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Results 401 - 450 of 551
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Rumessen J J - - 1998
Fructans (fructooligosaccharides and inulin) are of increasing interest to clinical nutritionists as functional food additives. The chemically closely related food carbohydrates fructose and sorbitol are implicated in functional bowel disease. Intestinal handling of these carbohydrates is incompletely understood. Intestinal absorption, transit, and fermentation (breath hydrogen and methane, venous acetate, blood ...
Van Wymelbeke V - - 1998
Hunger may be delayed and food intake reduced under metabolic conditions that spare carbohydrate oxidation, especially during oxidation of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) or monounsaturated triacylglycerols. In 12 healthy, adult, male volunteers isolated and deprived of any time cues, we compared the effects of 4 high-carbohydrate breakfasts (1670 kJ) supplemented either ...
Brand-Miller J C - - 1998
For at least 40-50,000 years, plants played an important but supplementary role in the animal-dominated diet of Australian Aboriginal (AA) hunter-gatherers. New knowledge of the nutrient composition and the special physiological effects of their foods provides another perspective in the current debate on the composition of the 'prudent' diet and ...
Gittelsohn J - - 1998
We examined the relationship between usual patterns of food intake, fattiness of food preparation and consumption, and diabetes and obesity status in a Native Canadian reserve in northwestern Ontario. Patterns of intake were estimated using a 34-item food frequency instrument. Scales and scores were developed using factor analysis procedures and ...
Kanan W - - 1998
Glycaemic response to a food is determined by a large number of factors, of which composition is only one. The present study was designed to study the effect of composition and overnight refrigeration on the glycaemic response. The study involved determination of the glycaemic and insulinaemic response of healthy human ...
Gamlin L - - 1997
The majority of double-blind placebo-controlled trials have shown that 30-40% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients can improve substantially by using an elimination diet to identify foods that precipitate symptoms and the avoiding of these foods. Some such patients have discontinued drug treatment and remained well for 12 years or more. ...
Holt S H - - 1997
The aim of this study was to systematically compare postprandial insulin responses to isoenergetic 1000-kJ (240-kcal) portions of several common foods. Correlations with nutrient content were determined. Thirty-eight foods separated into six food categories (fruit, bakery products, snacks, carbohydrate-rich foods, protein-rich foods, and breakfast cereals) were fed to groups of ...
Mann J I - - 1997
A wide range of dietary changes is likely to reduce the risk of macrovascular complications of diabetes. It is critically important to recommend a balance of macronutrients different from that currently consumed in most Western countries. Saturated fatty acids, especially myristic and palmitic acids, and trans fatty acids must be ...
Bornet F R - - 1997
Glycaemic response is not just a function of a compound belonging to the class of simple sugars or to the class of starches, or in other words, the size of the molecule. Glycaemic response to carbohydrates depends on several factors, particularly the chemical nature of the glucids, their origin, their ...
Wahlqvist M L - - 1997
The nutritional prevention of most diabetes may start as early as fetal life with maternal nutrition. Reduced food variety, excessive refining of food and saturated fat, with sedentary lifestyles unmask predispositions to non insulin dependent diabetes and increase the likelihood of complications. Food pattern is important, with preference for small, ...
Sumathi A - - 1997
A blend consisting of 75% malted and debranned wheat flour, toasted flours of 10% green gram, 5% Bengal gram, 5% moth bean and 5% skim milk powder, consumed by seven healthy adult subjects in the form of 'chapati' (unleavened bread), showed higher blood glucose response after 30 min, as compared ...
Seeley R J - - 1997
Although ethanol is a calorically dense substance, little is known about the mechanisms by which those calories are detected, nor how they effect subsequent intake of other calories. In the current study, four doses of ethanol (0, 1, 2, and 3.5 g/kg) were administered to rats prior to 30-min access ...
Walton P - - 1997
It is widely documented that athletes should consume carbohydrates prior to, during and after exercise. Ingestion of carbohydrates at these times will optimise performance and recovery. In spite of this knowledge, there is a paucity of information available to athletes concerning the types of carbohydrate foods to select. Therefore, it ...
Worthington D R - - 1997
Of the physiological subsystems involved in glucose metabolism, all have now been modelled with continuous-time compartmental models except the gut. To address this omission, three progressively more complex models of the conversion of food by the gut into the rate of appearance of glucose in plasma were identified, using two ...
Holt S H - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether postprandial glucose and insulin responses were related to concurrent changes in satiety. DESIGN: Thirty-eight common foods, grouped into six food categories, were tested in total. Each food category was fed to a separate group of subjects. A within-subjects repeated-measures design ...
Ayuo P O - - 1996
Fifteen non-insulin dependent diabetic volunteers, aged 51 +/- 3.9 years, were studied over a two month period to determine their glycaemic responses to various local foods. They were all on chlorpropamide and one subject was removed from analysis due to concurrent use of insulin. They received on separate occasions two ...
- - 1996
Foods with fat replacers have the potential to help people with diabetes reduce total and saturated fat intake and may therefore, in time, reduce the increased prevalence of dyslipidemia in type II diabetes. However, for these foods to have any potential benefit to people with diabetes, people with diabetes must ...
Gittelsohn J - - 1996
This article presents the results of applied ethnographic research aimed at developing a community-based diabetes prevention program in an isolated Ojibway-Cree community in northern Ontario. Using qualitative techniques, the authors describe diabetes in its sociocultural context and underlying belief systems that affect related activity and dietary behaviors. Local concepts of ...
Burke L M - - 1996
We reported previously that intake of carbohydrate foods with a high glycemic index (GI) produced greater glycogen storage and greater postprandial glucose and insulin responses during 24 h of postexercise recovery than did intake of low-GI carbohydrate foods. In the present study we examined the importance of the greater incremental ...
Englyst H N - - 1996
The glycaemic index (GI) is an in vivo measurement based on the glycaemic response to carbohydrate-containing foods, and allows foods to be ranked on the basis of the rate of digestion and absorption of the carbohydrates that they contain. GI values are normalized to a reference amount of available carbohydrate ...
Dark J - - 1996
We tested whether 1) glucose availability is a signal for initiation of torpor in male hamsters and 2) glucoprivation can override the inhibitory effects of androgens on daily torpor. Male hamsters maintained at ambient temperatures of 8-16 degrees C were injected with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), a glucose analogue that interferes with ...
Pollard M A - - 1996
The acidogenic potential of a group of popular cereal-based foods and fruits and total carbohydrate content of salivary expectorants following their consumption were assessed using an indwelling electrode with telemetry and the anthrone method. Paired t tests indicated that sorbitol did not cause the plaque pH to fall as low ...
Pijl H - - 1995
Fifteen bulimic women (BN) and 19 healthy female controls (CO) were studied. The subjects were cross-over treated with either fluoxetine (FXT) or placebo during 4 days. They received, in randomized order, a breakfast containing pure carbohydrate (CHO) or a protein-rich (PROT) breakfast following day 3 and 4 of each treatment ...
Wurtman R J - - 1995
Serotonin-releasing brain neurons are unique in that the amount of neurotransmitter they release is normally controlled by food intake: Carbohydrate consumption--acting via insulin secretion and the "plasma tryptophan ratio"--increases serotonin release; protein intake lacks this effect. This ability of neurons to couple neuronal signaling properties to food consumption is a ...
Foster-Powell K - - 1995
The glycemic index (GI) is a ranking of foods based on their glycemic effect compared with a standard food. It has been used to classify carbohydrate foods for various applications, including diabetes, sports, and appetite research. The purpose of these tables is to bring together all of the published data ...
Holt S H - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to produce a validated satiety index of common foods. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Isoenergetic 1000 kJ (240 kcal) servings of 38 foods separated into six food categories (fruits, bakery products, snack foods, carbohydrate-rich foods, protein-rich foods, breakfast cereals) were fed to groups of 11-13 ...
Heijnen M L - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of amylose content on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects by serving fixed amounts of simple starchy foods with a varying but strictly controlled water, fat and guar gum content. DESIGN: A blind, randomised, balanced cross-over study. SETTING: The kitchen of the Nutrition ...
Murphy N J - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency of food intake, body weight, and glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives. DESIGN: Height, weight, and random blood glucose levels were measured and a frequency-of-food-intake questionnaire was obtained. This questionnaire classified persons as consumers of indigenous foods or nonindigenous foods within three food groups. Those with a ...
Asp N G - - 1995
Dietary guidelines encourage a considerable increase in carbohydrate intake compared with the present situation in Western countries. Recent developments regarding nutritional effects of various digestible and undigestible carbohydrates call for more detailed recommendations. The "carbohydrates by difference" concept emerged 150 y ago because of the lack of specific analytical techniques ...
Miller J B - - 1995
The primary aim of the present study was to expand the glycaemic index (GI) database by determining the GI and insulin index values of thirty-nine foods containing sugars in healthy adults. The second aim was to examine the hypothesis that glycaemic and insulin responses to foods which contain added sugar(s) ...
Post D M - - 1995
Post-harvest loss of resources to microbial competitors affects a number of species of animals, and many of them have evolved behaviors that reduce the likelihood of such loss. We previously described the inhibition ofBacillus psychrophilus by dogwood fruits (Cornus drummondii), which can comprise a significant portion of the winter food ...
Granfeldt Y - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the importance of incomplete gelatinization, food structure and presence of viscous dietary fibre for the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to oat and wheat products. DESIGN: Three common breakfast meals were tested, 'raw' rolled oats (muesli), boiled rolled oats (oat porridge) and white wheat bread. Boiled intact oat ...
Holt S H - - 1995
In order to assess the relationship between metabolic responses and satiety, four men and five women ate two pairs of foods containing 50 g of available carbohydrate, ordinary and quick-cooking rice and high- and low-amylose puffed rice. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and satiety ratings were assessed over 2 h ...
Nguyen P - - 1994
Postprandial hyperglycemia and insulin secretion depend on many factors, such as food composition, carbohydrate type and processing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of foods differing in composition in nonobese clinically normal dogs. These dogs were offered in a single meal one of the four foods. ...
Marchini J S - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: We set out to determine the daily glycemic profile of healthy and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) persons and to test the hypothesis that small amounts of sucrose added to NIDDM meals would not change their responses. METHODS: Thirteen NIDDM and six healthy volunteers participated in the study. They initially ...
Shetty P S - - 1994
This study investigated the relative importance of alterations in carbohydrate intake or oxidation as mechanisms for rectifying extreme perturbations of glycogen stores. Six lean men were studied on three occasions in which a stabilization period (days 1 and 2) was immediately followed by whole-body indirect calorimetry (days 3-5). Glycogen stores ...
Navia J M - - 1994
Carbohydrates, together with fats and proteins, provide the necessary energy needs for humans, and constitute, therefore, an integral part of a normal diet. An etiological model for caries that considers local and host factors is presented, highlighting the interaction of bacteria, saliva, minerals, and trace elements with food residues and ...
Björck I - - 1994
Carbohydrate foods differ considerably in their effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Qualitative differences among starchy foods are particularly intriguing because of the dominance of starch in human diets. This paper focuses on food properties in cereal (eg, pasta, bread, Arepas, and porridge) and legume products (eg, red kidney ...
Lenczycki K M - - 1994
The application of a psychology tool, the repertory grid, was explored. A diabetic sample was used to evaluate this new assessment tool. The grid measures attitudes about food and was created by determining elements (food items) and constructs (adjectival phrases) as identified by diabetic participants and dietitians. The grid was ...
Teff K L - - 1993
To investigate the effect of oral sensory stimulation on cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR) and other compounds associated with glucose metabolism, a modified sham feed was used in which male subjects (n = 15) tasted, chewed, and then expectorated the food stimulus. Subjects remained fasted, sham fed, or ingested food ...
Trout D L - - 1993
Associations between published values for glycemic index (GI) and chemical components were examined by regression analysis in 18 starchy foods. Independent variables were the amounts of protein, fat, phytic acid, and total dietary fiber (TDF) present in food portions containing 50 g available carbohydrate. GI was similarly and significantly correlated ...
Dunford M - - 1993
The determination of blood glucose response to various carbohydrate foods may help athletes in their choice of preexercise feedings. This case study documented the postprandial glycemic responses of three male endurance athletes at rest after ingestion of 50-gram portions of three carbohydrate foods: graham crackers, orange juice, and oatmeal. Plasma ...
Christensen L - - 1993
The literature focusing on the use of food as a regulator of a negative mood state is reviewed. This literature reveals that individuals experiencing a negative mood state arising from disorders ranging from tobacco withdrawal to premenstrual symptoms make use of carbohydrate ingestion, especially simple carbohydrates, to provide a temporary ...
Warshaw H S - - 1993
This article reviews the three categories of fat replacers and characteristics of the individual products. Most importantly, this update provides strategies for staying abreast of current and future foods, and stimulates considerations for diabetes educators when advising clients about fat-modified foods. Creative techniques and tools also are presented for educating ...
Thomaides T - - 1993
We investigated the effect of a balanced liquid meal on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (with patients supine and during head-up tilt), and on levels of plasma catecholamines, glucose, and insulin, in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), pure autonomic failure (PAF), and in healthy ...
Miller J B - - 1992
We determined the glycemic (GI) and insulin-index (II) values for 12 rice products, using eight healthy subjects. The products were brown and white versions of three commercial varieties of rice [two varieties with normal amylose content (20%) and the other with 28% amylose], a waxy rice (0-2% amylose), a converted ...
Rumessen J J - - 1992
It is possible to point out subjects consuming considerable quantities of fructose and sorbitol, and the intake seems to be increasing both from added and natural sources. Studies of the absorption of fructose in animals are inconsistent, and the mechanisms of fructose uptake seem to vary in accordance with the ...
Truswell A S - - 1992
From the mid-1970s several groups realized progressively that the same amounts of carbohydrates in different foods produce quite different blood glucose curves after ingestion. The glycaemic index (GI) was introduced by Jenkins to express the rise of blood glucose after eating a food against a standard blood glucose curve after ...
Reddy P S - - 1992
Hyperglycemia was caused in the snail Pila globosa by the injection of the hyperglycemic hormones obtained from fresh water crabs (Oziotelphusa senex senex) and marine tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon). Tissue glycogen and total carbohydrates presented a significant decrease which indicated that the source of hyperglycemia was the tissue carbohydrates. The ...
Alam N H - - 1992
To evaluate the impact of food on the efficacy of oral rehydration solution (ORS), a randomised, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 182 adults with cholera. After initial rehydration with an intravenous polyelectrolyte solution for four hours, the patients were randomised to receive one of four rehydration therapies: glucose based ...
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