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Results 401 - 450 of 575
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Pathak P - - 2000
A multitude of investigations have demonstrated the beneficial hypoglycemic effect of millets, fenugreek seeds and legumes in diabetic subjects. However, the bitter taste of fenugreek seeds and coarse nature of millets have been limitations in using them in daily dietaries. Moreover, as of today, the availability of special foods for ...
Granfeldt Y - - 2000
Differences in glycemic responses to various starchy foods are related to differences in the rate of starch digestion and absorption. In this study, the importance of the degree of gelatinization and the product thickness for postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to rolled oats and barley were studied in healthy subjects ...
Packer S C - - 2000
AIMS: The number of people with both diabetes and coeliac disease is increasing. This study examined the effect of gluten-free, as opposed to gluten-replete carbohydrate containing foods, on post-prandial blood glucose concentrations. METHODS: The glycaemic index of six commonly used gluten-free carbohydrates are reported and compared with published figures for ...
Yusof R M RM Department of Nutrition and Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, - - 2000
Probiotic organism Bifidobacteria was isolated from the faeces of breast-fed infants at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Trypticase phytone peptone yeast extract agar (TPY) was used as a selective media for the isolation. Morphological examination of the isolates indicated that Bifidobacteria was Gram-positive rods in nature, curved with characteristics of V and ...
Urooj A - - 2000
The in vivo glycaemic responses to six cereal-based foods traditionally consumed in South India were evaluated in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and healthy volunteers. All foods contained 50 g carbohydrate and were compared with a 50 g glucose load. Also studied were the in vitro starch digestibility and ...
Perry T - - 2000
AIM: To determine the glycaemic index values to a range of foods that are unique to New Zealand, and those that are grown and/or manufactured locally. METHODS: We determined the glycaemic index of 28 carbohydrate foods in both healthy subjects and those with type 2 diabetes. Venous blood samples were ...
Jenkins D J - - 2000
Several epidemiological studies link consumption of fibre-rich foods to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and CHD. The 'fibre hypothesis' suggested that this was a direct effect of fibre. However, fibre-rich foods contain different types of fibre as well as other potentially beneficial compounds, and many foods naturally high ...
Björck I - - 2000
Accumulating data indicate that a diet characterized by low glycaemic-index (GI) foods not only improves certain metabolic ramifications of insulin resistance, but also reduces insulin resistance per se. Epidemiological data also suggest a protective role against development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. A major disadvantage in this connection ...
Hashim Normah N - - 2000
The objective of this study was to identify the effect of different drying methods on vitamin A activity of formulated weaning food. Weaned foods on vitamin A activity of formulated using treated cowpea flour, locally available rice flour, banana-pumpkin, skim milk powder and sugar in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5. Treated cowpea ...
Donkin A J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To develop and map indices to illustrate variation in the cost and availability of healthy food. DESIGN: Two contiguous wards in London were selected by virtue of their high Carstairs deprivation scores. A 2-km area was defined around a randomly chosen central point. All retail outlets selling food within ...
Noriega E - - 2000
For the purpose of enriching the knowledge on the glycaemic (GI) and insulinaemic (InIn) indices of indigenous foods, 3 single foods and 3 realistic high complex carbohydrate meals (bread=100) were studied in 8 healthy subjects. Observed GI (mean+/-SEM) were: beans (B) 19.3+/-3.4, wheat tortilla (WT) 42.5+/-6.9, corn tortilla (CT) 73.8+/-6.5, ...
Katz D B - - 2000
The tongue is the principal organ that provides sensory information about the quality and quantity of chemicals in food. Other information about the temperature and texture of food is also transduced on the tongue, via extragemmal receptors that form branches of the trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, and vagal nerves. These systems, together ...
- - 2000
Foods with fat replacers have the potential to help people with diabetes reduce total and saturated fat intake and may therefore, in time, reduce the increased prevalence of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. However, for these foods to have any potential benefit to people with diabetes, people with diabetes must ...
Niness K R - - 1999
Inulin is a term applied to a heterogeneous blend of fructose polymers found widely distributed in nature as plant storage carbohydrates. Oligofructose is a subgroup of inulin, consisting of polymers with a degree of polymerization (DP) </=10. Inulin and oligofructose are not digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract; therefore, they ...
Ratsimba V - - 1999
The monosaccharide (D-fructose, D-glucose, anhydrosugars), disaccharide (glucobioses) and pseudodisaccharide (di-D-fructose dianhydrides) content of D-fructose, D-glucose and sucrose caramels has been determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS) of their trimethylsilyl (TMS) or TMS-oxime derivatives. The chromatographic profiles revealed significant differences in the disaccharide/pseudodisaccharide distribution depending on the caramel source: a D-fructose ...
Soh N L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of variety, cooking method and maturity on the GI of potatoes, it was hypothesised that new potatoes may have a relatively lower GI. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Ten healthy volunteers were recruited as subjects through advertising on the campus of ...
Macdonald I A - - 1999
This review considers the acute and chronic effects of different levels of carbohydrate (CHO) intakes. The type of CHO consumed, especially glucose vs fructose, affects the glycaemic, insulinaemic and thermogenic responses. In addition, other aspects of food (type of starch, method of processing or cooking, presence of other nutrients) affects ...
Englyst K N - - 1999
A chemically based classification of dietary carbohydrates that takes into account the likely site, rate, and extent of digestion is presented. The classification divides dietary carbohydrates into sugars, starch fractions, and nonstarch polysaccharides, and groups them into rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG) as to the amounts ...
Ludwig D S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the role of dietary composition in body weight regulation remains unclear. The purpose of this work was to investigate the acute effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) on energy metabolism and voluntary food intake in obese subjects. METHODS: ...
Trout D - - 1999
A weighted mean of the glycemic index (GI) values of the constituent sugars of a non-starchy fruit is known to give a rough estimate of the GI of that fruit. Previously observed GI values (GIob) were, on average, lower than the calculated GI of the sugar mixture (GIsm) for nine ...
Bell S J - - 1999
PURPOSE: People with type 1 diabetes who follow an intensive management program have an increased risk of hypoglycemia, particularly overnight. New strategies for the nutritional management of hypoglycemia are essential. METHODS: The unique properties of foods that affect blood glucose are reviewed, with special attention to a new medical food ...
Burke L M - - 1998
The glycemic index (GI) provides a way to rank foods rich in carbohydrate (CHO) according to the glucose response following their intake. Consumption of low-GI CHO foods may attenuate the insulin-mediated metabolic disturbances associated with CHO intake in the hours prior to exercise, better maintaining CHO availability. However, there is ...
Baschetti R - - 1998
Until a few decades ago, certain 'new-world' populations that kept to traditional dietary habits were virtually free from diabetes; then, after they began eating some foods that are common in Europe, the disease reached epidemic proportions. Europeans, by contrast, have a low rate of diabetes. To account for this paradox, ...
Miertus S - - 1998
Solid binding matrix (SBM) based composite transducers have been used for development of series of multibiosensor systems applicable in various fields. Here we present two hybrid three-channel multibiosensors for simultaneous amperometric operation in food quality control, i.e. glucose/fructose/ethanol multibiosensor, based on glucose oxidase/fructose dehydrogenase/alcohol dehydrogenase surface-modified enzyme electrodes and L-lactate/L-malate/sulfite ...
Rumessen J J - - 1998
Fructans (fructooligosaccharides and inulin) are of increasing interest to clinical nutritionists as functional food additives. The chemically closely related food carbohydrates fructose and sorbitol are implicated in functional bowel disease. Intestinal handling of these carbohydrates is incompletely understood. Intestinal absorption, transit, and fermentation (breath hydrogen and methane, venous acetate, blood ...
Van Wymelbeke V - - 1998
Hunger may be delayed and food intake reduced under metabolic conditions that spare carbohydrate oxidation, especially during oxidation of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) or monounsaturated triacylglycerols. In 12 healthy, adult, male volunteers isolated and deprived of any time cues, we compared the effects of 4 high-carbohydrate breakfasts (1670 kJ) supplemented either ...
Brand-Miller J C - - 1998
For at least 40-50,000 years, plants played an important but supplementary role in the animal-dominated diet of Australian Aboriginal (AA) hunter-gatherers. New knowledge of the nutrient composition and the special physiological effects of their foods provides another perspective in the current debate on the composition of the 'prudent' diet and ...
Gittelsohn J - - 1998
We examined the relationship between usual patterns of food intake, fattiness of food preparation and consumption, and diabetes and obesity status in a Native Canadian reserve in northwestern Ontario. Patterns of intake were estimated using a 34-item food frequency instrument. Scales and scores were developed using factor analysis procedures and ...
Kanan W - - 1998
Glycaemic response to a food is determined by a large number of factors, of which composition is only one. The present study was designed to study the effect of composition and overnight refrigeration on the glycaemic response. The study involved determination of the glycaemic and insulinaemic response of healthy human ...
Gamlin L - - 1997
The majority of double-blind placebo-controlled trials have shown that 30-40% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients can improve substantially by using an elimination diet to identify foods that precipitate symptoms and the avoiding of these foods. Some such patients have discontinued drug treatment and remained well for 12 years or more. ...
Holt S H - - 1997
The aim of this study was to systematically compare postprandial insulin responses to isoenergetic 1000-kJ (240-kcal) portions of several common foods. Correlations with nutrient content were determined. Thirty-eight foods separated into six food categories (fruit, bakery products, snacks, carbohydrate-rich foods, protein-rich foods, and breakfast cereals) were fed to groups of ...
Mann J I - - 1997
A wide range of dietary changes is likely to reduce the risk of macrovascular complications of diabetes. It is critically important to recommend a balance of macronutrients different from that currently consumed in most Western countries. Saturated fatty acids, especially myristic and palmitic acids, and trans fatty acids must be ...
Bornet F R - - 1997
Glycaemic response is not just a function of a compound belonging to the class of simple sugars or to the class of starches, or in other words, the size of the molecule. Glycaemic response to carbohydrates depends on several factors, particularly the chemical nature of the glucids, their origin, their ...
Wahlqvist M L - - 1997
The nutritional prevention of most diabetes may start as early as fetal life with maternal nutrition. Reduced food variety, excessive refining of food and saturated fat, with sedentary lifestyles unmask predispositions to non insulin dependent diabetes and increase the likelihood of complications. Food pattern is important, with preference for small, ...
Sumathi A - - 1997
A blend consisting of 75% malted and debranned wheat flour, toasted flours of 10% green gram, 5% Bengal gram, 5% moth bean and 5% skim milk powder, consumed by seven healthy adult subjects in the form of 'chapati' (unleavened bread), showed higher blood glucose response after 30 min, as compared ...
Seeley R J - - 1997
Although ethanol is a calorically dense substance, little is known about the mechanisms by which those calories are detected, nor how they effect subsequent intake of other calories. In the current study, four doses of ethanol (0, 1, 2, and 3.5 g/kg) were administered to rats prior to 30-min access ...
Walton P - - 1997
It is widely documented that athletes should consume carbohydrates prior to, during and after exercise. Ingestion of carbohydrates at these times will optimise performance and recovery. In spite of this knowledge, there is a paucity of information available to athletes concerning the types of carbohydrate foods to select. Therefore, it ...
Worthington D R - - 1997
Of the physiological subsystems involved in glucose metabolism, all have now been modelled with continuous-time compartmental models except the gut. To address this omission, three progressively more complex models of the conversion of food by the gut into the rate of appearance of glucose in plasma were identified, using two ...
Holt S H - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether postprandial glucose and insulin responses were related to concurrent changes in satiety. DESIGN: Thirty-eight common foods, grouped into six food categories, were tested in total. Each food category was fed to a separate group of subjects. A within-subjects repeated-measures design ...
Ayuo P O - - 1996
Fifteen non-insulin dependent diabetic volunteers, aged 51 +/- 3.9 years, were studied over a two month period to determine their glycaemic responses to various local foods. They were all on chlorpropamide and one subject was removed from analysis due to concurrent use of insulin. They received on separate occasions two ...
- - 1996
Foods with fat replacers have the potential to help people with diabetes reduce total and saturated fat intake and may therefore, in time, reduce the increased prevalence of dyslipidemia in type II diabetes. However, for these foods to have any potential benefit to people with diabetes, people with diabetes must ...
Gittelsohn J - - 1996
This article presents the results of applied ethnographic research aimed at developing a community-based diabetes prevention program in an isolated Ojibway-Cree community in northern Ontario. Using qualitative techniques, the authors describe diabetes in its sociocultural context and underlying belief systems that affect related activity and dietary behaviors. Local concepts of ...
Burke L M - - 1996
We reported previously that intake of carbohydrate foods with a high glycemic index (GI) produced greater glycogen storage and greater postprandial glucose and insulin responses during 24 h of postexercise recovery than did intake of low-GI carbohydrate foods. In the present study we examined the importance of the greater incremental ...
Englyst H N - - 1996
The glycaemic index (GI) is an in vivo measurement based on the glycaemic response to carbohydrate-containing foods, and allows foods to be ranked on the basis of the rate of digestion and absorption of the carbohydrates that they contain. GI values are normalized to a reference amount of available carbohydrate ...
Dark J - - 1996
We tested whether 1) glucose availability is a signal for initiation of torpor in male hamsters and 2) glucoprivation can override the inhibitory effects of androgens on daily torpor. Male hamsters maintained at ambient temperatures of 8-16 degrees C were injected with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), a glucose analogue that interferes with ...
Pollard M A - - 1996
The acidogenic potential of a group of popular cereal-based foods and fruits and total carbohydrate content of salivary expectorants following their consumption were assessed using an indwelling electrode with telemetry and the anthrone method. Paired t tests indicated that sorbitol did not cause the plaque pH to fall as low ...
Pijl H - - 1995
Fifteen bulimic women (BN) and 19 healthy female controls (CO) were studied. The subjects were cross-over treated with either fluoxetine (FXT) or placebo during 4 days. They received, in randomized order, a breakfast containing pure carbohydrate (CHO) or a protein-rich (PROT) breakfast following day 3 and 4 of each treatment ...
Wurtman R J - - 1995
Serotonin-releasing brain neurons are unique in that the amount of neurotransmitter they release is normally controlled by food intake: Carbohydrate consumption--acting via insulin secretion and the "plasma tryptophan ratio"--increases serotonin release; protein intake lacks this effect. This ability of neurons to couple neuronal signaling properties to food consumption is a ...
Foster-Powell K - - 1995
The glycemic index (GI) is a ranking of foods based on their glycemic effect compared with a standard food. It has been used to classify carbohydrate foods for various applications, including diabetes, sports, and appetite research. The purpose of these tables is to bring together all of the published data ...
Holt S H - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to produce a validated satiety index of common foods. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Isoenergetic 1000 kJ (240 kcal) servings of 38 foods separated into six food categories (fruits, bakery products, snack foods, carbohydrate-rich foods, protein-rich foods, breakfast cereals) were fed to groups of 11-13 ...
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