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Results 401 - 450 of 606
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Lieberman Leslie Sue - - 2003
An evolutionary perspective is used to elucidate the etiology of the current epidemic of type 2 diabetes estimated at 151 million people. Our primate legacy, fossil hominid, and hunting-gathering lifestyles selected for adaptive metabolically thrifty genotypes and phenotypes are rendered deleterious through modern lifestyles that increase energy input and reduce ...
Gilbertson Heather R - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The practicality of diets with a low glycemic index (GI) is controversial. Theoretically, low-GI diets may limit food choice and increase dietary fat intake, but there is little objective evidence to support such a theory. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effect of low-GI dietary advice on dietary ...
Moga M M - - 2003
Major risk factors for gallbladder disease include a sedentary lifestyle and a diet rich in refined sugars. In genetically prone individuals, these two factors lead to an abnormal bile composition, altered gut microflora, and hyperinsulinemia, with resulting gallstone formation. As a large percentage of gallbladder patients have continued digestive complaints ...
Holt S - - 2003
Background - Current dietary guidelines recommend the consumption of a diet based on fresh fruit and vegetables and wholegrain cereal products. However, most people prefer refined rather than wholegrain versions of cereal products, which tend to have relatively high glycaemic index (GI) values. There has been recent interest in determining ...
Ribeiro T - - 2003
The impedancemetry method can be used in Microbiology to perform the detection, quantification and even identification of some bacteria. Basic knowledge about this subject can be stated from Ur and Brown (1975), Firstenberg-Eden and Eden (1984), the reviews of Silley and Forsythe (1996), and Wawerla et al. (1999). With Escherichia ...
Sherwin Craig P - - 2002
Theories for the chemical stability of foods cite the role of moisture content or water activity in reactant mobility, though mobility has been variously defined. One theory, based on plasticization by moisture, is limited by a lack of research directly linking the mobility of a matrix to the mobility and ...
Glace Beth - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to document eating strategies employed by runners during a 160-km race, and to identify eating patterns that predispose the runner to disturbed mental or gastrointestinal functioning. We monitored intake in 19 volunteers during the 12 hours pre-race. Intake was determined by interview with runners ...
Rizkalla S W - - 2002
The present paper covers the health benefits of low glycaemic index foods, such as pulses. Nutritional factors potentially play a crucial role in health and disease. A low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet is often recommended as a part of a healthy life-style. Historical works have shown that carbohydrate foods differ in their ...
Madar Zecharia - - 2002
This review evaluates the potential health benefits of three legume sources that rarely appear in Western diets and are often overlooked as functional foods. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and isolated fenugreek fractions have been shown to act as hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic agents in both animal and human studies. The unique ...
Anderson G Harvey - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A primary mechanism by which carbohydrates are thought to regulate satiety and food intake is through their effect on blood glucose. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to describe the effect of defined carbohydrate preloads on food intake and blood glucose and to determine the association between food intake and blood ...
Kaati G - - 2002
Overfeeding and overeating in families are traditions that are often transferred from generation to generation. Irrespective of these family traditions, food availability might lead to overfeeding, in its turn leading to metabolic adaptations. Apart from selection, could these adaptations to the social environment have transgenerational effects? This study will attempt ...
Liu Simin - - 2002
Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia are central features of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). Recent data indicate that increased dietary glycemic load (GL) due to replacing fats with carbohydrates or increasing intake of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates (ie, high glycemic ...
Foster-Powell Kaye - - 2002
Reliable tables of glycemic index (GI) compiled from the scientific literature are instrumental in improving the quality of research examining the relation between GI, glycemic load, and health. The GI has proven to be a more useful nutritional concept than is the chemical classification of carbohydrate (as simple or complex, ...
Jenkins A L - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which beta-glucan reduces the glycemic index (GI) of oat products and whether high levels of beta-glucan impair palatability. DESIGN: The study design was an open-label, randomized cross-over study with six treatment segments. SETTING: Free-living outpatients. SUBJECTS: Sixteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes (10 men, ...
Kaplan Randall J - - 2002
Increased satiety and decreased food intake are reported following the consumption of low glycaemic index (GI) foods, which gradually increase blood glucose. This observation, however, is not uniformly supported and few studies have examined the impact of different GI foods on satiety and intake in the elderly. After an overnight ...
Pi-Sunyer F Xavier - - 2002
It has been suggested that foods with a high glycemic index are detrimental to health and that healthy people should be told to avoid these foods. This paper takes the position that not enough valid scientific data are available to launch a public health campaign to disseminate such a recommendation. ...
Aziz Alfred - - 2002
The hypothesis that peripheral GLP-1 modulates the effect of macronutrients on food intake in rats was tested by administration of its agonist, exendin-4. The effect of exendin-4 on food intake suppression and blood glucose after carbohydrate, fat and protein preloads was measured. Exendin-4 reduced the effect of glucose preloads on ...
Parks E J - - 2002
The process by which dietary carbohydrate is transformed into fat in the human body is termed de novo lipogenesis. New methods for the measurement of this process in humans are available and have been used to investigate the role of the carbohydrate form (fed as a liquid or solid), the ...
Kumar Rajesh - - 2002
By using 4-C-hydroxymethyl-alpha-D-pentofuranose as the sugar core and lipase-catalyzed transformations, a macromer was constructed with exceptional control of substituent placement around the carbohydrate core. The key synthetic transformations performed were as follows: (1) selective lipase-catalyzed acrylation along with prochiral selection of 4-C-hydroxymethyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-pentofuranose (diastereomeric excess up to 93%); (2) the ring-opening ...
Monro John A - - 2002
The glycaemic index (GI) is the blood glucose response to carbohydrate in a food as a percentage of the response to an equal weight of glucose. Because GI is a percentage, it is not related quantitatively to food intakes, and because it is based on equi-carbohydrate comparisons, GI-based exchanges for ...
Chan H M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare the glycaemic index (GI) values of a range of Vietnamese foods in two racial groups. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Twelve healthy subjects (six Asian and six Caucasian) consumed 50 g carbohydrate portions of a reference food (glucose sugar) and nine Vietnamese foods (three rices, three noodle ...
Franz M J - - 2001
There have been two approaches to examining the effects of carbohydrate on postprandial glycemia: 1) studies designed to determine the glycemic response of foods containing carbohydrate, regardless of the source, i.e., starch, sugar, or fiber (glycemic index [GI] of carbohydrates), and 2) studies comparing the glycemic response to equivalent amounts ...
Wäckers F L. - - 2001
Fourteen naturally occurring sugars were individually tested with respect to their effect on Cotesia glomerata longevity. Parasitoids kept with solutions of either sucrose, glucose and fructose lived for >30 days. This constitutes a factor 15 increase in life span in comparison to control individuals kept with water only. Stachyose, mannose, ...
Friesen T M - - 2001
Although the practice of food storage is important to many questions addressed by archaeologists, demonstrating its presence in archaeological contexts can be difficult or impossible. One potentially useful approach to meat storage is the concept of the Drying Utility Index, introduced by Lewis Binford (1978) to predict which carcass portions, ...
Livesey G - - 2001
The tolerance of low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) may be measured as the potential to cause abdominal symptoms and laxation. Tolerance of any one LDC is determined by its concentration in the food product eaten, the amount of the food product eaten, the frequency of eating the food and the consumption of ...
Hettiarachchi P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Varieties of red raw rice are widely believed to have a better nutritional quality. The physiological effects of consuming different varieties of rice may not be so. The glycaemic index has been developed as an indicator of the physiological effect of foods. It is the glycaemic response of a ...
Gehling E - - 2001
Making healthy food choices can be challenging for individuals with diabetes. However, nutrition education and counseling can help people understand how food affects their blood glucose level. Education also helps them to understand how the diet for diabetes has changed to include more carbohydrate-based foods than in the past. We ...
Giacco R - - 2001
The present study was aimed at evaluating in patients with type 2 diabetes: (1) the glycaemic response to four starchy foods based on wheat, typical of the Italian diet; (2) the importance of some food characteristics in relation to their effects on postprandial glucose response. Seventeen patients with type 2 ...
Wahlqvist M L - - 2001
In many parts of the Asia-Pacific region, diabetes prevalence is increasing and seems destined to become a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The phenomenon seems predicated on insulin resistance (IR), partly attributable to an early impact of abdominal (visceral) adiposity than in Caucasian populations. Food intake along with physical ...
Hagura R - - 2000
Diet treatment for diabetes requires restriction of the food amount (energy intake). It is desirable that patients have a proper relative consumption of the three main nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, fats) and also habitually take low-energy foods such as vegetables, mushrooms and seaweeds, etc. as often as possible in each meal. ...
Goldstein J L - - 2000
Despite their substantial clinical benefits in the management of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, pain, and other musculoskeletal complaints, conventional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) are associated with significant toxicities that can frequently limit their use. The most common and noteworthy adverse effects of NSAID are gastrointestinal (GI), and range from dyspeptic symptoms ...
Pathak P - - 2000
A multitude of investigations have demonstrated the beneficial hypoglycemic effect of millets, fenugreek seeds and legumes in diabetic subjects. However, the bitter taste of fenugreek seeds and coarse nature of millets have been limitations in using them in daily dietaries. Moreover, as of today, the availability of special foods for ...
Granfeldt Y - - 2000
Differences in glycemic responses to various starchy foods are related to differences in the rate of starch digestion and absorption. In this study, the importance of the degree of gelatinization and the product thickness for postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to rolled oats and barley were studied in healthy subjects ...
Packer S C - - 2000
AIMS: The number of people with both diabetes and coeliac disease is increasing. This study examined the effect of gluten-free, as opposed to gluten-replete carbohydrate containing foods, on post-prandial blood glucose concentrations. METHODS: The glycaemic index of six commonly used gluten-free carbohydrates are reported and compared with published figures for ...
Yusof R M RM Department of Nutrition and Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, - - 2000
Probiotic organism Bifidobacteria was isolated from the faeces of breast-fed infants at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Trypticase phytone peptone yeast extract agar (TPY) was used as a selective media for the isolation. Morphological examination of the isolates indicated that Bifidobacteria was Gram-positive rods in nature, curved with characteristics of V and ...
Urooj A - - 2000
The in vivo glycaemic responses to six cereal-based foods traditionally consumed in South India were evaluated in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and healthy volunteers. All foods contained 50 g carbohydrate and were compared with a 50 g glucose load. Also studied were the in vitro starch digestibility and ...
Perry T - - 2000
AIM: To determine the glycaemic index values to a range of foods that are unique to New Zealand, and those that are grown and/or manufactured locally. METHODS: We determined the glycaemic index of 28 carbohydrate foods in both healthy subjects and those with type 2 diabetes. Venous blood samples were ...
Jenkins D J - - 2000
Several epidemiological studies link consumption of fibre-rich foods to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and CHD. The 'fibre hypothesis' suggested that this was a direct effect of fibre. However, fibre-rich foods contain different types of fibre as well as other potentially beneficial compounds, and many foods naturally high ...
Björck I - - 2000
Accumulating data indicate that a diet characterized by low glycaemic-index (GI) foods not only improves certain metabolic ramifications of insulin resistance, but also reduces insulin resistance per se. Epidemiological data also suggest a protective role against development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. A major disadvantage in this connection ...
Hashim Normah N - - 2000
The objective of this study was to identify the effect of different drying methods on vitamin A activity of formulated weaning food. Weaned foods on vitamin A activity of formulated using treated cowpea flour, locally available rice flour, banana-pumpkin, skim milk powder and sugar in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5. Treated cowpea ...
Donkin A J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To develop and map indices to illustrate variation in the cost and availability of healthy food. DESIGN: Two contiguous wards in London were selected by virtue of their high Carstairs deprivation scores. A 2-km area was defined around a randomly chosen central point. All retail outlets selling food within ...
Noriega E - - 2000
For the purpose of enriching the knowledge on the glycaemic (GI) and insulinaemic (InIn) indices of indigenous foods, 3 single foods and 3 realistic high complex carbohydrate meals (bread=100) were studied in 8 healthy subjects. Observed GI (mean+/-SEM) were: beans (B) 19.3+/-3.4, wheat tortilla (WT) 42.5+/-6.9, corn tortilla (CT) 73.8+/-6.5, ...
Katz D B - - 2000
The tongue is the principal organ that provides sensory information about the quality and quantity of chemicals in food. Other information about the temperature and texture of food is also transduced on the tongue, via extragemmal receptors that form branches of the trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, and vagal nerves. These systems, together ...
- - 2000
Foods with fat replacers have the potential to help people with diabetes reduce total and saturated fat intake and may therefore, in time, reduce the increased prevalence of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. However, for these foods to have any potential benefit to people with diabetes, people with diabetes must ...
Niness K R - - 1999
Inulin is a term applied to a heterogeneous blend of fructose polymers found widely distributed in nature as plant storage carbohydrates. Oligofructose is a subgroup of inulin, consisting of polymers with a degree of polymerization (DP) </=10. Inulin and oligofructose are not digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract; therefore, they ...
Ratsimba V - - 1999
The monosaccharide (D-fructose, D-glucose, anhydrosugars), disaccharide (glucobioses) and pseudodisaccharide (di-D-fructose dianhydrides) content of D-fructose, D-glucose and sucrose caramels has been determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS) of their trimethylsilyl (TMS) or TMS-oxime derivatives. The chromatographic profiles revealed significant differences in the disaccharide/pseudodisaccharide distribution depending on the caramel source: a D-fructose ...
Soh N L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of variety, cooking method and maturity on the GI of potatoes, it was hypothesised that new potatoes may have a relatively lower GI. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Ten healthy volunteers were recruited as subjects through advertising on the campus of ...
Macdonald I A - - 1999
This review considers the acute and chronic effects of different levels of carbohydrate (CHO) intakes. The type of CHO consumed, especially glucose vs fructose, affects the glycaemic, insulinaemic and thermogenic responses. In addition, other aspects of food (type of starch, method of processing or cooking, presence of other nutrients) affects ...
Englyst K N - - 1999
A chemically based classification of dietary carbohydrates that takes into account the likely site, rate, and extent of digestion is presented. The classification divides dietary carbohydrates into sugars, starch fractions, and nonstarch polysaccharides, and groups them into rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG) as to the amounts ...
Ludwig D S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the role of dietary composition in body weight regulation remains unclear. The purpose of this work was to investigate the acute effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) on energy metabolism and voluntary food intake in obese subjects. METHODS: ...
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