Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 568
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Henry C J K - - 2008
The aim of this study was to ascertain whether international glycaemic index (GI) values, predominantly developed using peoples living in Europe, North America or Australia, are applicable to Asian Indians resident in their own country. Thirty-four Caucasian subjects were recruited in Oxford, UK and thirteen Asian Indian subjects in Chennai, ...
Haltia Lauri T - - 2007
Dopamine is known to regulate food intake by modulating food reward via the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of high energy input (i.v. glucose) on striatal and thalamic dopamine release in overweight and lean individuals. We hypothesized that glucose would ...
Ames Jennifer M - - 2007
In vivo, advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are linked to various diseases, particularly those associated with diabetes. AGEs are also formed when many foods are thermally processed. The extent to which dietary AGEs are absorbed by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and their possible role in the onset and promotion of disease ...
Kitayama Kazuko - - 2007
Keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycans are among the most abundant carbohydrate components of the cornea and are suggested to play an important role in maintaining corneal extracellular matrix structure. Keratan sulfate carbohydrate chains consist of repeating N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides with sulfation on the 6-O positions of N-acetylglucosamine and galactose. Despite its importance for ...
Shobana Shanmugam - - 2007
Food formulations suitable as dietary supplements to diabetic subjects based on wheat, decorticated finger millet, popped (aralu) and expanded (puri) rice each blended separately with legumes, non-fat dry milk, vegetable oils, spices and a few hypoglycemic ingredients were formulated. The formulations contained 13.0-18.3% protein, 11.3-11.8% fat, 59.9-67.5% starch and 13.2-18.0% ...
Williams Livy L - - 2007
The success of biological control is partly mediated by the longevity and reproductive success of beneficial insects. Availability of nectar and honeydew can improve the nutrition of parasitic insects, and thereby increase their longevity and realized fecundity. The egg parasitoid, Anaphes iole, showed strong gustatory perception of trehalulose, a carbohydrate ...
Duncan Mitch J - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Current methods of assessing routes taken during active transport rely on subjective recall of trip length and barriers encountered enroute or the utilization of objective measures (Geographic Information Systems -[GIS]) that may not represent actual travel patterns. This study examined the utility of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to measure ...
Bornet Francis R J - - 2007
Should future nutritional recommendations for the general population take into account the notion of glycaemic index (GI)? This question is all the more legitimate as the glycaemic response to foods seems to be a factor that affects satiety and could therefore affect food intake. The aim of this review was ...
Henry C Jeya K - - 2007
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term intervention of low-glycaemic-index (GI) v. high-GI breakfasts on energy and macronutrient intakes in children aged 8-11 years. Preadolescent children were assigned to one of two groups in a random cross-over design. Each group was given low-GI and ...
Aston L M - - 2008
To determine the glycaemic index (GI) of various staple carbohydrate-rich foods in the UK diet, and to consider the factors influencing the GI of foods. Subjects were served with 25 or 50 g portions of glucose on three occasions, followed by a selection of test foods providing an equal amount ...
Burton P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of freezing and toasting on the glycaemic response of white bread. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Ten healthy subjects (three male, seven female), aged 22-59 years, recruited from Oxford Brookes University and the local community. A homemade white bread and a commercial white bread were administered following four different ...
Lacy Brian E BE Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA. - - 2007
In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract ...
Henry C Jeya K - - 2007
There is currently an increased global interest in the published glycaemic index (GI) values of foods. The aim of the present work was to supplement a previous study on the glycaemic response of 140 foods available in the UK by studying a further forty-four foods. One hundred and twenty-two healthy ...
Stillman Martin J - - 2007
In the first of this two-part article, we reviewed essential gastrointestinal (GI) data necessary for choosing selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) versus nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as other NSAID-related GI issues. Although GI considerations are critical to appropriate NSAID selection, the worldwide withdrawal of rofecoxib because of adverse ...
Drescher Larissa S - - 2007
The recommendation to eat diverse types of foodstuffs is an internationally accepted recommendation for a healthy diet. The importance of dietary variety is based on several studies that have shown that diverse diets are accompanied by positive health outcomes. However, the definition and measurement of healthy food diversity are often ...
Storey D - - 2007
DESIGN: Study part 1 was executed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study and study part 2 as a longitudinal study. SUBJECTS: Forty-one healthy adult volunteers aged 18-24 years were recruited from the student population of the University of Salford. All subjects enrolled and completed study part 1 and 39 ...
Arsköld Emma - - 2007
Lactobacillus reuteri is known to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have the potential to be used as an alternative biothickener in the food industry. In this study, the effect of several environmental conditions on the growth and EPS production in the L. reuteri strain ATCC 55730 was determined. The expression of ...
Koizumi Makoto - - 2007
The 2'-0-(2-methoxy)ethyl (2'-MOE)-modified gapmer antisense oligonucleotide ISIS113715, which targets protein-tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B) mRNA, increases insulin sensitivity and normalizes plasma glucose levels in diabetic ob/ob and db/db mice. In the present study, the efficacy of the isosequential 2'-O,4'-C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA)-modified oligonucleotide ENA-1 was compared with that of ISIS113715 in ...
Poppitt Sally D - - 2007
There is growing support for the protective role of soluble fibre in type II diabetes. Soluble fibre beta-glucan found in cereal products including oats and barley may be the active component. There is evidence of postprandial blunting of blood glucose and insulin responses to dietary carbohydrates when oat soluble fibre ...
Mäkeläinen H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of oat products with increasing beta-glucan content on the glycemic (GI) and insulin indexes (II) of oat products, and to establish the effect of physical properties of beta-glucan on these physiological responses. DESIGN: Test group (n=10) randomly attended to three glucose tolerance tests and glycemic ...
Backhouse S H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the metabolic responses during 1 h of brisk walking, 3 h after ingesting high glycemic index (HGI) and moderate glycemic index (MGI) breakfasts. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Six females completed three treadmill walking trials (approximately 50% VO2 max), separated by at least ...
Hätönen Katja A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Methodologic choices affect measures of the glycemic index (GI). The effects on GI values of blood sampling site, reference food type, and the number of repeat tests have been insufficiently determined. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of methodologic choices on GI values. Comparisons were made between ...
Burton Pat - - 2006
The role of carbohydrates in health and disease has received a high profile in recent years, in particular the glycaemic index (GI) as a physiological classification of carbohydrate foods. A common carbohydrate source in the UK is white bread, which is considered to have a high GI value and low ...
Olendzki Barbara C BC Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2006
We describe a method of adding the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values to the nutrient database of the 24-hour dietary recall interview (24HR), a widely used dietary assessment. We also calculated daily GI and GL values from the 24HR. Subjects were 641 healthy adults from central Massachusetts ...
Grega, Debra S.
The role of the central nervous system (CNS) in the modulation of heart activity induced by feeding was investigated in the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus . Intact slugs and semi-intact preparations were used to examine the effects of food, non-nutritive bulk, digestive tract distension, and the concentration of hemolymph glucose ...
Bahado-Singh P S - - 2006
Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen commonly eaten carbohydrate-rich foods processed by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), ...
Fletcher Paula C - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) and irritable bowel syndrome are chronic, debilitating gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are no known causes of inflammatory bowel disease and/or irritable bowel syndrome. Both of these GI conditions significantly impair quality of life and the ability to complete activities of daily ...
Yang Yue-Xin YX Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. - - 2006
To determine the GI of some cereals and tubers produced in China in an effort to establish the database of glycemic index (GI) of Chinese food. Food containing 50 g carbohydrate was consumed by 8-12 healthy adults after they have been fasted for 10 h and blood glucose was monitored ...
Fardet Anthony - - 2006
Bread is one of the most widely consumed staple foods worldwide. White-wheat bread, largely consumed in France, is made from highly refined flour, which leads to a low nutrient density. Due to a highly porous structure and gelatinised starch, it is easily broken down during digestion, leading to a rapid ...
Neuhouser Marian L - - 2006
Consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) is hypothesized to contribute to insulin resistance, which is associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. However, dietary assessment of GI and GL is difficult because values are not included in ...
Flight I I CSIRO Human Nutrition, Adelaide, South Australia, - - 2006
A number of reviewers have examined studies investigating the relationship between coronary heart disease and stroke prior to 2000. Since then, several key studies have been published. Five studies have examined the relationship between wholegrain consumption, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular (CVD) disease and found protection for either or ...
Miller Carla K - - 2006
Many consumers prefer convenient, portable, and preportioned snack foods. Foods with a lower glycemic response are associated with reduced risk for chronic disease. The glycemic index and glycemic load of three nationally available snack bars were determined. Ten subjects, with mean age (+/-standard deviation) of 29+/-7 years and mean body ...
Venn Bernard J - - 2006
Glycemic load (GL) is calculated indirectly as glycemic index (GI) times the weight of available carbohydrate. Alternatively, GL may be measured directly using a standard glucose curve. The purpose of this study was to test the agreement between GL values obtained using direct and indirect methods of measurement in 20 ...
Nansel Tonja R - - 2006
To determine the acceptability of lower glycemic index (GI) foods served at diabetes camp. Crossover design of standard and lower GI menus. Three consecutive 5-day diabetes camp sessions. 140 youth, age 7-16, with type 1 or 2 diabetes. A standard camp cycle menu was reformulated to include 2 1/2 days ...
Chiu Chung-Jung - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Several dietary factors have been linked to age-related maculopathy (ARM), the early form of age-related macular degeneration, and there is reason to think that dietary carbohydrate may play a role in the development of ARM. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between dietary ...
Flood Andrew - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A growing interest exists in using glycemic index and glycemic load as potentially important exposures in investigations of risk for a variety of chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We added values for glycemic index and glycemic load to the nutrient database of a commonly used dietary assessment instrument, the Diet History ...
Cavalcante Reginaldo R - - 2006
The aim of this study was to obtain experimental evidence that phlebotomine saliva is actually ingested during the carbohydrate ingestion phase (before and after blood digestion). The ingestion of carbohydrate was simulated as it occurs in the field by offering the insects balls of cotton soaked in sucrose, sucrose crystals ...
Chlup R - - 2006
The glycaemic index (GI) is a measure of the food power to raise plasma glucose (PG) concentration after a meal. For its determination, classical methods register the development of glucose concentration in capillary plasma or whole blood. The aim of this prospective open-label trial was to compare the GI of ...
Aston Louise M LM MRC Collaborative Centre for Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdownson Laboratory, Cambridge, - - 2006
There is growing evidence that the type of carbohydrate consumed is important in relation to metabolic disease risk, and there is currently particular interest in the role of low-glycaemic-index (GI) foods. Observational studies have associated low-GI diets with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and CHD, and improvements in various ...
Henry C J K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the addition of various toppings/fillings on the glycaemic response to baked potato, pasta and toast. DESIGN: Randomised, repeated measures design. SETTING: Oxford, UK. SUBJECTS: Forty normal, healthy subjects (11 males and 29 females) were recruited to the study. Subjects were staff and students from ...
Yu Ji-Hee - - 2006
Candida magnoliae isolated from honeycomb is an industrially important yeast with high erythritol-producing ability. Erythritol has been used as functional sugar substitute for various foods. In order to analyze the physiological properties of C. magnoliae, a study on sugar utilization pattern was carried out. The fermentation kinetics of glucose and ...
Wolever Thomas M S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Glycemic load (GL) is used to quantify the glycemic impact of high-carbohydrate (CHO) foods, but cannot be used for low-CHO foods. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of equivalent-glycemic-load (EGL), a measure of the glycemic impact of low-CHO foods defined as the amount of CHO from white-bread (WB) with the ...
Wismann Jennifer - - 2006
Prior to endurance competition, many endurance athletes participate in a carbohydrate loading regimen in order to help delay the onset of fatigue. The "classic" regimen generally includes an intense glycogen depleting training period of approximately two days followed by a glycogen loading period for 3-4 days, ingesting approximately 60-70% of ...
Musick Tiffany - - 2006
The majority of our diet consists of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates may be glycemic, which can be broken down and turned into simple glucose molecules quickly, or non-glycemic, which are not turned into sugar until they reach the large intestine. The glycemic index tells us how quickly the food we eat is ...
Blair Robert M - - 2006
Foods with a low glycemic index (GI) may provide a variety of health benefits. The objective of the present study was to measure the GI and insulin index (II) of select soy foods. The study was conducted in two parts with low-carbohydrate products being tested separately. In Experiment 1, subjects ...
Johnston Carol S - - 2005
Mealtime glycemic load is associated with risk for chronic disease. This study examined whether complementary foods (vinegar and peanut products) could lower postprandial glycemia without altering mealtime glycemic load. Eleven healthy subjects consumed two test meals (bagel and juice, glycemic load=81; or chicken and rice, glycemic load=48) under three conditions ...
Henry C Jeya K - - 2005
The objective of this paper is to provide glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values for a variety of foods that are commercially available in the UK and to compare these with previously published values. Fasted subjects were given isoglucidic (50 or 25 g carbohydrate) servings of a glucose ...
Garsetti Marcella - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Among the various classes of processed starchy foods, wheat-based cereal products exhibit a wide range in glycemic and insulinemic responses. Understanding starch behavior during cooking and processing may help identify strategies that lower postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the in vivo glycemic index (GI)/insulinemic ...
Sharkey Joseph R - - 2005
PURPOSE: Healthful eating is important for optimal diabetes self-care. However, the level of food sufficiency may influence the degree of adherence to dietary self-care behaviors through the affordability of nutritionally appropriate food. This study examines whether homebound older adults with diabetes were at greater risk for heightened food insufficiency over ...
Henry C Jeya K - - 2005
The glycaemic response to eight potato varieties commercially available in Great Britain was compared against a glucose standard in a non-blind, randomised, repeated measure, crossover design trial. Seventeen healthy subjects (three males, fourteen females), mean age 32 (sd 13) years and mean BMI 22.3 (sd 3.6) kg/m2, were recruited to ...
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