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Results 251 - 300 of 595
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Hsiung Tung-Ming - - 2006
An off-line process-based speciation technique was devised here to quantitatively determine toxic inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and the dominant, albeit virtually nontoxic, arsenobetaine (AB) in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Oysters were extracted with fresh methanol-water (8+2), and this was replicated three times. They were then ...
Bostanian Noubar J - - 2006
A laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of indoxacarb, abamectin, endosulfan, insecticidal soap, S-kinoprene and dimethoate to Amblyseius fallacis (Garman), Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Say). Amblyseius fallacis is a predacious phytoseiid mite and an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) programmes in North American apple ...
de Roode Daphne - - 2006
The need for more ecotoxicological data encourages the use of QSARs because of the reduction of (animal) testing, time and cost. QSARs may however only be used if they prove to be reliable and accurate. In this paper, four QSARs were attempted to predict toxicity for 170 compounds from a ...
Juhel Guillaume - - 2006
Microcystins are produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria and pose significant health and ecological problems. In this study we show that zebra mussels respond differently to different strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, and that a highly toxic strain causes zebra mussels to produce large quantities of mucous pseudofaeces, 'pseudodiarrhoea', that are periodically expelled ...
Josyula Arun B - - 2006
Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased rate of lung cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure at relatively low concentrations (approximately 20 microg/L) is associated with changes in biomarkers of lung inflammation, as measured by the ratio of sputum metalloproteinase ...
Okay Oya S - - 2006
The toxicity of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon pyrene to Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated in experiments conducted in the United Kingdom for M. edulis and in Turkey for M. galloprovincialis. Experimental conditions of temperature and salinity were chosen to be appropriate to the ambient conditions in which the mussels ...
Costa I A S - - 2006
We report the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and the presence of cyanotoxins in water samples from the Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves reservoir (06 degrees 08 S and 37 degrees 07 W), located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The cyanobacterial species were ...
Pellizzari Edo D - - 2006
Archived samples collected from 1995 to 1997 in the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5 (R5) and the Children's Study (CS) in Minnesota were analyzed for total arsenic, arsenate [As(V)], arsenite, dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA), monomethyl arsenic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), and arsenocholine. ...
Guo Nichun - - 2006
This is the first experimental study to compare difference in the development of tolerance against toxic Microcystis among multi-species of cladocerans (Daphnia, Moina and Ceriodaphnia) pre-exposed to two M. aeruginosa PCC7820 strains (MC-containing and MC-free). Zooplankton were divided into S population (fed Scenedesmus), M-F population (fed Scenedesmus+MC-free Microcystis), and M-C ...
Noguchi Tamao - - 2006
Marine pufferfish (family Tetraodontidae) are believed to accumulate tetrodotoxin (TTX) mainly in liver and ovary through the food chain by ingesting TTX-bearing organisms such as starfish, gastropods, crustacean, flatworms, ribbonworms, etc. Consequently, it is hypothesized that non-toxic pufferfish can be produced if they are cultured with TTX-free diets in netcages ...
Calvo C - - 2006
Arsenic accumulation in vegetables for direct human consumption represents a concern for food safety purposes. This potential problem can be of economic importance particularly in much appreciated, high-quality horticultural products. In this work, a greenhouse set of experiments were conducted to evaluate possible phytotoxic effects and arsenic accumulation in the ...
Qingdong Xia - - 2006
Subchronic toxicity of the mixture of ClO2, ClO2- and ClO3- in water on rat was studied through feeding test for 90 days. Statistical analyses of variance on weight gained, food utilization efficiency, indexes of blood and serum, liver/bodyweight and kidney/bodyweight ratios, and histopathological examination on liver and kidney were carried ...
Dakeishi Miwako - - 2006
Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred ...
Wang Baode - - 2005
As part of the ongoing evaluation of different systemic insecticides for prophylactic treatment of trees, responses of the beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to different doses of four systemic neonicotinyl insecticides were studied. Adult beetles were provided with twigs or leaves of trees treated with different concentrations of imidacloprid ...
Hardin Bryan D - - 2005
Trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloroethylene (DCE) are high-volume industrial chemicals frequently found as contaminants in public drinking water supplies. The developmental toxicity of both chemicals has been evaluated in laboratory and epidemiologic studies. It has been suggested that TCE and DCE are specific cardiac teratogens and that drinking water contaminated with ...
Lindberg Anna-Lena - - 2006
Inorganic arsenic is a potent human carcinogen and toxicant which people are exposed to mainly via drinking water and food. The objective of the present study was to assess current exposure to arsenic via drinking water in three European countries. For this purpose, 520 individuals from four Hungarian, two Slovakian ...
Yáñez Jorge - - 2005
The analysis for arsenic in hair is commonly used in epidemiological studies to assess exposure to this toxic element. However, poor correlation between total arsenic concentration in hair and water sources have been found in previous studies. Exclusive determination of endogenous arsenic in the hair, excluding external contamination has become ...
Kim Jun Sung - - 2006
The development of technology enables the reduction of material size in science. The use of particle reduction in size from micro to nanoscale not only provides benefits to diverse scientific fields but also poses potential risks to humans and the environment. For the successful application of nanomaterials in bioscience, it ...
Dolan David G - - 2005
A scientific rationale is provided for estimating acceptable daily intake values (ADIs) for compounds with limited or no toxicity information to support pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. These ADIs are based on application of the "thresholds of toxicological concern" (TTC) principle, in which levels of human exposure are estimated that pose no ...
Uchino T - - 2006
To evaluate the main intake source of arsenic by the villagers from arsenic-affected families in Jalangi and Domkol blocks in Mushidabad district, West Bengal-India, we determined the concentrations of arsenic in tube-well water and in food composites, mainly including vegetables and cereals collected from the surveyed families which were cultivated ...
Adair Blakely M - - 2006
Accurate quantitation of any contaminant of interest is critical for exposure assessment and metabolism studies that support risk assessment. A preliminary step in an arsenic exposure assessment study in Nevada quantified total arsenic (TAs) concentrations in tissues as biomarkers of exposure. Participants in this study (n=95) were at least 45 ...
Erry B V - - 2005
Arsenic is accumulated by free-living small mammals, but there is little information on the resultant concentrations in different tissues other than liver and kidney. Such information is important because the severity of toxicological effects may be related to the amount of arsenic accumulated in specific organs, and the availability of ...
Baoshan Zheng - - 2005
The arsenic (As) content of coal relating with mineralization of gold in Southwest Guizhou Province, China is up to 35,000 ppm. The coal is burned indoors in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying. As a result, arsenic is precipitated and concentrated in corn (5-20 ppm), chili (100-800 ppm) ...
Wheelock Craig E CE Department of Entomology and Cancer Research Center, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, - - 2005
Pyrethroid insecticides are known for their potential toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and many fish species. A significant problem in the study of pyrethroid toxicity is their extreme hydrophobicity. They can adsorb to test container surfaces and many studies, therefore, report pyrethroid levels as nominal water concentrations. In this study, pyrethroid ...
Williams P N - - 2005
Ingestion of drinking water is not the only elevated source of arsenic to the diet in the Bengal Delta. Even at background levels, the arsenic in rice contributes considerably to arsenic ingestion in subsistence rice diets. We set out to survey As speciation in different rice varieties from different parts ...
Agusa Tetsuro - - 2006
Concentrations of As and other trace elements and their association were examined in groundwater (n = 25) and human hair (n = 59) collected at Gia Lam District and Thanh Tri District, suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam, in September 2001. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from <0.10 to ...
Bernot Randall J - - 2005
Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are being promoted as environmentally friendly alternatives to volatile organic solvents currently used by industry. Because ILs are novel and not yet in widespread use, their potential impact on aquatic organisms is unclear. We studied the effects of several ILs on the survivorship and behavior (movement ...
Lee Hoi-Seon - - 2005
The acaricidal activity of anise seed-isolated anisaldehyde and commercially available components of anise seed was examined against Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults and compared with those of synthetic acaricides, benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate, and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). On the basis of LD50 (50% lethal dose) values, the compound most toxic to T. putrescentiae ...
Koch Iris - - 2005
The surrounding area of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, is known for naturally and anthropogenically elevated concentrations of arsenic. Five bird species (gray jay [Perisoreus canadensis], American tree sparrow [Spizella arborea], dark-eyed junco [Junco hyemalis], yellow-rumped warbler [Dendroica coronata], and spruce grouse [Dendragapus canadensis]) were collected from this area. Their tissues ...
Caceres Dante D - - 2005
The relationship of inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water and total urinary arsenic excretion in a nonoccupationally exposed population was evaluated in a cross-sectional study in three mayor cities of Chile (Antofagasta, Santiago, and Temuco). A total of 756 individuals in three population strata (elderly, students, and workers) provided first ...
Johnston John J - - 2005
Methylxanthines were quantified in coffee, tea, and chocolate products. Tarajuilie tea from India, cocoa powder, and cocoa nibs contained the highest levels of methylxanthines. Theobromine, caffeine, and theophylline combined in the ratios observed in tea and chocolate were ingested by coyotes. Although both mixtures induced acute toxicity, the symptoms accompanying ...
Xiao Hong - - 2005
In order to evaluate ecological risk of agrochemicals in common use, joint toxic effects of acetochlor and urea on germinating characteristics of Chinese cabbage (Brassica Pekinensis Rupr) seeds were investigated using the water-culture method and the soil-culture method. The results indicated that excessive application of acetochlor and urea, when the ...
Beketov Mikhail A - - 2005
Results of environmental risk assessments based merely on toxic effects of contaminants at the individual level, without consideration of population-level effects, may be questionable. The aim of the present study was to investigate how limited food resources, resulting in intraspecific competition, could interact with the chronic effect of short-term contamination ...
Jones Ruth H - - 2005
The role of diatoms as key food for copepods at the base of pelagic food chains has been questioned recently on the grounds of toxicity. We show, using unialgal versus mixed algal diets of different nutritional status (i.e., nitrogen:carbon ratio) fed to Acartia tonsa, that diatoms per se are not ...
Fujino Yoshihisa - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown that generation of reactive oxidants during arsenic metabolism can play an important role in arsenic-induced injury. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between arsenic in drinking water and oxidative stress in humans by measuring 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional ...
Camargo Julio A - - 2005
Published data on nitrate (NO3-) toxicity to freshwater and marine animals are reviewed. New data on nitrate toxicity to the freshwater invertebrates Eulimnogammarus toletanus, Echinogammarus echinosetosus and Hydropsyche exocellata are also presented. The main toxic action of nitrate is due to the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments to forms that are ...
Rahman Mohammad Mahmudur - - 2005
To better understand the magnitude of arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on human beings, a detailed study was carried out in Jalangi, one of the 85 arsenic affected blocks in West Bengal, India. Jalangi block is approximately 122 km2 in size and has a population of 215538. Of ...
Martínez V - - 2005
To determine the genotoxic risk associated to environmental arsenic exposure, the frequency of micronuclei in buccal cells (BCMN) of people drinking arsenic-contaminated water has been evaluated. A group of 105 individuals from the Antofagasta region (north Chile), and 102 individuals from the area of Concepcion, used as reference group, were ...
Al Rmalli S W - - 2005
Arsenic is a highly toxic element and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern to the well being of both humans and animals. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is often used in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India) to irrigate crops used for food and animal consumption, which could potentially lead ...
Bernot Randall J - - 2005
Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are considered to be green chemicals that may replace volatile organic solvents currently used by industry. However, IL effects on aquatic organisms and ecosystems are currently unknown. We studied the acute effects of imidazolium-based ILs on survival of the crustacean Daphnia magna and their chronic effects ...
Belgis Chial - - 2005
Attempts were made to overcome too-low reproductive output in the 48-h short-chronic microbiotest with the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus fed with microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) from algal beads older than 4 months (Chemosphere 50 (2002a) 365). Prefeeding of freshly hatched rotifers prior to the start of the actual growth experiments resulted in ...
Rahman Mohammad Mahmudur - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: To understand the severity of the arsenic crisis in West Bengal, India, a detailed, 3-year study was undertaken in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. The district covers an area of 5324 km2 with a population of 5.3 million. METHODS: Hand tubewell water samples and ...
Bandani A R - - 2005
The sunn pest are a group of insect representing several genera of the shield bug (Scutelleridae) and stink bug (Pentatomidae) families, with the species Eurygaster integriceps being the most economically important. The sunn pest is a major pest of wheat and barley in central and western Asia and it accounts ...
Mu Xueyan - - 2005
Bisphenol A is a key industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and other products. Several recent reports ascribe toxicological properties to this compound that have been attributed to the disruption of endocrine-related processes. In the present study, the toxicity of bisphenol A was definitively characterized in the ...
Akter Kazi Farzana - - 2005
Although it is now commonly accepted that toxicity and bioavailability varies with As species, extensive research has been carried out on biological and environmental samples to assess toxicity and risk associated with As exposure based on total concentrations that may be in error. The health investigation guideline for the Australian ...
Lien Hsing-Lung - - 2005
The objectives of this study were to conduct batch and column studies to (i) assess the effectiveness of zero-valent iron for arsenic remediation in groundwater, (ii) determine removal mechanisms of arsenic, and (iii) evaluate implications of these processes with regard to the stability of arsenic and long-term remedial performance of ...
Proença Paula - - 2004
The carbamate aldicarb (Temik) is a highly toxic (LD50 = 0.9 mg/kg oral in rats) insecticide often used in agriculture. The authors present a fatal intoxication case with aldicarb, in a 24-year-old male, under police custody in the island of S. Tome and Prince (STP), in Africa. He was found ...
Sjögren Martin - - 2004
In this field investigation the two cyclopeptides, isolated from the marine sponge Geodia barretti Bowerbank (Geodiidae, Astrophorida), are shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of the barnacle Balanus improvisus (Cirripedia, Crustacea) and the blue mussel Mytilis edulis (Protobranchia, Lamellibranchia) when included in different marine paints. These brominated cyclopeptides, ...
Blute Nicole Keon - - 2004
Typha latifolia (cattail) sequesters arsenic within predominantlyferric iron root coatings, thus decreasing mobility of this toxic element in wetland sediments. Element-specific XRF microtomographic imaging illustrated a high spatial correlation between iron and arsenic in root plaques, with little arsenic in the interior of the roots. XANES analyses demonstrated that the ...
Kakitani Tomo - - 2004
The behavior of arsenic during pyrolysis at temperatures between 135 and 500 degrees C has been widely studied. We examined the release of arsenic during the pyrolysis of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, and here we propose two models for the volatilization of arsenic: (a) a reacted arsenic compound, chromium ...
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