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Munro I C - - 2008
The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a level of human intake or exposure that is considered to be of negligible risk, despite the absence of chemical-specific toxicity data. The TTC approach is a form of risk characterisation in which uncertainties arising from the use of data on other compounds ...
Torres-Escribano Silvia - - 2008
Rice can contain a relatively high amount of arsenic (As). We evaluated total and inorganic As concentrations in 39 samples of different types of rice sold in Spain. The analyses were performed in raw rice and in rice cooked by boiling to dryness in water spiked with As(V) (0.1-1 microg ...
Geng Hong - - 2008
Blooms of Microcystis aeruginosa frequently occur in many eutrophic lakes in China, however, there is very little experimental study on the relationship between Microcystis and rotifers from Chinese waters. The effects of different concentrations of toxic M. aeruginosa PCC7820 on two common freshwater rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and B. rubens were ...
Cáceres Tanya - - 2008
The acute toxicity of an organophosphorous pesticide, fenamiphos and its metabolites, fenamiphos sulfoxide (FSO), fenamiphos sulfone (FSO(2)), fenamiphos phenol (FP), fenamiphos sulfoxide phenol (FSOP) and fenamiphos sulfone phenol (FSO(2)P), to the aquatic alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the terrestrial alga Chlorococcum sp. was studied. The toxicity followed the order: fenamiphos phenol>fenamiphos ...
Sambu S - - 2008
Arsenic has been used for millenia. Although it has been known for many years that arsenic is soon fatal when ingested at high doses, the effects of low dosages became apparent in the 1980s. The full societal implications are only now becoming clear. It is now known to pose the ...
Chung Katy W - - 2008
This study examined the toxicity of two pesticides (carbaryl and diquat dibromide) and one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene), both singly and in mixture, to grass shrimp larvae (Palaemonetes pugio). These three chemicals are all present in coastal environments and can easily enter estuarine ecosystems. Fluoranthene was the most toxic chemical ...
Hamano-Nagaoka Megumi - - 2008
Because there is a great difference between the toxicity of inorganic arsenic (As) and organic As in food, the JECFA has set a PTWI value for inorganic As (iAs) rather than for total As. The difference in As toxicity makes it necessary to extract iAs completely from food samples for ...
Hamano-Nagaoka Megumi - - 2008
Arsenic (As) uptake in human occurs via the food chain mainly. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has established the provisional tolerable weekly intake level for As as an inorganic As (iAs) value, because iAs in food is much more toxic than organic As. In this study, we ...
Hunt John - - 2008
Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was ...
Meharg Andrew A - - 2008
Under EU legislation, total arsenic levels in drinking water should not exceed 10 microg l(-1), while in the US this figure is set at 10 microg l(-1) inorganic arsenic. All rice milk samples analysed in a supermarket survey (n = 19) would fail the EU limit with up to 3 ...
Mendle, U E; ;
Background: High potency liquid multivitamin preparations contain many active vitamin ingredients having maximal daily dosage and formulated for prolonged administrations. They are intended to be used as food supplements and in the treatment or prophylaxis of vitamin deficiencies. Multivitamin preparations are highly nutritive products containing mixtures of parabeans as preservatives; ...
Fernández-Reiriz M J - - 2008
Trophic interactions between Mytilus chilensis and the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella were studied over a 21-day period to determine the absorption kinetics of biochemical components and the enzymatic activity of the digestive gland (i.e. amylase, cellulase complex, laminarinase and protease). For the duration of the experiment, logarithmic relationships were established ...
Cestone Angelo - - 2008
The main objective of this study, within development of engineering solutions for coastal areas depuration, was to establish the role of the benthic macro-organisms in the biodegradation of the detergents in marine environment and to estimate the toxicity of these substances for a particular marine species: the ascidian Styela plicata. ...
Cumming Janet L - - 2008
The toxicity of 11 polyquaterniums used in cosmetic applications, and polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (poly(DADMAC)) were studied for toxicity of the polyquaternium alone, and of a polyquaternium/anionic surfactant complex as occurs in some cosmetic formulations. The surfactant used in the study was sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which is used in cosmetic formulations ...
Gault Andrew G - - 2008
The health implications of the consumption of high arsenic groundwater in Bangladesh and West Bengal are well-documented, however, little is known about the level of arsenic exposure elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where widespread exploitation of groundwater resources is less well established. We measured the arsenic concentrations of nail and hair ...
Cotterill J V - - 2008
Since the discovery of acrylamide in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods, many more heat-generated food contaminants have been identified in a variety of foods and models systems. A database of these contaminants, generated as a result of either lipid oxidation or the Maillard reaction, has recently been compiled under the HEATOX project. ...
Kolts Jason M - - 2008
The biotic ligand model (BLM) for the acute toxicity of cationic metals to aquatic organisms incorporates the toxicity-modifying effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM), but the default parameterization (i.e., assuming 10% of DOM is humic acid) does not differentiate DOM from different sources. We exposed a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) to ...
Yamane Masayuki - - 2008
Cationic surfactant is a chemical substance used in hair conditioner, fabric softener and other household products. By investigating the relationship between the aquatic toxicity and the chemical structures of two types of mono alkyl cationic surfactants, alkyl trimethylammonium salts and alkyl dimethylamine salts, we have found that the C22 alkyl ...
Kim Younghee - - 2008
Cartap and cypermethrin, which are among the most widely used pesticides in many countries, are considered safe because of their low mammalian toxicity and their low persistence in the environment. However, recent findings of endocrine-disrupting effects and developmental neurotoxicity have raised concerns about the potential ecological impacts of these pesticides. ...
- - 2008
Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene are homopolymers of isobutene. These ingredients are produced in a wide range of molecular weights. Polybutene is a chemically related cosmetic ingredient previously determined to be safe as used in cosmetic products. Polyisobutene is used in cosmetic products as a binder, film former, and nonaqueous viscosity-increasing ...
Yang C - - 2008
ABSTRACT Genetic toxicity data from various sources were integrated into a rigorously designed database using the ToxML schema. The public database sources include the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) submission data from approved new drug applications, food contact notifications, generally recognized as safe food ingredients, and chemicals from the ...
Pagano Giovanni - - 2008
A series of studies investigated the toxicities of tannery-derived complex mixtures, i.e. vegetable tannin (VT) from Acacia sp. or phenol-based synthetic tannin (ST), and waste-water from tannin-based vs. chromium-based tanneries. Toxicity was evaluated by multiple bioassays including developmental defects and loss of fertilization rate in sea urchin embryos and sperm ...
Bienert Gerd P - - 2008
Arsenic is a toxic and highly abundant metalloid that endangers human health through drinking water and the food chain. The most common forms of arsenic in the environment are arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)). As(V) is a non-functional phosphate analog that enters the food chain via plant phosphate transporters. Inside ...
Ramsdell John S - - 2008
California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT) poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. ...
Bhattacharjee Hiranmoy H Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, - - 2008
The identification of aquaglyceroporins as uptake channels for arsenic and antimony shows how these toxic elements can enter the food chain, and suggests that food plants could be genetically modified to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon.
Hansen Laura K - - 2008
Most chemical contaminants released into the aquatic environment have been tested for their toxicity to aquatic organisms using standardized test protocols. The extent that results from such toxicity tests vary with the quality of food provided to the test organism remains largely unknown. Here, we determined whether the elemental food ...
Rohlfs Marko - - 2007
The vast repertoire of toxic fungal secondary metabolites has long been assumed to have an evolved protective role against fungivory. It still remains elusive, however, whether fungi contain these compounds as an anti-predator adaptation. We demonstrate that loss of secondary metabolites in the soil mould Aspergillus nidulans causes, under the ...
Guillot Stephane - - 2007
Holocene groundwater in many districts of the West Bengal and parts of Bangladesh are enriched in arsenic enhancing poisoning effect on humans. One of the main problems to depict the source of arsenic is that this element is very mobile and can be easily removed and recombined from the source ...
See Lai-Chu - - 2007
This association study was carried out to examine the effect of long-term exposure to ingested arsenic on various types of cataract. A total of 349 residents living in arseniasis-hyperendemic villages of southwestern Taiwan were recruited. Cumulative arsenic exposure was derived from the history of consuming artesian well water and the ...
Shibasaki Naoaki - - 2007
Groundwater contamination by arsenic frequently occurs in western Bangladesh. Integrated hydrogeological studies were carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in the Jessore, Jhenaidah and Chuadanga districts to assess the possibility of supplying safe drinking water from deep aquifers. The subsurface geology of up to 300 m in ...
Pedroso Mariana Saia - - 2007
The euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa was exposed to silver (AgNO(3)) in either the absence or the presence of food (diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii; 2 x 10(4) cells/ml). Standard static-renewal toxicity tests that included a fixed photoperiod of 16: 8 h light:dark and temperature (20 degrees C) were run in three different ...
Kile Molly L - - 2007
The association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and toenail arsenic concentrations appears to be non-linear at low exposure levels. To investigate whether this observation is a result exposure misclassification, a dietary exposure assessment was conducted in a cohort of 47 women concurrently enrolled in a prospective longitudinal biomonitoring study ...
Lindberg Anna-Lena - - 2008
Although genetic polymorphisms have been shown to explain some of the large variation observed in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic there may be several other factors playing an important role, e.g. nutrition. The objective of this study was to elucidate the influence of various factors on current arsenic exposure and ...
Chen C Y CY Department of Biological Sciences, HB 6044, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. - - 2008
Interactions of herbicides and natural environmental stressors such as pH and food availability are poorly understood. We tested a chemical formulation of triclopyr (Release) at environmentally relevant test concentrations (0.25 and 0.50 mg L(-1)) in combination with two levels of pH (pH 5.5 and 7.5), and two levels of food ...
Lin M C - - 2008
The risk of consuming groundwater-cultured milkfish (Chanos chanos) was assessed. Samples of water and milkfish from groundwater-cultured ponds in southwestern Taiwan were analyzed. One third of the 12 sampled ponds had arsenic concentrations in the water higher than 50 microg/L, which is the maximum allowed concentration for arsenic in aquacultural ...
Peters Maximilian - - 2007
The oxidation of cannabis constituents has given rise to their corresponding quinones, which have been identified as cytotoxic agents. Out of these molecules the quinone of cannabidiol--the most abundant non-psychoactive cannabinoid in Cannabis sativa--has shown the highest cytotoxicity. This compound was named HU-331 and it exerts antiangiogenic properties, induces apoptosis ...
Agusa Tetsuro - - 2008
Concentrations of total arsenic (As) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from Ishigaki Island, Japan. In both species, total As concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. Arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. High concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected ...
Pereira Joana Luísa - - 2007
The widespread increase of pesticides application in crops threats vicinal freshwater lentic ecosystems, frequently leading to their contamination. Due to their position in the aquatic food web, the responses to these pesticide inputs of freshwater filter-feeding zooplankters, as daphnids, provide relevant information the general risk to the ecosystem of xenobiotics. ...
Devesa V - - 2008
In arsenic-endemic and other areas, food is an important path of exposure to this contaminant. Food is generally consumed in processed form, after a preservation treatment or cooking, which may alter the concentrations and chemical forms of arsenic. This article summarizes and discusses the work so far published on the ...
Sharif R - - 2008
Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 ...
Santos-Medrano Gustavo Emilio - - 2007
A quantitative study of toxicity levels of the San Pedro River and its main tributaries around the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico was conducted. Our study determined individual CL(50) values for each sampling point at 3 different times of the year corresponding to the main seasons of the year in terms ...
Gui Yue - - 2008
Risk assessment of environmental contaminants is usually based on experiments on well-fed individuals held at low population densities. However, field populations are often subject to resource limitation. Individuals who are already stressed by crowding or food limitation may show greater susceptibility to toxicants. But density dependence could also reduce population-level ...
Plath Martin - - 2007
Extreme habitats challenge animals with highly adverse conditions, like extreme temperatures or toxic substances. In this paper, we report of a fish (Poecilia mexicana) inhabiting a limestone cave in Mexico. Several springs inside the cave are rich in toxic H(2)S. We demonstrate that a behavioural adaptation, aquatic surface respiration (ASR), ...
Garric Jeanne - - 2007
Although widely used for the treatment of endo- and ectoparasites in livestock and pets, very few data on chronic effects on aquatic organisms are available for the parasiticide ivermectin. In the present study, toxicity of ivermectin to two freshwater organisms, the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata ...
Yang Xuexi - - 2007
The callus of Pteris vittata was induced from gametophytes generated from spores in vitro, and grew rapidly with periodical medium change. Arsenic tolerance and accumulation of P. vittata callus were compared with those of Arabidopsis thaliana callus. Cell death was not detected in P. vittata callus even at arsenate concentrations ...
Yuan Chungang - - 2007
Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages consumed in the world. Arsenic including species totalling to 47 Chinese tea samples from 18 tea-producing provinces in China were analyzed. By simulating the infusion process, leaching characters, effects of extraction time and temperature on arsenic extraction were investigated. Total amount ...
Ohno Koichi - - 2007
More and more people in Bangladesh have recently become aware of the risk of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater, and have been trying to obtain drinking water from less arsenic-contaminated sources. In this study, arsenic intakes of 18 families living in one block of a rural village in an arsenic-affected district of ...
Phillips Bryn M - - 2007
The New River (CA, USA) was created in 1905 to 1907 when the Colorado River washed out diversionary works and flowed into the Salton Basin, creating the Salton Sea. Approximately 70% of the river's current flow is agricultural wastewater from the Imperial Valley. The river is contaminated with pesticides, industrial ...
Heck Julia E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inorganic arsenic (InAs) is metabolized to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and this methylation facilitates urinary arsenic excretion. Previous studies suggest that persons with more complete methylation, characterized as greater proportions of DMA and lesser proportions of MMA and InAs in urine, have a lower risk of ...
Uneyama C - - 2007
Data for the arsenic content in various foods were collated. The number of collected values was about 2500 columns, which enables an estimation of the range of arsenic contents in each food group. Data were categorized into six groups (crops, milk/meat/egg, fish, algae, seafood, others) and expressed as a percentile ...
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