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Patton Danica F DF Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC, - - 2013
Circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology are generated by central and peripheral circadian oscillators entrained by periodic environmental or physiological stimuli. A master circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is directly entrained by daily light-dark (LD) cycles, and coordinates the timing of other oscillators by direct and indirect ...
Volkoff Hélène - - 2012
In this study, the effects of peripheral (intraperitoneal) injections of D-amphetamine on feeding behavior were assessed in goldfish. Compared with the saline-injected group, amphetamine injections decreased food intake at doses ranging from 1 to 75 μg/g, but not 0.5 μg/g, but increased locomotor behavior, as indicated by the increased number of total ...
Ahmed H H - - 2012
<strong> </strong> A number of factors involved in the control of energy balance and metabolism act as modulators of gonadal axis. Ghrelin, a peptide secreted from the stomach and hypothalamus, has emerged as an orexigenic food intake controlling signal acting upon hypothalamus. Recently, the potential reproductive role of ghrelin has ...
Weidlich S - - 2012
The two most important environmental factors controlling the release of trypsin in G.bimaculatus are temperature and food consumption. Food consumption is in turn controlled by food availability (quantity), food quality (contained nutrients, inhibitors), developmental stage, age, sex and the daily light-dark cycle. The secretion of trypsin was higher at an ...
Fu Rong-Guo - - 2012
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ghrelin can act as a signal for mealtime hunger and meal initiation. Amygdala is indispensable in appetitive behavior motivated by learned emotions. This study was to investigate the alteration of ghrelin in the amygdala of rats with chronic renal failure (CRF) and its relation with uremic anorexia. METHODS: SD ...
Perdue Bonnie M - - 2012
The ability to discriminate between quantities has been observed in many species. Typically, when an animal is given a choice between two sets of food, accurate performance (i.e., choosing the larger amount) decreases as the ratio between two quantities increases. A recent study reported that elephants did not exhibit ratio ...
Dehghan M - - 2012
Dehghan M., Ilow R., Zatonska K., Szuba A., Zhang X., Mente A. & Regulska-Ilow B. (2012) Development, reproducibility and validity of the food frequency questionnaire in the Poland arm of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study. J Hum Nutr Diet. ABSTRACT: Background:  A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is ...
Hassouna Rim - - 2012
Ghrelin and obestatin are two gut-derived peptides originating from the same ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene (GHRL). While ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and food intake and inhibits γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) neurons, obestatin blocks these effects. In Humans, GHRL gene polymorphisms have been associated with ...
Dehghan Mahshid - - 2012
The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is the most commonly used method for ranking individuals based on long term food intake in large epidemiological studies. The validation of an FFQ for specific populations is essential as food consumption is culture dependent. The aim of this study was to develop a Semi-quantitative ...
Nishiguchi Ryo - - 2012
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, of which several structural variants exist. A molecular form known as GnRH2 ([His(5) Trp(7) Tyr(8)]GnRH, also known as chicken GnRH II) is widely distributed in vertebrates except for rodents, and has recently been implicated in the regulation ...
Bewick Gavin A GA Section of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Peptide hormones are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients and communicate information regarding the current state of energy balance to the brain. These hormones regulate appetite, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. They can act either via the circulation at target peripheral tissues, by activation of the vagus ...
Aguirre Juan S - - 2011
The effects of electron beam irradiation and heat treatments on the variability of inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores (CECT 131/ATCC 10876) and of the lag phase of single surviving cells have been studied. In general, dispersion in the number of survivors increased as the stress became more intense. A polynomial ...
Nakano Masanori - - 2012
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection causes several hundred cases of food poisoning every year in Japan. In severe cases, this type of food poisoning can be fatal. In the present study, we examined the induction of HSP70 in E. coli O157:H7 cells at various temperatures and the thermotolerance of E. ...
Løvdal Irene Stranden - - 2011
Sublethal heat treatment may activate dormant spores and thereby potentiate the conversion of spores to vegetative cells. As the germinated spore is known to possess lower heat resistance than its dormant counterpart, it has been postulated that double heat treatment, i.e., spore heat activation followed by germination and then by ...
Ryu Jee-Hoon - - 2011
More than 90% of elementary school students in Korea have lunch provided by a school feeding program. This study examined nonheated foods, foods in which final ingredients were added after cooking ("heated/nonheated foods"), and desserts for microbial contamination levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens. We obtained a total of ...
Moreira María del R Mdel R Grupo de Investigación en Ingeniería de Alimentos-Fac. de Ingeniería, UNMdP, Juan B. Justo 4302, (7600), Mar del Plata, Argentina. - - 2011
The use of edible coatings and mild heat shocks is proposed as postharvest treatments to prevent microbial deterioration of refrigerated broccoli. Minimally processed broccoli was coated with either chitosan or carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) combined or not with a previous application of a mild heat shock. The evolution of microbial populations (mesophilic, ...
Huang Wen-San - - 2011
The independent evolutionary origin of a complex trait, within a lineage otherwise lacking it, provides a powerful opportunity to test hypotheses on selective forces. Territorial defense of an area containing resources (such as food or shelter) is widespread in lizards but not snakes. Our studies on an insular population of ...
Novak Nicole L - - 2011
The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over ...
Litman Jessica R - - 2011
Stark contrasts in clade species diversity are reported across the tree of life and are especially conspicuous when observed in closely related lineages. The explanation for such disparity has often been attributed to the evolution of key innovations that facilitate colonization of new ecological niches. The factors underlying diversification in ...
Ushikai Miharu - - 2011
Urocortin 3 (Ucn3) is recognized as a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, which plays an important role in regulating food intake. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV)administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased food intake ...
Lei Yong - - 2011
Intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) has been introduced as a potential therapy for obesity. However, it is unknown whether the effects of IES on gastrointestinal motility and food intake are location-specific. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of "appendix" (cecum in dog) electrical stimulation (AES) on gastric ...
Hagan John - - 2011
The millions of survivors who fled from attacks to Sudanese-controlled displacement camps and the refugee camps in Chad are the living ghosts of the Darfur genocide. The 1948 Genocide Convention incorporates extermination by mass killing and elimination through forced migration as two distinct elements of genocide. Genocide scholars and public ...
Hellström P M - - 2011
Gastric emptying is the first step in the metabolic endocrine cascade that takes place after food intake. The incretin hormones originating in the gut, particularly GLP-1, exert multiple antihyperglycaemic actions such as enhancement of glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppression of glucagon secretion, slowing of gastric emptying with an ensuing decrease in ...
Danby F William Bill - - 2011
Acne is a manifestation of hormonal overstimulation of the pilosebaceous units of genetically susceptible individuals. Endogenous reproductive and growth hormones, exogenous reproductive hormones, insulin and endogenous insulin-like growth hormone-1, sourced from and stimulated by dairy and high glycemic load foods, all appear to contribute to this overstimulation. A postulated molecular ...
Rodriguez-Naranjo M Isabel MI Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, C/Profesor García González n° 2, Sevilla 41012, - - 2011
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a neurohormone produced in the pineal gland. Its biological properties are related to the circadian rhythm. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) accepted the health claim related to melatonin and the alleviation of subjective feelings of jet lag. This molecule has been detected in some foods. ...
Michalczyk D - - 2010
The role and importance of the true slime moulds (mycetozoans, Mycetozoa, formerly Myxomycetes) for agriculture and food industry are poorly documented, most probably because of a low popularity of these "macroscopic microorganisms" among researchers in the past. Here we report probably for the first time the massive occurrence of true ...
Xu Xiaohong - - 2011
Duodenum electrical stimulation (DES) has been shown to delay gastric emptying and reduce food intake in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DES on gastric emptying, small bowel transit and food intake in pigs, a large animal model of obesity. The study consisted of ...
Torra S - - 2011
Background:Entry of nutrients into the small intestine activates neuro-hormonal signals that regulate food intake through induction of satiation.Objective:To evaluate whether caloric intake can be decreased by pharmacologically accelerating gastric emptying (GE) of nutrients into the small intestine.Methods:Subjects were tested in 2 days, at baseline (day1) and after randomly receiving, in ...
Borg J - - 2011
Oxytocin is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and is released in response to a fatty meal. Administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist prolongs the gastric emptying rate. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of oxytocin on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying time, and satiety after food intake. ...
Val-Laillet D - - 2010
The aim of our study was to investigate whether the altered eating behavior observed in the context of a diet-induced metabolic syndrome is related to changes of the gastric emptying and autonomic balance. Eight adult male Göttingen minipigs were subjected during 5months to ad libitum Western diet (WD). Several factors ...
Schultes Bernd - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Overeating as a pathogenetic hallmark of obesity may be promoted by an increase in hedonic hunger, ie, the drive to eat palatable foods in the absence of energy need. Gastric bypass surgery, which effectively reduces severe obesity, might also affect hedonic hunger. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess hedonic ...
Olszewski Pawel K PK Minnesota Obesity Center, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, - - 2010
Initial studies showed that the anorexigenic peptide oxytocin (OT) regulates gastric motility, responds to stomach distention and to elevated osmolality, and blocks consumption of toxic foods. Most recently, it has been proposed to act as a mediator of general and carbohydrate-specific satiety and regulator of body weight. In the current ...
Thomas Jack R - - 2010
Bariatric surgery forces participants to undergo a volatile dietary adjustment. The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to chronicle food selection during the period from when solid food is reintroduced through 2.5 years. Forty-eight postsurgery Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients participated in the research. Each food item selection was recorded from ...
Annapoorani A - - 2010
Honey and ghee are the two food substances used widely in our diet. In Ayurveda, it is quoted that heated honey and honey mixed with equal amount of ghee produce deleterious effects. Hence, it was of our interest to study the physicochemical characteristics and chemical constituents of heated honey and ...
Atsuchi K - - 2010
Neuromedin S (NMS) was recently identified as an endogenous ligand for the FM-4/TGR-1 receptor in the rat hypothalamus. No previous studies have examined the effect of NMS on gut motility. We examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of NMS on food intake in food-deprived and free-feeding mice, and on gastroduodenal ...
Li Dong-Sheng DS Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning Province, - - 2010
To determine the effect of three digestive tract reconstruction procedures on pouch function, after radical surgery undertaken because of gastric cancer, as assessed by radionuclide dynamic imaging. As a measure of the reservoir function, with a designed diet containing technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), the emptying time of the gastric substitute was evaluated ...
von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff Florian - - 2011
Cardiac impairment by an intrathoracic stomach is an accepted indication for surgical repair. However, the assessment of the hemodynamic impact often remains a challenge. The present article reports on two subjects with intrathoracic stomach and chest discomfort, who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) before and after food intake. CMR enabled ...
Pali-Schöll I I IPP-Department of Pathophysiology, Centre of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. - - 2010
Elevation of the gastric pH increases the risk for sensitization against food allergens by hindering protein breakdown. This can be caused by acid-suppressing medication like sucralphate, H2-receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors, as shown in recent murine experimental and human observational studies. The aim of the present study was to ...
Asmar Meena M Department of Endocrinology, Hvidovre Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, - - 2010
Amylin, cosecreted with insulin, has like glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) been reported to inhibit glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying, and reduce appetite and food intake. We investigated whether the effects of GLP-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and food intake are mediated directly or indirectly via release of amylin. Eleven C-peptide and ...
Clegg Miriam - - 2010
Satiety and food intake are closely related to gastrointestinal transit and specifically gastric emptying. High-fat (HF) meals empty more slowly from the stomach yet are less satiating than isoenergetic low-fat (LF) meals. The current study examines how gastric emptying and satiety at lunch are affected by energy and macronutrient content ...
Bueter Marco - - 2010
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gastric bypass with or without vagal preservation resulted in a different outcome. Body weight, food intake and postprandial peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) levels were compared between gastric bypass (n = 55) and sham-operated rats (n = 27) in ...
Ericsson P - - 2010
We used microdialysis to monitor local gastrin release in response to food, acid blockade and acute vagal excitation. For the first time, gastrin release has been monitored continuously in intact conscious rats in a physiologically relevant experimental setting in a fashion that minimizes confounding systemic effects. Microdialysis probes were placed ...
Odunsi Suwebatu T ST Division of Biomedical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, - - 2010
Lack of control of food intake, excess size, and frequency of meals are critical to the development of obesity. The stomach signals satiation postprandially and may play an important role in control of calorie intake. Sodium alginate (based on brown seaweed Laminaria digitata) is currently marketed as a weight loss ...
deFonseka Arushi - - 2009
The mechanisms by which the gut senses and responds to nutrients involve the interplay of multiple complex pathways. In addition to regulating digestion and absorption, the pathways stimulated by molecules in the gut lumen mediate gastric motility, food intake, and satiety. Furthermore, protective mechanisms are activated as necessary to prevent ...
Savvas Ioannis - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of pre-anaesthetic fasting time and variety of food on gastric content (GC) volume and pH in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, cross-over, prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: Fifteen mongrel dogs (nine females and six males 1-4 years old, weighing 10-24.5 kg). METHODS: Each dog received the same ...
Riemer A B - - 2010
Hypersensitivity reactions towards non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are common, although true allergies are detectable only in a subgroup of patients. The current study was prompted by a case observation, where a patient experienced generalized urticaria following his second course of diclofenac and proton pump inhibitor medication, and was found to ...
Weigt Jochen - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on the gastric regulation of food intake and body weight. RECENT FINDINGS: H. pylori infection leads to a decrease of circulating ghrelin through a reduction of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa and increases the amount of gastric leptin ...
Anschütz M - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Functional formulations providing protection of nutritional products against gastric juice or a capable of delivering them to distinct areas of the gastrointestinal tract are increasingly utilized by the food industry. However, the application of functional excipients that are established in pharmaceutical applications is limited in case of food products, ...
Kong Fanbin - - 2009
A model stomach system was used to investigate disintegration of various foods in simulated gastric environment. Food disintegration modes and typical disintegration profiles are summarized in this paper. Mechanisms contributing to the disintegration kinetics of different foods were investigated as related to acidity, temperature, and enzymatic effect on the texture ...
Cho Sung-Bum - - 2009
Food residue is frequently observed in the gastric remnant after distal gastrectomy, despite adequate preparation. We devised a water-intake method to reduce food residue in the gastric remnant by drinking large quantities of water in a short time. The aims of this study were to identify the risk factors for ...
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