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Results 351 - 400 of 587
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Moyad Mark A - - 2004
Low-carbohydrate diets are not only highly popular but also controversial. The theory or general concept behind the low-carbohydrate dietary approach needs to receive more attention to provide more objectivity to this discussion. The theory or concept that actually has some evidence currently lies in the values of the glycemic index ...
Savoca Margaret R - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the food habits of people with type 2 diabetes and to identify those habits related to glycemic control. DESIGN: The purposive sampling plan targeted people (40 to 65 years old) living in two urban communities in the Southeastern United States with type 2 diabetes for >1 year ...
Ritter Robert C - - 2004
Satiation for food comprises the physiological processes that result in the termination of eating. Satiation is evoked by physical and chemical qualities of ingested food, which trigger afferent signals to the brain from multiple sites in the GI tract, including the stomach, the proximal small intestine, the distal small intestine ...
Lako Jimaima - - 2004
Glycemic index (GI) has been widely used in the management of blood sugar levels among diabetes however; in the South Pacific very little information regarding the GI of local foods is made available. The objectives of this research were to determine the glycemic index and the glycemic load of 5 ...
Chau Chi-Fai - - 2004
The pomace of Averrhoa carambola (carambola) was found to possess a high level of insoluble fibre-rich fractions (FRFs) including insoluble dietary fibre, alcohol-insoluble solid, and water-insoluble solid (46.0-58.2 g/100 g of pomace). These FRFs were mainly composed of pectic substances and hemicellulose. The physicochemical properties of these FRFs (e.g., water-holding ...
Wolever Thomas M S - - 2004
To evaluate the suitability for glycaemic index (GI) calculations of using blood sampling schedules and methods of calculating area under the curve (AUC) different from those recommended, the GI values of five foods were determined by recommended methods (capillary blood glucose measured seven times over 2.0 h) in forty-seven normal ...
Berti Cristiana - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recently there has been increasing interest in the production of gluten-free (GF) foods and studies on minor cereals and pseudocereals without celiac activity in order to fulfill the specific needs of people affected by celiac disease. GF bread, pasta, biscuits are usually manufactured using different combinations of thickenings and ...
Hebibovic Mujo - - 2004
This work is considering three significant factors that affect blood glucose level: food intake, hereditary predisposition and stress. Goal of this paper is to observe blood sugar level in human organism as a dynamic MISO (Multi Input, Single Output) system, and to describe it with differential equations and control system ...
Burke Louise M - - 2004
An important goal of the athlete's everyday diet is to provide the muscle with substrates to fuel the training programme that will achieve optimal adaptation for performance enhancements. In reviewing the scientific literature on post-exercise glycogen storage since 1991, the following guidelines for the training diet are proposed. Athletes should ...
Livesey Geoffrey - - 2003
Abstract Polyols are hydrogenated carbohydrates used as sugar replacers. Interest now arises because of their multiple potential health benefits. They are non-cariogenic (sugar-free tooth-friendly), low-glycaemic (potentially helpful in diabetes and cardiovascular disease), low-energy and low-insulinaemic (potentially helpful in obesity), low-digestible (potentially helpful in the colon), osmotic (colon-hydrating, laxative and purifying) ...
Monro John - - 2003
The glycemic index (GI) is a component-referenced index, defined as the effect on blood glucose of glycemic carbohydrate in a food as a percentage of the effect of an equal amount of glucose. GI is not suitable for dietary management of postprandial glycemia because it refers to glycemic carbohydrate, not ...
Warren Janet M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Recent reports have suggested that a low glycemic index (GI) diet may have a role in the management of obesity through its ability to increase the satiety value of food and modulate appetite. To date, no long-term clinical trials have examined the effect of dietary GI on body weight ...
Brand-Miller Jennie - - 2003
We hypothesized that chocolate products elicit higher insulin responses than matched products with alternate flavoring. To test this, we used a within-subject, repeated-measures comparison of six pairs of foods, one flavored with chocolate (cocoa powder) and the other not. Healthy subjects (n = 10, 4 men, 6 women) tested each ...
Liu P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Glycaemic glucose equivalent (GGE) content of a quantity of a food, based on glycaemic index, food composition and food quantity, is the theoretical weight of glucose that would induce a glycaemic response equivalent to that induced by the given amount of food. OBJECTIVES: To test whether GGE content predicts ...
Brand-Miller J C - - 2003
Dietary glycemic load, the mathematical product of the glycemic index (GI) of a food and its carbohydrate content, has been proposed as an indicator of the glucose response and insulin demand induced by a serving of food. To validate this concept in vivo, we tested the hypotheses that 1). portions ...
Trinidad Trinidad P - - 2003
The glycaemic index (GI) of commonly consumed bakery products supplemented with increasing levels of coconut (Cocos nucifera) flour was determined in ten normal and ten diabetic subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood ...
Davail S - - 2003
When overfed at their maximum (intensive overfeeding) or at only 80% (moderate overfeeding) of food intake capacity, Mule ducks developed strong liver steatosis, whereas Pekin ducks showed very marked extrahepatic fattening. During overfeeding, evolution of plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations suggested a very strong increase in the hepatic lipogenesis as ...
Sugiyama M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to examine the feasibility of using white rice as a reference food in the study of glycemic index (GI) and to examine the GI values of both single and mixed meal foods among rice species, processed rice products, beans, and dairy products. DESIGN: Subjects were served ...
Contaldo F - - 2003
The Mediterranean diet is the lucky definition given by Ancel Keys of the food habits of some populations in the Mediterranean area. Dietary styles of this region may widely vary between coasts and inland. The total fat content of diets may vary from less than 30% in the traditional diet ...
Riccardi Gabriele - - 2003
The Mediterranean diet is a healthful eating pattern associated with the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). Its main features are moderate intake of total fat (predominantly monounsaturated fat), low consumption of saturated fat and cholesterol-rich foods, and high intake of starch. Although this type of diet has beneficial effects ...
Beach J Peirce - - 2003
The gustatory response of female Anaphes iole wasps to naturally occurring carbohydrates, a commercial food source, and host (Lygus lineolaris) frass was determined. Wasps responded to all 14 of the sugars at the highest concentration tested (2 M). At this concentration, sucrose, glucose, maltose, melezitose, fructose, and erlose all elicited ...
Greenwood Carol E - - 2003
Chronic intake patterns during the adult years and the acute ingestion of meals or foods influence cognitive performance in seniors. Many chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension, which are risk factors for cognitive impairment and/or dementia, share the same dietary risk factors as those for ...
Nantel Guy - - 2003
Attention to the different types of carbohydrates and their role in health and disease is relatively recent. FAO and WHO jointly published a report on carbohydrates in human nutrition in 1998, with a number of recommendations about increasing carbohydrate intake as a sound approach to the prevention of obesity. The ...
Wolever Thomas M S - - 2003
Classifying the glycemic responses of carbohydrate foods using the glycemic index (GI) requires standardized methodology for valid results. Dietary carbohydrates influence metabolism by at least four mechanisms: nature of the monosaccharides absorbed, amount of carbohydrate consumed, rate of absorption, and colonic fermentation. Reducing glycemic responses by reducing carbohydrate intake increases ...
Anderson G Harvey - - 2003
We examine the relationships between glycemic carbohydrate and its effects on short-term satiety and food intake. Both high- and low-glycemic carbohydrates have an impact on satiety, but their effects have different time courses. High-glycemic carbohydrates are associated with a reduction in appetite and food intake in the short term (e.g., ...
Benton David - - 2003
From a physiologic perspective, the role of glucose in brain functioning is reviewed and the effect of diet-induced changes in blood glucose on mood and cognition are outlined. Many studies have used a glucose drink or a meal composed almost entirely of carbohydrate as an experimental tool. Because pure sources ...
Ball Shauna D - - 2003
BACKGROUND: One in 5 American children is overweight, despite a decrease in total fat consumption. This has sparked an interest in the carbohydrate composition of diets, including the glycemic index (GI). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a low-GI meal replacement (LMR) produced similar metabolic, hormonal, and satiety responses in overweight adolescents ...
Wolever T M S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Practical use of the glycaemic index (GI), as recommended by the FAO/WHO, requires an evaluation of the recommended method. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and sources of variation of the GI values obtained by experienced investigators in different international centres. DESIGN: GI values of four centrally provided ...
Englyst Klaus N - - 2003
Elucidating the role of carbohydrate quality in human nutrition requires a greater understanding of how the physico-chemical characteristics of foods relate to their physiological properties. It was hypothesised that rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG), in vitro measures describing the rate of glucose release from foods, are ...
Björck Inger - - 2003
An increasing body of evidence suggests that a low-glycaemic-index (GI) diet has a therapeutic as well as a preventive potential in relation to the insulin resistance syndrome. The implementation of a low-GI diet, however, will require an extended list of low-GI foods to be available on the market. The tailoring ...
Heacock, Patricia Marie
Strict blood glucose control has been shown to be an effective method for delaying the onset and progression of diabetes related complications. Novel ingredients may be added to carbohydrate containing food products which may attenuate postprandial glycemia. Three studies were conducted, all with nondiabetic adults. The first explored whether a ...
Lieberman Leslie Sue - - 2003
An evolutionary perspective is used to elucidate the etiology of the current epidemic of type 2 diabetes estimated at 151 million people. Our primate legacy, fossil hominid, and hunting-gathering lifestyles selected for adaptive metabolically thrifty genotypes and phenotypes are rendered deleterious through modern lifestyles that increase energy input and reduce ...
Gilbertson Heather R - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The practicality of diets with a low glycemic index (GI) is controversial. Theoretically, low-GI diets may limit food choice and increase dietary fat intake, but there is little objective evidence to support such a theory. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effect of low-GI dietary advice on dietary ...
Moga M M - - 2003
Major risk factors for gallbladder disease include a sedentary lifestyle and a diet rich in refined sugars. In genetically prone individuals, these two factors lead to an abnormal bile composition, altered gut microflora, and hyperinsulinemia, with resulting gallstone formation. As a large percentage of gallbladder patients have continued digestive complaints ...
Holt S - - 2003
Background - Current dietary guidelines recommend the consumption of a diet based on fresh fruit and vegetables and wholegrain cereal products. However, most people prefer refined rather than wholegrain versions of cereal products, which tend to have relatively high glycaemic index (GI) values. There has been recent interest in determining ...
Ribeiro T - - 2003
The impedancemetry method can be used in Microbiology to perform the detection, quantification and even identification of some bacteria. Basic knowledge about this subject can be stated from Ur and Brown (1975), Firstenberg-Eden and Eden (1984), the reviews of Silley and Forsythe (1996), and Wawerla et al. (1999). With Escherichia ...
Sherwin Craig P - - 2002
Theories for the chemical stability of foods cite the role of moisture content or water activity in reactant mobility, though mobility has been variously defined. One theory, based on plasticization by moisture, is limited by a lack of research directly linking the mobility of a matrix to the mobility and ...
Glace Beth - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to document eating strategies employed by runners during a 160-km race, and to identify eating patterns that predispose the runner to disturbed mental or gastrointestinal functioning. We monitored intake in 19 volunteers during the 12 hours pre-race. Intake was determined by interview with runners ...
Rizkalla S W - - 2002
The present paper covers the health benefits of low glycaemic index foods, such as pulses. Nutritional factors potentially play a crucial role in health and disease. A low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet is often recommended as a part of a healthy life-style. Historical works have shown that carbohydrate foods differ in their ...
Madar Zecharia - - 2002
This review evaluates the potential health benefits of three legume sources that rarely appear in Western diets and are often overlooked as functional foods. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and isolated fenugreek fractions have been shown to act as hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic agents in both animal and human studies. The unique ...
Anderson G Harvey - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A primary mechanism by which carbohydrates are thought to regulate satiety and food intake is through their effect on blood glucose. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to describe the effect of defined carbohydrate preloads on food intake and blood glucose and to determine the association between food intake and blood ...
Kaati G - - 2002
Overfeeding and overeating in families are traditions that are often transferred from generation to generation. Irrespective of these family traditions, food availability might lead to overfeeding, in its turn leading to metabolic adaptations. Apart from selection, could these adaptations to the social environment have transgenerational effects? This study will attempt ...
Liu Simin - - 2002
Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia are central features of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). Recent data indicate that increased dietary glycemic load (GL) due to replacing fats with carbohydrates or increasing intake of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates (ie, high glycemic ...
Foster-Powell Kaye - - 2002
Reliable tables of glycemic index (GI) compiled from the scientific literature are instrumental in improving the quality of research examining the relation between GI, glycemic load, and health. The GI has proven to be a more useful nutritional concept than is the chemical classification of carbohydrate (as simple or complex, ...
Jenkins A L - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which beta-glucan reduces the glycemic index (GI) of oat products and whether high levels of beta-glucan impair palatability. DESIGN: The study design was an open-label, randomized cross-over study with six treatment segments. SETTING: Free-living outpatients. SUBJECTS: Sixteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes (10 men, ...
Kaplan Randall J - - 2002
Increased satiety and decreased food intake are reported following the consumption of low glycaemic index (GI) foods, which gradually increase blood glucose. This observation, however, is not uniformly supported and few studies have examined the impact of different GI foods on satiety and intake in the elderly. After an overnight ...
Pi-Sunyer F Xavier - - 2002
It has been suggested that foods with a high glycemic index are detrimental to health and that healthy people should be told to avoid these foods. This paper takes the position that not enough valid scientific data are available to launch a public health campaign to disseminate such a recommendation. ...
Aziz Alfred - - 2002
The hypothesis that peripheral GLP-1 modulates the effect of macronutrients on food intake in rats was tested by administration of its agonist, exendin-4. The effect of exendin-4 on food intake suppression and blood glucose after carbohydrate, fat and protein preloads was measured. Exendin-4 reduced the effect of glucose preloads on ...
Parks E J - - 2002
The process by which dietary carbohydrate is transformed into fat in the human body is termed de novo lipogenesis. New methods for the measurement of this process in humans are available and have been used to investigate the role of the carbohydrate form (fed as a liquid or solid), the ...
Kumar Rajesh - - 2002
By using 4-C-hydroxymethyl-alpha-D-pentofuranose as the sugar core and lipase-catalyzed transformations, a macromer was constructed with exceptional control of substituent placement around the carbohydrate core. The key synthetic transformations performed were as follows: (1) selective lipase-catalyzed acrylation along with prochiral selection of 4-C-hydroxymethyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-pentofuranose (diastereomeric excess up to 93%); (2) the ring-opening ...
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