Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 606
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Henry C Jeya K - - 2007
There is currently an increased global interest in the published glycaemic index (GI) values of foods. The aim of the present work was to supplement a previous study on the glycaemic response of 140 foods available in the UK by studying a further forty-four foods. One hundred and twenty-two healthy ...
Stillman Martin J - - 2007
In the first of this two-part article, we reviewed essential gastrointestinal (GI) data necessary for choosing selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) versus nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as other NSAID-related GI issues. Although GI considerations are critical to appropriate NSAID selection, the worldwide withdrawal of rofecoxib because of adverse ...
Drescher Larissa S - - 2007
The recommendation to eat diverse types of foodstuffs is an internationally accepted recommendation for a healthy diet. The importance of dietary variety is based on several studies that have shown that diverse diets are accompanied by positive health outcomes. However, the definition and measurement of healthy food diversity are often ...
Storey D - - 2007
DESIGN: Study part 1 was executed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study and study part 2 as a longitudinal study. SUBJECTS: Forty-one healthy adult volunteers aged 18-24 years were recruited from the student population of the University of Salford. All subjects enrolled and completed study part 1 and 39 ...
Arsköld Emma - - 2007
Lactobacillus reuteri is known to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have the potential to be used as an alternative biothickener in the food industry. In this study, the effect of several environmental conditions on the growth and EPS production in the L. reuteri strain ATCC 55730 was determined. The expression of ...
Koizumi Makoto - - 2007
The 2'-0-(2-methoxy)ethyl (2'-MOE)-modified gapmer antisense oligonucleotide ISIS113715, which targets protein-tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B) mRNA, increases insulin sensitivity and normalizes plasma glucose levels in diabetic ob/ob and db/db mice. In the present study, the efficacy of the isosequential 2'-O,4'-C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA)-modified oligonucleotide ENA-1 was compared with that of ISIS113715 in ...
Poppitt Sally D - - 2007
There is growing support for the protective role of soluble fibre in type II diabetes. Soluble fibre beta-glucan found in cereal products including oats and barley may be the active component. There is evidence of postprandial blunting of blood glucose and insulin responses to dietary carbohydrates when oat soluble fibre ...
Mäkeläinen H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of oat products with increasing beta-glucan content on the glycemic (GI) and insulin indexes (II) of oat products, and to establish the effect of physical properties of beta-glucan on these physiological responses. DESIGN: Test group (n=10) randomly attended to three glucose tolerance tests and glycemic ...
Backhouse S H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the metabolic responses during 1 h of brisk walking, 3 h after ingesting high glycemic index (HGI) and moderate glycemic index (MGI) breakfasts. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Six females completed three treadmill walking trials (approximately 50% VO2 max), separated by at least ...
Hätönen Katja A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Methodologic choices affect measures of the glycemic index (GI). The effects on GI values of blood sampling site, reference food type, and the number of repeat tests have been insufficiently determined. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of methodologic choices on GI values. Comparisons were made between ...
Burton Pat - - 2006
The role of carbohydrates in health and disease has received a high profile in recent years, in particular the glycaemic index (GI) as a physiological classification of carbohydrate foods. A common carbohydrate source in the UK is white bread, which is considered to have a high GI value and low ...
Olendzki Barbara C BC Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2006
We describe a method of adding the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values to the nutrient database of the 24-hour dietary recall interview (24HR), a widely used dietary assessment. We also calculated daily GI and GL values from the 24HR. Subjects were 641 healthy adults from central Massachusetts ...
Grega, Debra S.
The role of the central nervous system (CNS) in the modulation of heart activity induced by feeding was investigated in the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus . Intact slugs and semi-intact preparations were used to examine the effects of food, non-nutritive bulk, digestive tract distension, and the concentration of hemolymph glucose ...
Bahado-Singh P S - - 2006
Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen commonly eaten carbohydrate-rich foods processed by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), ...
Fletcher Paula C - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) and irritable bowel syndrome are chronic, debilitating gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are no known causes of inflammatory bowel disease and/or irritable bowel syndrome. Both of these GI conditions significantly impair quality of life and the ability to complete activities of daily ...
Yang Yue-Xin YX Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. - - 2006
To determine the GI of some cereals and tubers produced in China in an effort to establish the database of glycemic index (GI) of Chinese food. Food containing 50 g carbohydrate was consumed by 8-12 healthy adults after they have been fasted for 10 h and blood glucose was monitored ...
Fardet Anthony - - 2006
Bread is one of the most widely consumed staple foods worldwide. White-wheat bread, largely consumed in France, is made from highly refined flour, which leads to a low nutrient density. Due to a highly porous structure and gelatinised starch, it is easily broken down during digestion, leading to a rapid ...
Neuhouser Marian L - - 2006
Consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) is hypothesized to contribute to insulin resistance, which is associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. However, dietary assessment of GI and GL is difficult because values are not included in ...
Flight I I CSIRO Human Nutrition, Adelaide, South Australia, - - 2006
A number of reviewers have examined studies investigating the relationship between coronary heart disease and stroke prior to 2000. Since then, several key studies have been published. Five studies have examined the relationship between wholegrain consumption, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular (CVD) disease and found protection for either or ...
Miller Carla K - - 2006
Many consumers prefer convenient, portable, and preportioned snack foods. Foods with a lower glycemic response are associated with reduced risk for chronic disease. The glycemic index and glycemic load of three nationally available snack bars were determined. Ten subjects, with mean age (+/-standard deviation) of 29+/-7 years and mean body ...
Venn Bernard J - - 2006
Glycemic load (GL) is calculated indirectly as glycemic index (GI) times the weight of available carbohydrate. Alternatively, GL may be measured directly using a standard glucose curve. The purpose of this study was to test the agreement between GL values obtained using direct and indirect methods of measurement in 20 ...
Nansel Tonja R - - 2006
To determine the acceptability of lower glycemic index (GI) foods served at diabetes camp. Crossover design of standard and lower GI menus. Three consecutive 5-day diabetes camp sessions. 140 youth, age 7-16, with type 1 or 2 diabetes. A standard camp cycle menu was reformulated to include 2 1/2 days ...
Chiu Chung-Jung - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Several dietary factors have been linked to age-related maculopathy (ARM), the early form of age-related macular degeneration, and there is reason to think that dietary carbohydrate may play a role in the development of ARM. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between dietary ...
Flood Andrew - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A growing interest exists in using glycemic index and glycemic load as potentially important exposures in investigations of risk for a variety of chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We added values for glycemic index and glycemic load to the nutrient database of a commonly used dietary assessment instrument, the Diet History ...
Cavalcante Reginaldo R - - 2006
The aim of this study was to obtain experimental evidence that phlebotomine saliva is actually ingested during the carbohydrate ingestion phase (before and after blood digestion). The ingestion of carbohydrate was simulated as it occurs in the field by offering the insects balls of cotton soaked in sucrose, sucrose crystals ...
Chlup R - - 2006
The glycaemic index (GI) is a measure of the food power to raise plasma glucose (PG) concentration after a meal. For its determination, classical methods register the development of glucose concentration in capillary plasma or whole blood. The aim of this prospective open-label trial was to compare the GI of ...
Aston Louise M LM MRC Collaborative Centre for Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdownson Laboratory, Cambridge, - - 2006
There is growing evidence that the type of carbohydrate consumed is important in relation to metabolic disease risk, and there is currently particular interest in the role of low-glycaemic-index (GI) foods. Observational studies have associated low-GI diets with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and CHD, and improvements in various ...
Henry C J K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the addition of various toppings/fillings on the glycaemic response to baked potato, pasta and toast. DESIGN: Randomised, repeated measures design. SETTING: Oxford, UK. SUBJECTS: Forty normal, healthy subjects (11 males and 29 females) were recruited to the study. Subjects were staff and students from ...
Yu Ji-Hee - - 2006
Candida magnoliae isolated from honeycomb is an industrially important yeast with high erythritol-producing ability. Erythritol has been used as functional sugar substitute for various foods. In order to analyze the physiological properties of C. magnoliae, a study on sugar utilization pattern was carried out. The fermentation kinetics of glucose and ...
Wolever Thomas M S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Glycemic load (GL) is used to quantify the glycemic impact of high-carbohydrate (CHO) foods, but cannot be used for low-CHO foods. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of equivalent-glycemic-load (EGL), a measure of the glycemic impact of low-CHO foods defined as the amount of CHO from white-bread (WB) with the ...
Wismann Jennifer - - 2006
Prior to endurance competition, many endurance athletes participate in a carbohydrate loading regimen in order to help delay the onset of fatigue. The "classic" regimen generally includes an intense glycogen depleting training period of approximately two days followed by a glycogen loading period for 3-4 days, ingesting approximately 60-70% of ...
Musick Tiffany - - 2006
The majority of our diet consists of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates may be glycemic, which can be broken down and turned into simple glucose molecules quickly, or non-glycemic, which are not turned into sugar until they reach the large intestine. The glycemic index tells us how quickly the food we eat is ...
Blair Robert M - - 2006
Foods with a low glycemic index (GI) may provide a variety of health benefits. The objective of the present study was to measure the GI and insulin index (II) of select soy foods. The study was conducted in two parts with low-carbohydrate products being tested separately. In Experiment 1, subjects ...
Johnston Carol S - - 2005
Mealtime glycemic load is associated with risk for chronic disease. This study examined whether complementary foods (vinegar and peanut products) could lower postprandial glycemia without altering mealtime glycemic load. Eleven healthy subjects consumed two test meals (bagel and juice, glycemic load=81; or chicken and rice, glycemic load=48) under three conditions ...
Henry C Jeya K - - 2005
The objective of this paper is to provide glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values for a variety of foods that are commercially available in the UK and to compare these with previously published values. Fasted subjects were given isoglucidic (50 or 25 g carbohydrate) servings of a glucose ...
Garsetti Marcella - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Among the various classes of processed starchy foods, wheat-based cereal products exhibit a wide range in glycemic and insulinemic responses. Understanding starch behavior during cooking and processing may help identify strategies that lower postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the in vivo glycemic index (GI)/insulinemic ...
Sharkey Joseph R - - 2005
PURPOSE: Healthful eating is important for optimal diabetes self-care. However, the level of food sufficiency may influence the degree of adherence to dietary self-care behaviors through the affordability of nutritionally appropriate food. This study examines whether homebound older adults with diabetes were at greater risk for heightened food insufficiency over ...
Henry C Jeya K - - 2005
The glycaemic response to eight potato varieties commercially available in Great Britain was compared against a glucose standard in a non-blind, randomised, repeated measure, crossover design trial. Seventeen healthy subjects (three males, fourteen females), mean age 32 (sd 13) years and mean BMI 22.3 (sd 3.6) kg/m2, were recruited to ...
Bennett Nicole - - 2006
This study compared the effects of a moderate carbohydrate-high fiber (MC-HF) food and a low carbohydrate-low fiber (LC-LF) food on glycemic control in cats with diabetes mellitus. Sixty-three diabetic cats (48 male castrated, 15 female spayed) were randomly assigned to be fed either a canned MC-HF (n = 32) food ...
Leeman M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of cold storage and vinegar addition on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a potato meal in healthy subjects. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: A total of 13 healthy subjects volunteered for the study, and the tests were performed at Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden. ...
Buyken Anette E - - 2005
Despite intense discussion of the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) concepts, data on the GI or GL levels in the diet of children are scarce. The present analysis determined trends in the levels of GI or GL of healthy children from 1990 to 2002 and examined the contribution ...
Agatston Arthur S - - 2005
The key to healthy eating is choosing "good fats"--foods high in omega-3 fatty acids and unsaturated fats, and "good carbohydrates"--foods high in fiber and having a low glycemic index. The healthiest diet is the Mediterranean type, consisting of lean meats, fish, nuts, vegetables, whole fruits, and whole grains.
Schulz Mandy - - 2005
The role of dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) in disease aetiology is of increasing interest. However, nutritional factors related to dietary GI and GL are not well understood from a population perspective. We aimed to investigate the relation ship between GI and GL and dietary intake at ...
Alfenas Rita C G - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: High glycemic index (GI)/load (GL) diets reportedly enhance appetite and promote positive energy balance. Support for this hypothesis stems largely from acute feeding trials and longer-term studies lacking control over the macronutrient composition and palatability of test foods. This study evaluated the effects of consuming high- and low-GI/GL meals, ...
Brand-Miller Jennie C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Growth in normal and malignant tissues has been linked to hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). We hypothesized that IGF and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) responses may be acutely affected by differences in the glycemic index (GI) of foods. OBJECTIVE: We compared the postprandial responses of IGFs and IGFBP to ...
Murakami Kentaro - - 2005
We systematically reviewed cohort studies on the effect of nutrient and food intake (except for alcohol) on the incidence of type 2 diabetes, which had been published in English as of May 2004. Using the MEDLINE (PubMed) database as well as reference lists of searched papers, 15 individual cohort studies ...
Englyst Klaus N - - 2005
There is consensus that carbohydrate foods, in the form of fruit, vegetables and whole-grain products, are beneficial to health. However, there are strong indications that highly processed, fibre-depleted, and consequently rapidly digestible, energy-dense carbohydrate food products can lead to over-consumption and obesity-related diseases. Greater attention needs to be given to ...
Sandu Ciprian - - 2005
Xenopus oocyte coexpression experiments revealed the capacity of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase isoform 3 (SGK3) to up-regulate a variety of transport systems including the sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1. The present study explored the functional significance of SGK3-dependent regulation of intestinal transport. To this end, experiments were performed in gene ...
Brouns F - - 2005
The glycaemic index (GI) concept was originally introduced to classify different sources of carbohydrate (CHO)-rich foods, usually having an energy content of >80 % from CHO, to their effect on post-meal glycaemia. It was assumed to apply to foods that primarily deliver available CHO, causing hyperglycaemia. Low-GI foods were classified ...
Pennock Tina - - 2005
Dietary management is an important part of the care of people with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. This article examines the latest thinking on diet, including use of the plate model, based on recommended percentages of foods from the five food groups, and dispels some common myths about ...
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