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Benzon Caitlin R - - 2013
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the ...
Parker Kyle E - - 2013
Previous research has demonstrated a dissociation of certain neural mediators that contribute to the increased consumption of a high-fat diet that follows intra-accumbens (Acb) administration of μ-opioid receptor agonists vs. 24-hr food deprivation. These two models, both which induce rapid consumption of the diet, have been shown to involve a ...
Raaijmakers Lgm - - 2013
The aim of this study was to assess energy, saturated fat and fibre intakes at breakfast among Dutch youngsters aged 10-19 years and the extent to which they meet nutritional value recommendations and the educational messages on food group intake by the Netherlands Nutrition Centre (NNC). A cross-sectional design was ...
Poti Jennifer M - - 2013
Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants; to identify ...
Makrogiannis Sokratis S Longitudinal Studies Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 3001 South Hanover St., 5th Fl. Baltimore, MD 21225; Department of Mathematical Sciences, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901. Electronic address: - - 2013
Separate quantification of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat regions is essential to understand the role of regional adiposity as risk factor in epidemiological studies. Fat quantification is often based on computed tomography (CT) because fat density is distinct from other tissue densities in the abdomen. However, the presence of intestinal ...
Grossman Michael - - 2013
We examine the effect of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among youths ages 12 through 18 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This ...
Vuholm Stine S Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C. Electronic address: - - 2013
The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) ...
Du S - - 2013
The thermic effect of food accounts for ̴ 10% of daily energy expenditure. A reduction in the thermic effect of food, which has been variably observed in the older adults, could predispose to fat gain. We tested whether the thermic effect of food is reduced in older adults compared with ...
Cleobury L - - 2013
Snack foods are often high in fat and sugar. Thus, reducing snack consumption may be a useful weight management strategy. However, individuals may snack for a variety of reasons with different implications for intervention. The present study examined the perceived reasons for eating main meals, 'unhealthy' snacks (i.e. snacks high ...
Madden David - - 2013
To combat growing levels of obesity, health-related taxes have been suggested with taxes on foods high in fat or sugar. Such taxes have been criticised on the basis of their regressivity and potentially adverse impact upon poverty. This paper analyses the effect of such taxes on a range of poverty ...
Smith Caren E - - 2013
The interaction between a functional apolipoprotein A2 gene (APOA2) variant and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) for the outcome of body mass index (BMI) is among the most widely replicated gene-nutrient interactions. Whether this interaction can be extrapolated to food-based sources of SFAs, specifically dairy foods, is unexplored. Cross-sectional analyses were ...
Yoneshiro Takeshi - - 2013
Cold exposure activates brown adipose tissue (BAT), the major site of sympathetically activated nonshivering thermognenesis, via transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Capsaicin and its nonpungent analogue (capsinoids) are agonists for a vanilloid subtype one of TRP, and have the potential to increase whole-body energy expenditure and reduce body fat. This ...
Roberts Clifford J - - 2013
We examined if stress associated changes in weight and dietary restraint are associated with changes in the composition of foods consumed. Participants were 38 healthy women on a taught postgraduate university course. Data were obtained at the beginning of the semester and 15 weeks later just prior to a written course ...
Neal B - - 2013
A food supply that delivers energy-dense products with high levels of salt, saturated fats and trans fats, in large portion sizes, is a major cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The highly processed foods produced by large food corporations are primary drivers of increases in consumption of these adverse nutrients. The ...
Nguyen Phuong H - - 2013
Background and objectives: Adequate nutrient intakes among women of reproductive age (WRA) are important determinants of maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. However, data on dietary intake for WRA in Vietnam are lacking. This paper aimed to examine the adequacy and determinants of energy and macronutrient intakes among WRA enrolled ...
Snowdon Wendy - - 2013
The Pacific island countries experience some of the highest rates of obesity in the world in part due to substantial dietary changes that mirror changes in the food supply in the region. Economic and political ties, donor aid, and trade links are key drivers of the changing availability and accessibility ...
Grabenhorst Fabian - - 2013
How fat is sensed in the mouth and represented in the brain is important in relation to the pleasantness of food, appetite control, and the design of foods that reproduce the mouthfeel of fat yet have low energy content. We show that the human somatosensory cortex (SSC) is involved in ...
Recinella Lucia - - 2013
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) leads to growth failure and changes in body composition including increased fat accumulation and reduced lean body mass in both humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to characterize the consequences of isolated GHD (IGHD) on adiposity, total body weight (TBW), and food intake ...
Primeaux S D - - 2013
QRFP, a member of the RFamide-related peptide family, is a strongly conserved hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been characterized in various species. Prepro-QRFP mRNA expression is localized to select regions of the hypothalamus, which are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. The localization of the peptide precursor has led to ...
Peters Harry P F - - 2013
Small fat droplets infused into the gut reduce food intake and hunger more than bigger ones, at levels as low as 6 g, and these effects are hypothesized to occur via satiety hormones such as cholecystokinin. It is, however, unknown whether the effect of droplet size would persist after oral consumption. ...
Shang Lei L a Department of Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, - - 2014
Identifying food patterns related to obesity can provide information for health promotion in nutrition. Food patterns and their relation with obesity among Canadian children have not been reported to date. Our aim was to identify and describe food patterns associated with obesity in children at risk of overweight. Caucasian children ...
Sheriff Michael J - - 2013
Abstract Hibernating mammals become sequestered and cease foraging during prolonged seasonal periods of reduced or unpredictable food availability and instead rely on cached food and/or endogenous reserves of fat and protein accumulated during the previous active season. The gain in weight is due to increased food consumption, but it also ...
Cornil Yann - - 2013
Using archival and experimental data, we showed that vicarious defeats experienced by fans when their favorite football team loses lead them to consume less healthy food. On the Mondays following a Sunday National Football League (NFL) game, saturated-fat and food-calorie intake increase significantly in cities with losing teams, decrease in ...
Chriqui Jamie F - - 2013
Given the importance of developing healthy eating patterns during early childhood, policies to improve the elementary school food and beverage environments are critical. To examine the association between district and state policy and/or law requirements regarding competitive food and beverages and public elementary school availability of foods and beverages high ...
Aggelopoulos Theodoros - - 2014
Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by ...
Bendig Paul - - 2013
Food and contaminated indoor environments are the most relevant sources of human exposure to polyhalogenated chemicals. This study analyzed for the first time fat residues in kitchen hoods for contaminations with polyhalogenated compounds. A wide range of contaminants was detected in all kitchen hoods (n = 15) and most of them could ...
O'Sullivan Therese A - - 2013
We summarized the data related to foods high in saturated fat and risk of mortality. We searched Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ProQuest for studies from January 1952 to May 2012. We identified 26 publications with individual dietary data and all-cause, total cancer, or cardiovascular mortality as endpoints. Pooled relative ...
Levy L B - - 2013
Diet-related chronic diseases are major public health concerns in England and the associated costs to the National Health Service and society are considerable. Poor diet and other lifestyle factors are estimated to account for about one-third of all deaths from CVD in England. UK dietary recommendations were set by the ...
Danilovich N - - 2013
Objective: Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that mediates the reward value of food. Methylphenidate (MPH) selectively binds and inhibits the dopamine transporter, thus increasing brain dopamine levels shortly after oral administration. This investigation studied whether a single dose of MPH decreases energy intake (EI) in obese teenagers compared to placebo (P). ...
Vanderlee Lana - - 2013
Food prepared and consumed away from home accounts for a significant proportion of dietary intake among Canadians. Currently, Canadians receive little or no nutrition information when eating in restaurant and fast-food outlets. The present study examined the impact of nutrition information on menus in hospital cafeterias on noticing and perceived ...
Ong Zhi Yi - - 2013
AIM: This study aimed to determine whether the negative effects of maternal 'junk food' feeding on food preferences and gene expression in the mesolimbic reward system could be reversed by weaning the offspring onto a low-fat diet. METHODS: Offspring of Control (n=11) and junk food-fed (JF, n=12) dams were weaned ...
Reaves Anne B - - 2013
To report a case of prolonged vomiting during warfarin therapy, leading to an elevated international normalized ratio (INR). A 32-year-old female with a history of cyclic vomiting syndrome since early childhood and bilateral pulmonary emboli diagnosed 4 months prior to this acute event presented to the clinic for routine monitoring ...
Weise C M - - 2013
Background:Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans.Methods:In 184 humans (73 F/111 M; ...
Tyburczy Cynthia - - 2013
The adverse effects of dietary trans fat on biomarkers of chronic disease are well documented. Regulatory authorities in many countries have enacted legislation aimed at reducing trans fat content of their food supplies, either by requiring trans fat labeling on pre-packaged foods or by limiting the amount of trans fat ...
Kafle Gopi Krishna - - 2013
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products (AFPBPs) using the biogas potential test. The AFPBPs were classified based on their chemical compositions (i.e., carbohydrate, protein and fat contents). The ...
van der Klaauw Agatha A AA Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, - - 2013
Meals high in protein induce greater intermeal satiety than meals high in fat and carbohydrates. We studied the gut hormone response and subsequent food intake after breakfasts high in protein, carbohydrate or high in fat controlled for volume, calories and appearance. Eight healthy volunteers participated in this randomized three-way crossover ...
Reaves Anne B - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:To report a case of prolonged vomiting during warfarin therapy, leading to an elevated international normalized ratio (INR).CASE SUMMARY:A 32-year-old female with a history of cyclic vomiting syndrome since early childhood and bilateral pulmonary emboli diagnosed 4 months prior to this acute event presented to the clinic for routine monitoring ...
Lythgoe Amelia - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The predominance of marketing of products high in fat, sugar and/or salt to children has been well documented and implicated in the incidence of obesity. The present study aimed to determine whether foods marketed to children in UK supermarkets are nutritionally similar to the non-children's equivalent, focusing on food ...
Tellez Luis A LA John B. Pierce Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, - - 2013
Mounting evidence suggests that overeating may be conceptualized within the same behavioral and neurobiological framework as drug addiction. One potentially important difference between overeating versus drug abuse refers to the sensory stimulation of oral receptors by palatable foods, a feature that may be required for reinforcement during intake. Likewise, postingestive ...
Barker M E - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The present study examined temporality in the representation of food in two popular British women's magazines between 1950 and 1998. METHODS: A quantitative content analysis of (i) prevalence of cooking, slimming, nutrition advice in articles; (ii) prevalence of food advertising by food type; and (iii) likelihood of various nutrition ...
O'Rourke Eyleen J EJ Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. - - 2013
Fat is stored or mobilized according to food availability. Malfunction of the mechanisms that ensure this coordination underlie metabolic diseases in humans. In mammals, lysosomal and autophagic function is required for normal fat storage and mobilization in the presence or absence of food. Autophagy is tightly linked to nutrients. However, ...
Guallar-Castillón Pilar - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has shown that the diet of hypertensive and diabetic patients has a low accordance with the main nutritional recommendations, mostly due to the high intake of sodium, saturated fat and added sugars. This is the first study to identify the main food sources of these nutrients in ...
Liu Xuecong - - 2013
The diet of Rhinopithecus roxellana is characterized by lichens, which are available year-round and an uncommon food source for nonhuman primates, supplemented by seasonal plant foods. We present the first study of foods eaten by R. roxellana in relation to nutritional chemistry in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China. ...
Panaro Brandon L BL Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2013
Haploinsufficiency of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) results in melanocortin obesity syndrome, the most common monogenic cause of severe early onset obesity in humans. The syndrome, which produces measurable hyperphagia, has focused attention on the role of MC4R in feeding behavior and macronutrient intake. Studies show that inhibition of MC4R signaling ...
Slining M M MM Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. - - 2013
There are increasing global concerns about improving the dietary intakes of children and adolescents. In the United States (U.S.), the focus is on reducing energy from foods and beverages that provide empty calories from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). We examine trends in intakes and sources of solid fat ...
Herzfeld Thomas - - 2013
This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the production of ...
McCann Mary T - - 2013
Nutrition labelling is an important strategic approach for encouraging consumers to make healthier food choices. The availability of highly palatable foods labelled as 'low fat or reduced calorie' may encourage the over-consumption of these products. This study aimed to determine whether the manipulation of nutrition labelling information can influence food ...
Baek I-H IH College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, - - 2013
Rosuvastatin is a highly effective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and is used for the treatment of patients with hyperlipidemia. We examined the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin by administering it while fasting and after intake of low-fat and high-fat meals. We administered a single ...
Silveira Bruna Maria - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated how trans-fat is reported on the packaging of foods sold in a Brazilian supermarket. DESIGN: The present descriptive, cross-sectional study analysed the ingredient list, nutrition facts label and claims of no trans-fat on the packaging. SETTING: A large supermarket in Florianópolis, Brazil. SUBJECTS: All food ...
Saito Masayuki - - 2013
Capsaicin and its nonpungent analog (capsinoids) are known to be food ingredients that increase energy expenditure and decrease body fat. This article reviews the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) for the thermogenic effect of these compounds in humans and proposes the possibility of some other antiobesity food ingredients. A ...
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