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Results 451 - 500 of 623
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Shafer R B - - 1987
We studied the effects of xylitol, the pentose-sugar alcohol, on gastric emptying of the solid-food component of a complex meal. Gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers by utilizing a standardized radiolabeled scrambled-egg meal. After ingestion of 25 g xylitol, gastric emptying was markedly prolonged (T-1/2 58 +/- 5 min ...
Azpiroz F - - 1987
1. Using a gastric barostat to quantify variations in gastric tone, we had previously demonstrated that food ingestion or intestinal nutrient perfusion induces gastric relaxation. These data suggested a basal tonic contraction of the stomach during fasting. 2. To determine the role of vagal input in maintaining fasting gastric tone, ...
Shillabeer G - - 1987
Injection of cholecystokinin (CCK) reduces food intake and delays gastric emptying. We have previously shown that endogenous CCK also reduces food intake. This may be achieved by a delay in gastric emptying. We investigated the role of CCK in gastric emptying by inhibiting the actions of CCK released by a ...
Simek J - - 1987
Histological studies of the gastric mucosa led Purkynĕ to the discovery of the cell as a fundamental structural unit of an organ (1837). This study led Purkynĕ to draw conclusions about the physiological role of the gastric mucosa in protein digestion. These conclusions included the activation of pepsinogen, the buffering ...
Köhler H - - 1987
The secretion of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) seems to be controlled by vagal cholinergic mechanisms, since both vagotomy and atropine significantly inhibit the PP response to food intake, sham feeding or insulin hypoglycaemia. In the present study, we examined the PP response to a meal after orthotopic autotransplantation of the pancreas. ...
Vachon C - - 1987
The variation of food intake and digestive tract contents over a period of 24 hours was measured in the free feeding rat kept under a 12:12 hr light:dark cycle (lights on at 0700 hr). After a cessation between 0700 and 1000 hr, the rate of food intake increased progressively during ...
Holle G E - - 1986
The effect of selective proximal vagotomy (SPV) was examined in six dogs on the gastric emptying of solid food and the motility of the antrum and duodenum (basic rhythm, motility index, and contractile activity percentage). Emptying and motility were also examined in three dogs after additional submucosal pyloroplasty (SMP). Electrical ...
Smith H J - - 1986
A simple, noninvasive radiographic method was used to investigate the influence of food and of marker length on gastric emptying of indigestible solids. Ten healthy human subjects who had fasted for 12 h exhibited more rapid emptying when solid radiopaque markers were ingested with water than they did when markers ...
Itoh T - - 1986
The gastric residence times of various sizes of radio-opaque particles and tablets were measured in beagle dogs by X-ray, both in the fasted state and after a single meal. During the course of the studies, changes in intragastric pH were also monitored with a radiotelemetric pH sensor, the Heidelberg capsule. ...
Levine R A - - 1986
We evaluated the degree of acid suppression that occurred when enprostil, a dehydro-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) methyl ester analog, was administered before (anti-cibum AC) or after a meal (post-cibum PC). A double-blind, randomized, single-dose, parallel-group design compared enprostil, 35 mcg, 25 min AC or 5 min PC, with placebo AC or ...
Matty A J - - 1986
A review is presented relating to the effects of hormones on food intake and nutritional state and also of the effects of food intake and nutritional state on hormone activity. These interactions and their effect on fish growth are described.Growth hormone, thyroid hormones, insulin, and gonadal steroids have all been ...
Davis S S - - 1986
The gastrointestinal transit of pharmaceutical dosage forms has been measured in 201 studies in normal subjects using gamma scintigraphy. Solutions, small pellets, and single units (matrix tablets and osmotic pumps) were administered with different amounts of food in the stomach, ranging from fasted state to heavy breakfast. Gastric emptying was ...
Herzlich B - - 1986
Intrinsic factor and R binder cobalamin binding capacity (CblBC) were measured in gastric juices obtained through feeding gastrostomy tubes (FG-GJ) from six patients with relatively complete obstruction to swallowing because of surgical resections for oropharyngeal or laryngeal carcinomas. Controls were six nonpernicious anemia gastric juices. In five of the six ...
Meyer S A - - 1986
Although jejunoileal bypass surgery proved effective in controlling morbid obesity, the serious adverse effects from the operation were ultimately found to outweigh the benefits. Gastric partitioning results in weight loss by restricting the volume of food ingested rather than by interfering with absorption. Vertical banded gastroplasty has fewer complications than ...
Brooks H V - - 1986
A severe, fatal, exudative peritonitis was investigated in a flock of 100 breeding fitch Mustela putorius furo. The presence of enteric flora within the lesions and steel spicules within the stomach contents suggested that this disease may have been caused by steel fragments perforating the intestine. Scoring and pitting of ...
McOrist S - - 1986
Between 1976 and 1985 necropsies were conducted on 55 free-living and 18 captive echidnas originating from several localities in Victoria, Australia. Injuries arising from motor vehicle accidents were the most common cause of death (24 of 55; 47%). An additional nine live echidnas were presented for clinical examination for dog ...
Fisher R S - - 1986
Cholescintigraphy, using 99mTc-HIDA, was employed to determine the gallbladder emptying response to sham feeding of a steak and potato meal, and to compare it with the emptying responses to direct cholinergic stimulation by bethanechol and to ingestion of the test meal. The maximal cumulative gallbladder emptying response to sham feeding ...
Ito M - - 1986
The effect of cimetidine on ulcer healing was investigated in rats with acetic acid induced ulcer who were permitted to intake food only between 9:30-10:30 a.m. and 6:00-7:00 p.m. When evaluated on the 15th and 21st days after operation, cimetidine (100 mg/kg X 2/day, p.o.) markedly decreased the ulcer index ...
Meyer J H - - 1986
This study was undertaken to determine whether fat leaves the stomach within or bound to the surface of particles of solid food. We studied gastric emptying of fat in 6 human subjects and in 6 dogs with Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomies so that chyme leaving the stomach could be collected free of ...
Scarpignato C - - 1986
The effect of bombesin on insulin and gastrin response to a standard labelled meal was studied in eight healthy male volunteers. The gastric emptying of solids was simultaneously evaluated. During intravenous infusion of the peptide (5 ng/kg/min) the insulin release after eating was greatly reduced whereas food stimulated gastrin release ...
McHugh P R - - 1986
The stomach of the rhesus monkey empties liquids in a fashion that varies with the character of the solutions. Physiological saline empties exponentially. Glucose solutions empty biphasically--rapidly for the first minutes, then slowly and proportionately to glucose concentration to deliver glucose calories through the pylorus at a regulated rate (0.4 ...
McPherson J C JC - - 1986
Intravenously administered Triton WR-1339, a nonionic surface active agent, has been used as an endogenous hyperlipemic agent since 1951. We expected Triton to increase food consumption to supply, at least partially, the energy and acetyl groups necessary for producing the hyperlipemic state. In this study, however, we observed that the ...
Corstens F - - 1986
Vitamin D intoxication, which may result from zealous intake of health food supplements, may cause metastatic calcification. This is the first reported case of a patient with vitamin D intoxication who had massive gastric uptake of [99mTc]MDP, but no lung uptake, with histologic documentation of the metastatic calcification by gastric ...
Meyer J H - - 1986
It is known that the food-filled stomach retains large spheres or pieces of food, allowing the passage of food particles or of plastic spheres with diameters mainly below 2 mm. We have recently shown that spheres having densities greater or less than water emptied from the food-filled canine stomach more ...
Feldman M - - 1986
The relative importance of thought, sight, smell, and taste of food in the cephalic phase of gastric acid secretion has not been studied systematically. We found that discussing appetizing food for 30 min (without sight, smell, or taste) increased acid secretion from 4 to 13 mmol/h in healthy human subjects ...
Wassersug R - - 1986
Tadpoles are unusual among free-living amphibians in having an atonic, non-acid secreting, underdeveloped stomach. Morphologically the typical tadpole foregut is most similar to the flaccid, non-acid secreting stomach of adult female of the gastric-brooding frog, Rheobatrachus, during brooding. In Rheobatrachus the brooding condition is induced by prostaglandin E2 secreted from ...
Yorke A J - - 1986
Fasting hypergastrinemia was noted in 13-41% of 82 of outpatients with definite or classical rheumatoid arthritis. No differences were noted between the normogastrinemic and the hypergastrinemic subjects in their age, sex, duration of rheumatoid disease, serological status, or medications. The food-stimulated gastrin response was 117 mg/L, or 216% above the ...
Pellegrini C A - - 1986
We examined small bowel transit of solid food in 10 patients 3 to 30 months after total gastrectomy and Roux-Y esophagojejunostomy and compared the transit pattern with that in five control subjects. All persons ate a test meal consisting of 213 g of beef stew mixed with 30 g of ...
Tur J A - - 1986
Gastrointestinal motility of young broilers (1, 8 and 15 days old) was measured by means of 14C-polyethylene glycol-4000. Two motor patterns can be observed: GI segments anterior to ileum increased their motility proportionally to the broiler age. GI segments below ileum decreased their motility when the broiler age is increased. ...
Nyhof R A - - 1985
The aim of our study was to determine whether the discrepancy in the data reported on the effect of atropine on food-induced intestinal hyperemia results from a difference in experimental materials and methods. In the first two series of experiments, atropine (0.5 mg/kg iv) was given before or during intraluminal ...
Olinde A J - - 1985
Jordan and Herrington have both advocated the addition of a proximal gastric vagotomy [PGV] to fundoplication to improve exposure and decrease the likelihood of vagal entrapment which might lead to delayed gastric emptying. This study documents the effect of fundoplication with or without PGV on gastric emptying and postprandial gastrin ...
Dubois A - - 1985
Gastric digestion is concerned with the storing, grinding and delivery of foods by the stomach and occurs in 3 phases: adaptive relaxation, liquefaction of solids, and emptying of liquefied solids. These processes are affected by psychological factors, by the sight, smell, and taste of food, and by the volume and ...
Anderson J W - - 1985
William Beaumont noted the gastric effects of vegetable fiber and suggested that dietary fiber may provide health benefits. In the last decade investigators documented the physiological effects of fiber on gastric emptying, intestinal nutrient absorption rates, and colon function. Further clinical investigation and much more of the type of repetitive ...
Szurszewski J H - - 1985
In addition to studies on the action of gastric juice, William Beaumont studied the motility of Alexis St. Martin's stomach. He documented the nature of fundal and antral motility and how antral contractions might convert an admixture of solid food and gastric juice into a uniform homogenous semifluid. Beaumont described ...
Meyer J H - - 1985
Previous studies suggested that the food-containing canine stomach retains large, nondigestible spheres until all food has emptied; but it is not known whether there is a threshold size or a gradation of sizes that will empty along with food. Further, nothing is known of the effects of such parameters as ...
Boyd J F - - 1985
The pathology of the alimentary tracts of nine patients dying of Salmonella typhimurium infection is reviewed. Two patients had previous gastric operations, supporting previous reports that such patients are more susceptible to food poisoning. Four had no parietal (oxyntic) cells in the gastric mucosa, suggesting hypo- or anacidity. Only one ...
Russell J - - 1985
We tested whether indigestible solids could empty from the canine stomach independently of gastric burst motor activity. Test meals contained polycarbophil, an indigestible particulate (1-3 mm diameter) substance. Test meals were slurries of 30 or 90 g of radiolabeled polycarbophil particles in saline. Meals were administered via an oral gastric ...
Horowitz M - - 1985
Associated with the development of methods to quantify gastric emptying, there has been an increased understanding of the physiology of gastric emptying in normal subjects and the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of gastric emptying disorders. The measurement of gastric emptying, using radionuclide-labeled food markers and a scintillation camera, has widespread ...
Mojaverian P - - 1985
In animal and human studies, the gastric emptying of large (greater than 1 mm) indigestible solids is due to the activity of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex. The gastric residence time (GRT) of an orally administered, nondigestible, pH-sensitive, radiotelemetric device (Heidelberg capsule) was evaluated in three studies in healthy volunteers. ...
Horowitz M - - 1985
There has been a greatly increased understanding of the physiology of gastric emptying in normal subjects, and of the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of gastric emptying disorders associated with the development and application of methods to quantify gastric emptying in humans. The non-invasive measurement of gastric emptying by means of ...
Heron C W - - 1985
One hundred and fourteen patients attending for barium meal examination were randomly allocated to receive Buscopan (hyoscine N-butylbromide, Boehringer Ingelheim; 20 mg) or glucagon (0.5 mg) as paralysing agents, or sterile water as control. The radiographs were analysed with regard to (a) gastric and duodenal distension and coating and (b) ...
Stricker E M - - 1985
Some years ago, we reported that the increased blood intake of hypoglycemic rats was inhibited by the intravenous infusion of fructose, a sugar that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and nourish cerebral chemoreceptors. More recent experiments therefore have focused on visceral factors in the control of food intake. Three observations ...
Horowitz M - - 1985
The effect of a single dose of (+/-)-fenfluramine hydrochloride (40 mg) on gastric emptying of a mixed solid and liquid meal was assessed with a dual isotope scintigraphic technique in eight obese patients. Fenfluramine significantly delayed gastric emptying of solid food (approximately a 15% reduction in the solid linear emptying ...
Miazza B - - 1985
The effect of the presence of food in the intestinal lumen on fluid transport by an intestinal loop isolated from nutrients is debatable and seems to be species dependent. The aim of the present study was to investigate this effect in humans. Fluid and ion transport by a 30-cm-long jejunal ...
Duke G E - - 1985
Cannulae were surgically implanted in the caudoventral margin of the glandular stomach of 10 Single Comb White Leghorn hens to permit collection of gastric secretions. A total of 44 experiments was performed. The hens were fasted for 24 hr after which secretions were collected separately for three 20-min periods with ...
Sclafani A - - 1985
Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose ...
Koga S - - 1985
The physiological significance of the residual distal stomach after proximal gastrectomy (PG) was evaluated in dogs from the view-point of serum gastrin. The fasting gastrin levels in both (1/2 and 2/3) PG groups were high, especially in the 1/2 PG group. The serum gastrin levels did not decrease with time ...
Rosenberg H I - - 1985
Secretion from Duvernoy's gland of the colubrid snakes Malpolon, Spalerosophis, and Thamnophis was obtained by pilocarpine stimulation and tested for lethality and selected enzymatic activities. Pools of secretion from Malpolon and Spalerosophis were fractionated by gel filtration, and several major active fractions were examined. The secretion from Malpolon had an ...
Puig-Parellada P - - 1985
With the carrageenin food oedema assay, we studied in rats the effects of indomethacin on inflammation, gastric ulcers and lipid peroxide levels. Our results show a positive correlation between ulceration and plasma lipid peroxides. We suggest that the ulceration could be due to inhibition of prostacyclin synthetase by lipid peroxides.
Coruzzi G - - 1985
The synthetic analog of ceruletide, (beta-Asp9) ceruletide, which in previous studies was found to retain some central effects of ceruletide with virtually no effect on gallbladder contraction, was studied for its stimulatory effect on pancreatic secretion. This peptide was shown to induce an increase in the volume of pancreatic juice ...
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