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Results 401 - 450 of 592
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Johnson A A - - 2001
To examine the role of the mitochondrial polymerase (Pol gamma) in clinically observed toxicity of nucleoside analogs used to treat AIDS, we examined the kinetics of incorporation catalyzed by Pol gamma for each Food and Drug Administration-approved analog plus 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (FIAU), beta-L-(-)-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (-)3TC, and (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (PMPA). We used recombinant exonuclease-deficient ...
Weiner M L - - 2001
Inorganic phosphate salts are widely used as food ingredients and in a variety of commercial applications. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers inorganic phosphates "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) (FDA, 1973a, 1979) [FDA: Food and Drug Administration 1973a. GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) food ingredients-phosphates. NTIS PB-221-224, ...
Rohrlack T - - 2001
The influence of cell-bound microcystins on the survival time and feeding rates of six Daphnia clones belonging to five common species was studied. To do this, the effects of the microcystin-producing Microcystis strain PCC7806 and its mutant, which has been genetically engineered to knock out microcystin synthesis, were compared. Additionally, ...
Devesa V - - 2001
Total and inorganic arsenic contents were analyzed in cooked seafood products consumed in Spain during the period July 1997-June 1998: hake, meagrim, small hake, anchovy, Atlantic horse mackerel, sardine, bivalves, crustaceans, squid, and salted cod. Various cooking treatments were used (grilling, roasting, baking, stewing, boiling, steaming, and microwaving). The results ...
Corsi S R - - 2001
Streams receiving runoff from General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, were studied to assess toxic impacts of aircraft and runway deicers. Elevated levels of constituents related to deicing (propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and ammonia) were observed in stream samples. The LC50s of type I deicer for Ceriodaphnia dubia, ...
Gebhart C L - - 2001
Non-viral transfection systems based on the complexes of DNA and polycations ('polyplexes') were evaluated with respect to their effectiveness, toxicity and cell type dependence in a variety of in vitro models. The panel of polycations examined included branched and linear polyethyleneimines, poly[N-ethyl-4-vinyl pyridinium bromide], polyamidoamine dendrimer (Superfect), poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer (Astramol) ...
Guo X - - 2001
An investigation was carried out on arsenic contamination of groundwater and prevalence of arsenical dermatosis in the Hetao plain of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Based on the screening of water samples from 96 randomly selected wells in this Region, two areas (Wuyuan and Alashan) were chosen as highly contaminated ...
Hook S E - - 2001
In aquatic environments, organisms are exposed to contaminants via direct uptake from water and by trophic transfer. However, most toxicity tests only examine uptake via the dissolved phase. We compared the response of marine and freshwater crustacean zooplankton to silver following dissolved and food exposure. Silver, like other metals, concentrates ...
Valentin I - - 2001
This study describes a sensitive microassay for measuring cytotoxicity based on the degree of inhibition of RNA synthesis in HepG2 cells. RNA synthesis is measured by the kinetic uptake of radiolabeled uridine. A large number of compounds were tested in a wide range of concentrations. The concentration required to induce ...
Ferster B - - 2001
Two formulations of spinosad (NAF-85 and NAF-371) were evaluated to determine the effect of concentration, deposit condition (dried, wet, or topical), and exposure time (0.1-10 h) for toxicant transfer among nestmates in the drywood termite Incisitermes snyderi (Light). Spinosad treatments were compared with two formulations of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) ...
Sarma S S - - 2001
The population growth of the rotifer Brachionus patulus was studied under a combination of different concentrations of Chlorella vulgaris and methyl parathion. To obtain sublethal concentrations of the pesticide a 24-h LC(50) bioassay was performed under two food densities (1.5 and 3.0x10(6) cells ml(-1)) using neonate rotifers. For the population ...
Sarma S S - - 2001
In the present work, the combined impact of four concentrations (0, 0.0625, 0.125, and 0.25 mg/L) of methyl parathion and three densities (0.5 x 10(6), 1.0 x 10(6), and 2.0 x 10(6) cells/mL) of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris on the population growth of Euchlanis dilatata was studied. In general, ...
Ponomarenko L P - - 2001
Free sterol fractions from the holothurians (sea cucumbers) Synapta maculata, Cladolabes bifurcatus and Cucumaria sp. have been isolated and studied by HPLC, GLC, GLC-MS and NMR methods. Forty seven sterols were identified, including several rare ones. In contrast with previously studied holothurians, the presence of a minor amount of Delta7 ...
Botrè F - - 2001
Biological toxicity testing is a rapidly expanding field involving numerous bioanalytical techniques. The enzymatic biosensors are valuable screening tools to identify pollutants and/or toxic agents in the environment and/or in food matrices, thus representing a valid alternative to animal testing in analytical toxicology. Inhibition based biosensors here presented have been ...
Podemski C L - - 2001
Algae fed to invertebrate subjects of chronic toxicity testing are cultured without exposure to test substances. This approach may reduce the ability of bioassays to predict field effects because it assumes that bioconcentration is the only important uptake route, and that an interaction between toxicant and algae does not occur ...
Tanzarella C - - 2001
The Doñana National Park (Spain), one of the most important wildlife sites in the West of Europe, was affected (25 April 1998) by the spill of acidic waste rich in toxic metals (mainly zinc, lead, copper, etc.), arsenic and aromatic amines from the Aznalcollar mine accident. Micronuclei test with May ...
Vittozzi L - - 2001
Metabolic transformation plays a major role in the mechanism of toxicity of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. The modulation of their toxicity by oxonases and monooxygenases, alone or in combination, has been shown in mammals and fish. Very limited information exists for the identification of the metabolic factors relevant in the human ...
Panter K E - - 2000
Reproductive dysfunction has many potential causes. In this article, the authors discuss toxicants that have been shown to affect reproduction, with emphasis on food-producing animals and fowl. The discussion is brief and written to provide a resource for clinicians, students, and scientists by focusing on toxicant-induced reproductive dysfunction and discussing ...
Vale P - - 2000
Okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 have been found yearly in Portuguese shellfish. Their presence was correlated with the occurrence of Dinophysis spp: Dinophysis acuminata has until now been found to be responsible only for OA contamination, while Dinophysis acuta contributes with OA and the rare diarrhetic toxin DTX2. Differences in toxicity ...
Milligan K E - - 2000
Lyngbyabellin B (1) was isolated from a marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, collected near the Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida. This new cyclic depsipeptide displayed potent toxicity toward brine shrimp and the fungus Candida albicans. The planar structure was deduced using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods, and the stereochemistry is ...
Hwang Y H - - 2000
To delineate potential exposure in ion implanter maintenance, the authors recruited 21 maintenance engineers (exposed group) and 10 computer programmers (controls) at three semiconductor manufacturing facilities. Samples of air, wipes, and urine; used cleaning cloths; and used gloves were collected for the characterization of arsenic exposure. Arsenic levels were very ...
Janaki B - - 2000
Although gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) is grouped under gum karaya (Sterculia sp.), it differs significantly in terms of physicochemical properties and chemical composition and does not conform to the confirmatory tests prescribed for gum karaya ([Janaki]). Gum karaya has wide applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries, whereas the use ...
Kramer K J - - 2000
Avidin is a glycoprotein found in chicken egg white, that sequesters the vitamin biotin. Here we show that when present in maize at levels of > or =100 p.p.m., avidin is toxic to and prevents development of insects that damage grains during storage. Insect toxicity is caused by a biotin ...
Chowdhury U K - - 2000
Nine districts in West Bengal, India, and 42 districts in Bangladesh have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of the 42 districts in Bangladesh and the 9 districts in West Bengal are 92,106 km(2) and 79.9 million ...
Golub M S - - 2000
The effects of toxicants depend on the dose and the time in the life span when exposure occurs. The biology of adolescence is distinctive and provides opportunities for unique actions of toxicants both in terms of disruption of function and disruption of maturation. Maturation of a number of organ systems ...
Haber L T - - 2000
People can ingest soluble nickel compounds as a normal constituent of food or as a contaminant in drinking water. This paper presents an assessment of the noncancer and cancer human health risks from ingestion of soluble nickel compounds. A reference dose (RfD) of 8 x 10(-3) mg Ni/kg/day in addition ...
Newell S Y - - 2000
Ascomycetous fungi are the principal drivers of the decomposition of shoots of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). Shoots of smooth cordgrass move into the saltmarsh food web via the decomposition system. Therefore, influences on saltmarsh ascomycetes by pollutants of saltmarshes could have far-reaching impacts. Earlier examination of impacts of severe contamination ...
Jugdaohsingh R - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Soluble silica, a ubiquitous component of the diet, may be the natural ligand for dietary aluminum and may prevent its accumulation and toxicity in animals. However, previous studies on the inhibition of aluminum absorption and toxicity by soluble silica have produced conflicting results. We recently identified a soluble silica ...
Chatterjee A - - 2000
A microwave-assisted digestion procedure was developed in presence of concentrated nitric acid (2.0 ml) and 30% hydrogen peroxide (0.20 ml) using a closed pressurized microwave digestion system for the determination of total anionic and total cationic arsenic compounds reside in oyster tissue. At 450 W for 15 min digestion, 74% ...
Liao H J - - 2000
To establish the safety data of shellfish in southern Taiwan, a total of 3,074 specimens of 30 shellfish species were seasonally collected from August 1995 to March 1997. These samples were assayed for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) by the bioassay methods. It was found ...
Sainio E L - - 2000
The regulations relating to cosmetic products give no limit values for toxic elements such as metals or arsenic occurring as impurities in cosmetic products. The present study of metals (lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium) and arsenic in eye shadows in 88 colors of 25 brands and 49 products provides a basis ...
Jha A N - - 2000
Using an integrated approach, the genotoxic potential of bis(tri-n-butyltin), an antifouling agent known to disrupt endocrine system in marine invertebrates, has been evaluated in the embryo-larval stages of the edible mussel, Mytilus edulis. While evaluating the genotoxic potential, the toxicity of tributyltin was also taken into account by determining the ...
Tsugawa W - - 2000
The bacterial phosphotriesterase (PTE) isolated from Flavobacterium sp. can catalyze the cleavage of the P-O bond in a variety of organophosphate triesters and has been shown to be an effective catalyst for the degradation of toxic organophosphate esters. Ethyl 4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate (EPN) is a chiral organophosphate. Optical isomers of EPN ...
Tao S S - - 1999
The FDA has conducted the Total Dietary Study (TDS), a yearly market basket programme, since 1961. It is designed to monitor the levels of toxic chemical contaminants (pesticide residues, industrial and elemental contaminants) and essential nutrients in the US food supply. It also provides information on trends in dietary concentrations ...
Renwick A G - - 1999
The duration of intake necessary for the production of a toxic response depends on the mechanism of toxicity and the accumulation of the chemical to reach a toxic body load. There is a paucity of data on the cellular processes and changes associated with non-cancer effects detected in subchronic and ...
Dang T M - - 1999
An atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method was successfully applied to analysis of urine for arsenic (As) as a measure of biological monitoring of occupational exposure to As in Vietnam. The application of the method to urine samples from 75 non-exposed control urbanites (after 2-day abstinence from sea foods) gave a ...
Villarroel M J - - 1999
The feeding behavior of the cladocera Daphnia magna subjected to a short-term exposure to the acaricide tetradifon (4-chlorophenyl 2,4, 5-trichlorophenyl sulfone) was studied. The experiments were performed using the unicellular algae Nannochloris oculata at a density of 5x10(5) cells/ml as food for the organisms. In a first experiment, three generations ...
O'Rourke M K - - 1999
Within the context of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS), metals were evaluated in the air, soil, dust, water, food, beverages, and urine of a single respondent. Potential doses were calculated for five metals including arsenic. In this paper, we seek to validate the potential dose calculations through spatial ...
Schoof R A - - 1999
Dietary arsenic intake estimates based on surveys of total arsenic concentrations appear to be dominated by intake of the relatively non-toxic, organic arsenic forms found in seafood. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic in food have not been not well characterized. Accurate dietary intake estimates for inorganic arsenic are needed to support ...
Herce-Pagliai C - - 1999
The total content of arsenic and of its inorganic (As(III) and As(V)) and organic (monomethylarsonic acid, MMAA, and dimethylarsinic acid, DMAA) species were determined in a set of 21 alcoholic and alcohol-free beer samples using the technique of Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. For total arsenic analysis, beer samples were ...
Braunbeck T - - 1999
In order to elucidate the importance of food-borne chemical contamination in fish, cytological and ultrastructural alterations in hepatocytes and enterocytes of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. exposed for 5 wk to 0.5 microgram endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzo- dioxyanthiepin-3-oxide) kg-1 food dry weight, equivalent to an ultra-low dosis of 15 ng kg-1 fish ...
Teitelbaum D T - - 1999
The accumulating data demonstrating the reproductive toxicity of 1, 2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) are reviewed. The sentinel event was the discovery of infertility in male pesticide manufacturing workers. In spite of early evidence of testicular damage, first in laboratory animals and later in humans, DBCP has been widely used as a nematocide ...
Fawell J K - - 1999
Blooms of cyanobacteria are known to have caused poisoning in fish, waterfowl, animals and man. One of the low molecular weight toxins responsible for this is the neurotoxin anatoxin-a which has been detected in reservoirs used for domestic water supplies. While the acute behaviour of this alkaloid is clear, there ...
DeMott, William R.
1. Laboratory experiments were used to study the feeding, growth and reproduction of five daphnids in mixtures of a toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, and a green alga, Scenedesmus acutus. The mixtures included 0%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 100% Microcystis with a total food concentration of 0.5 mg C L-1 in ...
Vahter M - - 1999
Thousands of people in different parts of the world are exposed to arsenic via drinking water or contaminated soil or food. The high general toxic of arsenic has been known for centuries, and research during the last decades has shown that arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. However, most experimental ...
Finley J W - - 1999
Manganese is an essential trace element that is required for the activity of several enzymes. Manganese is also quite toxic when ingested in large amounts, such as the inhalation of Mn-laden dust by miners. This review examines Mn intake by way of the food supply and poses the question: Is ...
Barceloux D G - - 1999
Vanadium is a steel-grey, corrosion-resistant metal, which exists in oxidation states ranging from -1 to +5. Metallic vanadium does not occur in nature, and the most common valence states are +3, +4, and +5. The pentavalent form (VO3-) predominates in extracellular body fluids whereas the quadrivalent form (VO+2) is the ...
Buchet J P - - 1998
Many organisms can easily dispose of toxic inorganic arsenic species through gradual methylation of the element and further urinary excretion. In order to clarify the urinary excretion of arsenobetaine observed in a human case of intoxication by arsine, the capacity of highly methylated arsenical synthesis has been investigated in rats ...
Salazar M - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Spirulina maxima, a blue-green alga used as food supplement and food coloring, after 13 weeks of treatment. Groups of ten mice of each sex were given S. maxima in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, 20 or ...
Randall D J - - 1998
Uptake of persistent lipophilic toxicants in fish occurs via the food and by transfer across the body surface, notably the gills. Flux rates of most lipid soluble toxicants across the gills is rapid and the animal must eat at very high rates for feeding to have a significant effect on ...
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