, all appear to contribute to this overstimulation. A postulated molecular ...
Michalczyk D - - 2010
The role and importance of the true slime moulds (mycetozoans, Mycetozoa, formerly Myxomycetes) for agriculture and food industry are poorly documented, most probably because of a low popularity of these "macroscopic microorganisms" among researchers in the past. Here we report probably for the first time the massive occurrence of true ...
Xu Xiaohong - - 2011
Duodenum electrical stimulation (DES) has been shown to delay gastric emptying and reduce food intake in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DES on gastric emptying, small bowel transit and food intake in pigs, a large animal model of obesity. The study consisted of ...
Torra S - - 2011
Background:Entry of nutrients into the small intestine activates neuro-hormonal signals that regulate food intake through induction of satiation.Objective:To evaluate whether caloric intake can be decreased by pharmacologically accelerating gastric emptying (GE) of nutrients into the small intestine.Methods:Subjects were tested in 2 days, at baseline (day1) and after randomly receiving, in ...
Borg J - - 2011
Oxytocin is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and is released in response to a fatty meal. Administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist prolongs the gastric emptying rate. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of oxytocin on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying time, and satiety after food intake. ...
Val-Laillet D - - 2010
The aim of our study was to investigate whether the altered eating behavior observed in the context of a diet-induced metabolic syndrome is related to changes of the gastric emptying and autonomic balance. Eight adult male Göttingen minipigs were subjected during 5months to ad libitum Western diet (WD). Several factors ...
Schultes Bernd - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Overeating as a pathogenetic hallmark of obesity may be promoted by an increase in hedonic hunger, ie, the drive to eat palatable foods in the absence of energy need. Gastric bypass surgery, which effectively reduces severe obesity, might also affect hedonic hunger. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess hedonic ...
Olszewski Pawel K - - 2010
Initial studies showed that the anorexigenic peptide oxytocin (OT) regulates gastric motility, responds to stomach distention and to elevated osmolality, and blocks consumption of toxic foods. Most recently, it has been proposed to act as a mediator of general and carbohydrate-specific satiety and regulator of body weight. In the current ...
Thomas Jack R - - 2010
Bariatric surgery forces participants to undergo a volatile dietary adjustment. The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to chronicle food selection during the period from when solid food is reintroduced through 2.5 years. Forty-eight postsurgery Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients participated in the research. Each food item selection was recorded from ...
Annapoorani A - - 2010
Honey and ghee are the two food substances used widely in our diet. In Ayurveda, it is quoted that heated honey and honey mixed with equal amount of ghee produce deleterious effects. Hence, it was of our interest to study the physicochemical characteristics and chemical constituents of heated honey and ...
Atsuchi K - - 2010
Neuromedin S (NMS) was recently identified as an endogenous ligand for the FM-4/TGR-1 receptor in the rat hypothalamus. No previous studies have examined the effect of NMS on gut motility. We examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of NMS on food intake in food-deprived and free-feeding mice, and on gastroduodenal ...
Li Dong-Sheng DS Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning Province, - - 2010
To determine the effect of three digestive tract reconstruction procedures on pouch function, after radical surgery undertaken because of gastric cancer, as assessed by radionuclide dynamic imaging. As a measure of the reservoir function, with a designed diet containing technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), the emptying time of the gastric substitute was evaluated ...
von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff Florian - - 2011
Cardiac impairment by an intrathoracic stomach is an accepted indication for surgical repair. However, the assessment of the hemodynamic impact often remains a challenge. The present article reports on two subjects with intrathoracic stomach and chest discomfort, who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) before and after food intake. CMR enabled ...
Pali-Schöll I I IPP-Department of Pathophysiology, Centre of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. - - 2010
Elevation of the gastric pH increases the risk for sensitization against food allergens by hindering protein breakdown. This can be caused by acid-suppressing medication like sucralphate, H2-receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors, as shown in recent murine experimental and human observational studies. The aim of the present study was to ...
Asmar Meena M Department of Endocrinology, Hvidovre Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, - - 2010
Amylin, cosecreted with insulin, has like glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) been reported to inhibit glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying, and reduce appetite and food intake. We investigated whether the effects of GLP-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and food intake are mediated directly or indirectly via release of amylin. Eleven C-peptide and ...
Clegg Miriam - - 2010
Satiety and food intake are closely related to gastrointestinal transit and specifically gastric emptying. High-fat (HF) meals empty more slowly from the stomach yet are less satiating than isoenergetic low-fat (LF) meals. The current study examines how gastric emptying and satiety at lunch are affected by energy and macronutrient content ...
Bueter Marco - - 2010
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gastric bypass with or without vagal preservation resulted in a different outcome. Body weight, food intake and postprandial peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) levels were compared between gastric bypass (n = 55) and sham-operated rats (n = 27) in ...
Ericsson P - - 2010
We used microdialysis to monitor local gastrin release in response to food, acid blockade and acute vagal excitation. For the first time, gastrin release has been monitored continuously in intact conscious rats in a physiologically relevant experimental setting in a fashion that minimizes confounding systemic effects. Microdialysis probes were placed ...
Odunsi Suwebatu T - - 2010
Lack of control of food intake, excess size, and frequency of meals are critical to the development of obesity. The stomach signals satiation postprandially and may play an important role in control of calorie intake. Sodium alginate (based on brown seaweed Laminaria digitata) is currently marketed as a weight loss ...
deFonseka Arushi - - 2009
The mechanisms by which the gut senses and responds to nutrients involve the interplay of multiple complex pathways. In addition to regulating digestion and absorption, the pathways stimulated by molecules in the gut lumen mediate gastric motility, food intake, and satiety. Furthermore, protective mechanisms are activated as necessary to prevent ...
Savvas Ioannis - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of pre-anaesthetic fasting time and variety of food on gastric content (GC) volume and pH in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, cross-over, prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: Fifteen mongrel dogs (nine females and six males 1-4 years old, weighing 10-24.5 kg). METHODS: Each dog received the same ...
Riemer A B - - 2010
Hypersensitivity reactions towards non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are common, although true allergies are detectable only in a subgroup of patients. The current study was prompted by a case observation, where a patient experienced generalized urticaria following his second course of diclofenac and proton pump inhibitor medication, and was found to ...
Weigt Jochen - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on the gastric regulation of food intake and body weight. RECENT FINDINGS: H. pylori infection leads to a decrease of circulating ghrelin through a reduction of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa and increases the amount of gastric leptin ...
Anschütz M - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Functional formulations providing protection of nutritional products against gastric juice or a capable of delivering them to distinct areas of the gastrointestinal tract are increasingly utilized by the food industry. However, the application of functional excipients that are established in pharmaceutical applications is limited in case of food products, ...
Kong Fanbin - - 2009
A model stomach system was used to investigate disintegration of various foods in simulated gastric environment. Food disintegration modes and typical disintegration profiles are summarized in this paper. Mechanisms contributing to the disintegration kinetics of different foods were investigated as related to acidity, temperature, and enzymatic effect on the texture ...
Cho Sung-Bum - - 2009
Food residue is frequently observed in the gastric remnant after distal gastrectomy, despite adequate preparation. We devised a water-intake method to reduce food residue in the gastric remnant by drinking large quantities of water in a short time. The aims of this study were to identify the risk factors for ...
Witte A-B - - 2009
Peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) is a prandially controlled hormone in endocrine ileal and colonic mucosa cells. In plasma, PYY appears as full-length PYY1-36 and truncated PYY3-36. Both have different pharmacological profile, and PYY3-36 seems to inhibit food intake. We aimed at investigating the effect of intravenously administered PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on ...
Teixeira Althen F - - 2009
The arrangement of the ruminant stomach in four gastric compartments with specialized mucosal papillae along the gastric groove (GG) has been previously described. However, a debate remains about functional implications of these morphological pecularities. This study was aimed to elucidate the relation between the papillar morphology and its putative functions. ...
Camilleri Michael M Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (CENTER), College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States. - - 2009
The function of the stomach and the gut hormonal responses to food ingestion constitute highly integrated homeostatic responses that maintain euglycemia and normal digestion. This intrinsic feedback involves vagal and hormonal mechanisms. Important signals such as GLP-1 and PYY that arise peripherally induce satiation and also delay gastric emptying or ...
Filipovic Nenad N Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kragujevac, S Janjica 6, Kragujevac, Serbia. - - 2009
To investigate the flow and mixing at the duodenal stump after gastric resection, a computer simulation was implemented. Using the finite element method, two different Billroth II procedure cases (A and B) were modeled. Case A was defined with a shorter and almost straight duodenal section, while case B has ...
Schurr Marc Oliver - - 2009
Malabsorptive bariatric surgery is an effective treatment option for morbid obesity, but may be associated with complications and side effects. We have developed a new experimental approach to creating a gastric bypass through an intraluminal access. The goal is to reduce postoperative complications and to reduce mid-term side-effects of malabsorptive ...
Koenig Judith B - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether changes in gastric myoelectrical activity in healthy, awake dogs can be detected via multichannel electrogastrography (EGG). ANIMALS: 6 healthy hound-breed dogs. PROCEDURES: For each dog, 8-channel EGG was performed after food had been withheld for 12 hours and at 30 minutes after subsequent feeding; 60 minutes ...
Shibata Chikashi - - 2009
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate if restoration of esophago-intestinal or esophago-gastric continuity with a jejunal pouch after total or proximal gastrectomy has clinical benefits. METHODS: We reviewed all relevant reports published after 1990 that dealt with the clinical results of reconstruction with a jejunal pouch after total and proximal gastrectomies and correlated ...
Kudoh Katsuyoshi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-2, a synthetic ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, on upper gastrointestinal motility and food intake. METHODS: Five neurally intact dogs and five dogs with vagotomy and pyloroplasty were equipped with strain gauge ...
Tomasi Dardo - - 2009
Gastric distention (GD), as it occurs during meal ingestion, signals a full stomach and it is one of the key mechanisms controlling food intake. Previous studies on GD showed lower activation of the amygdala for subjects with higher body mass index (BMI). Since obese subjects have dopaminergic deficits that correlate ...
Krolczyk G - - 2008
A long term exposure of the gastric mucosa to inflammatory factors is suspected to alter the normal stomach motility. The consequence of it is an abnormal sensomotor response to food causing dyspeptic symptoms. Our study aimed to investigate the vagal afferents activity and the gastro-duodenal slow wave response to the ...
Policker Shai - - 2008
Automatic eating detection (AED) can potentially support treatments that need to be synchronized with food intake. This article analyzes an implantable AED device working in conjunction with gastric stimulation intended to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The device continuously senses for changes in tissue impedance and electrical activity induced by ...
Dobson Brian C - - 2008
Faults in a batch process model of the small intestine create the symptoms of all types of irritable bowel syndrome. The model has three sequential processing sections corresponding to the natural divisions of the intestine. It is governed by a brain controller that is divided into four sub-controllers, each with ...
Nair Nivasinee S - - 2009
Gastric emptying, as well as intragastric meal distribution, and gastrointestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), play an important role in appetite regulation. The evaluation of gastrointestinal factors regulating food intake is commonly performed in healthy, lean, young male participants. It has, however, been suggested that there is a marked interindividual variability ...
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