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Results 201 - 250 of 550
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Allen Lindsay H - - 2008
This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from a conference on the health effects of nut consumption and identifies priority areas for future research. Individuals with higher intakes of nuts generally have higher intakes of many beneficial dietary constituents. More information is needed on nut composition, the bioavailability of nutrients, ...
Cahansky Alejandra V - - 2008
The freshwater crab Aegla platensis was used as a model to induce ovarian growth by adding different neuroregulators to a pellet food formulation. Added compounds were the dopaminergic inhibitor spiperone or the enkephalinergic inhibitor naloxone, both of them at a dose of 10(-8) mol/animal. Animals were fed on the enriched ...
Thornley Simon - - 2008
High body mass index (BMI) is an important cause of a range of diseases and is estimated to be the seventh leading cause of death globally. In this paper we discuss evidence that food consumption shows similarities to features of other addictive behaviours, such as automaticity and loss of control. ...
Freeland Kristin R - - 2009
The aim of this research was to describe the effect of equal weights of insoluble fibre (wheat bran) and glycaemic carbohydrate (glucose) on appetite and food intake over 1 and 2h in healthy men. In a crossover design, high-fibre (F; 41 g insoluble fibre) cereal, low-fibre (W; 1g fibre) cereal, ...
Wallace Alison J - - 2008
Glycemic glucose equivalent (GGE) is a measure of the blood glucose response to a defined portion of food. Their calculation requires the measurement of a standard glucose-response curve, with beverages containing 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 75 g of glucose measured twice each. This study was designed to determine the ...
Sánchez Francisco - - 2008
Food resources are complementary for a forager if their contribution to fitness is higher when consumed together than when consumed independently, e.g. ingesting one may reduce the toxic effects of another. The concentration of potentially toxic ethanol, [EtOH], in fleshy fruit increases during ripening and affects food choices by Egyptian ...
Lassen Kristoffer - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to investigate whether a routine of allowing normal food at will increases morbidity after major upper gastrointestinal (GI) surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Nil-by-mouth with enteral tube feeding is widely practiced for several days after major upper GI surgery. After other abdominal operations, normal ...
Saheki T - - 2008
Citrin is the liver-type aspartate-glutamate carrier that resides within the inner mitochondrial membrane. Citrin deficiency (due to homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene SLC25A13) causes both adult-onset type II citrullinaemia (CTLN2) and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD). Clinically, CTLN2 is characterized by hyperammonaemia and citrullinaemia, whereas NICCD has a ...
Marangoni Franca - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Low glycemic index (GI) foods are associated with improved prevention and control of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (e.g. diabetes and myocardial infarction), even if the impact of their consumption within mixed meals is difficult to predict. Since the availability of wheat based products maintaining taste and texture ...
Eny Karen M - - 2008
Glucose sensing in the brain has been proposed to be involved in regulating food intake, but the mechanism is not known. Glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2)-null mice fail to control their food intake in response to glucose, suggesting a potential role for this transporter as a glucose sensor in the ...
Spring Bonnie - - 2008
The long-rejected construct of food addiction is undergoing re-examination. To evaluate whether a novel carbohydrate food shows abuse potential for rigorously defined carbohydrate cravers, as evidenced by selective self-administration and mood enhancement during double-blind discrimination testing. Discrete trials choice testing was performed with 61 overweight (BMI m = 27.64, SD ...
Moore Latetia V - - 2008
Measuring features of the local food environment has been a major challenge in studying the effect of the environment on diet. This study examined associations between alternate ways of characterizing the local food environment by comparing Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived densities of various types of stores to perception-based measures of ...
Schmid S M - - 2008
AIMS: Hypoglycaemia during wakefulness increases hunger and food intake. Patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk of recurrent hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Given the background of frequent hypoglycaemic episodes during night-time sleep in diabetic patients, we investigated morning food intake after nocturnal hypoglycaemia. METHODS: We tested 16 ...
Williams Sheila M - - 2008
The usefulness of the glycaemic index (GI) of a food for practical advice for individuals with diabetes or the general population depends on its reliability, as estimated by intra-class coefficient (ICC), a measure having values between 0 and 1, with values closer to 1 indicating better reliability. We aimed to ...
Imran Khan
For preparation of diet for diabetics, glycemic indicies and glycemic loads of local pulses namely chickpea, chana dal, kidney bean, mash bean, mung bean and peas were determined. Forty two male students of Agricultural University were recruited and were divided into six groups, with seven students in each group. Glucose ...
Lee, Ya Ping
[Truncated abstract] Obesity is now a major public health problem worldwide. More than half the Australian population is now overweight. This is an important public health concern primarily because of the impact of overweight and obesity on risk of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Many strategies have been proposed to ...
Mitchell Helen L - - 2008
The glycemic concept is already being used as a means of differentiating products in the food industry. The aim of this summary is to show how the glycemic concept is being used by the food manufacturing industry, how it is perceived and understood by consumers, and how different countries rate ...
Riccardi Gabriele - - 2008
The choice of carbohydrate-rich foods in the habitual diet should take into account not only their chemical composition but also their ability to influence postprandial glycemia (glycemic index). Fiber-rich foods generally have a low glycemic index (GI), although not all foods with a low GI necessarily have high fiber content. ...
Martins Rui C - - 2008
The main purpose of this study was the characterisation of 'Serra da Lousã' heather honey by using novel statistical methodology, relevant principal component analysis, in order to assess the correlations between production year, locality and composition. Herein, we also report its chemical composition in terms of sugars, glycerol and ethanol, ...
Livesey Geoffrey - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Reduction of dietary glycemic response has been proposed as a means of reducing the risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Its role in health maintenance and management, alongside unavailable carbohydrate (eg, fiber), is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the evidence relating the glycemic impact of foods ...
Josse Andrea R - - 2008
The metabolic syndrome has attracted interest because of its relevance to major contemporary chronic diseases associated with inactive lifestyles and the abundance of food, both of which have resulted in a way of life which challenges our genetic makeup. Changing the fuel mix by the introduction of more monounsaturated and ...
Wolever Thomas M S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Many laboratories offer glycemic index (GI) services. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the performance of the method used to measure GI. DESIGN: The GI of cheese-puffs and fruit-leather (centrally provided) was measured in 28 laboratories (n=311 subjects) by using the FAO/WHO method. The laboratories reported the results of their calculations and ...
Robert S Daniel - - 2008
The objective of the present study was to measure the glycemic index of durian, papaya, pineapple and water-melon grown in Malaysia. Ten (10) healthy volunteers (5 females, 5 males; body mass index 21.18+/-1.7 kg/m2) consumed 50 g of available carbohydrate portions of glucose (reference food) and four test foods (durian, ...
Monro John A - - 2008
Glycemic impact, defined as "the weight of glucose that would induce a glycemic response equivalent to that induced by a given amount of food" (American Association of Cereal Chemists Glycemic Carbohydrate Definition Committee, 2007), expresses relative glycemic potential in grams of glycemic glucose equivalents (GGEs) per specified amount of food. ...
Chlup Rudolf - - 2008
The glycemic index (GI) is a measure of the ability of a food to raise glucose levels after it is eaten. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been shown to give identical values of GI when compared to traditional methods. However, there has been no standardized protocol for measuring GI that ...
Venn B J - - 2007
Glycemic index (GI) describes the blood glucose response after consumption of a carbohydrate containing test food relative to a carbohydrate containing reference food, typically glucose or white bread. GI was originally designed for people with diabetes as a guide to food selection, advice being given to select foods with a ...
Li Peng - - 2007
Supplementation of prebiotic compounds, including short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) has been shown to confer benefits on nutrient utilization, growth, and disease resistance of various animal species through improved gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota. However, potential uses of prebiotics for shrimp have not been defined. A 6-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating ...
Nigg H N - - 2007
We were interested in determining the feeding response of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), to various sugar concentrations to develop an improved bait for adults. We compared the consumption of 0.01-1.00 M concentrations of glucose, fructose, raffinose, and sucrose in no-choice tests for 24-h- and 6-d-old ...
Mann J - - 2007
The nature of carbohydrate is of considerable importance when recommending diets intended to reduce the risk of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease and in the treatment of patients who already have established diseases. Intact fruits, vegetables, legumes and wholegrains are the most appropriate sources of carbohydrate. Most are rich ...
Tan Jennifer - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Although dietary carbohydrates are thought to play a role in cataractogenesis, few epidemiologic studies have examined links between carbohydrate nutrition and cataract. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total carbohydrate intake, and 10-y incident nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataract. DESIGN: Of ...
Barclay Alan Winston - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to rank Australians according to their intake of total carbohydrate, sugar, starch, fibre, glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample from a population cohort. SETTING: Two postcode areas west of Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS: From 1992 to 1994, ...
Gallagher T K - - 2007
The onset of obesity occurs as a result of an imbalance between nutrient consumption/absorption and energy expenditure. Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a critical role in the rate of consumption of foods, digestion, and absorption of nutrients. Various segments of the GI tract coordinate in a complex yet precise way, to ...
Henry C J K - - 2008
The aim of this study was to ascertain whether international glycaemic index (GI) values, predominantly developed using peoples living in Europe, North America or Australia, are applicable to Asian Indians resident in their own country. Thirty-four Caucasian subjects were recruited in Oxford, UK and thirteen Asian Indian subjects in Chennai, ...
Haltia Lauri T - - 2007
Dopamine is known to regulate food intake by modulating food reward via the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of high energy input (i.v. glucose) on striatal and thalamic dopamine release in overweight and lean individuals. We hypothesized that glucose would ...
Ames Jennifer M - - 2007
In vivo, advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are linked to various diseases, particularly those associated with diabetes. AGEs are also formed when many foods are thermally processed. The extent to which dietary AGEs are absorbed by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and their possible role in the onset and promotion of disease ...
Kitayama Kazuko - - 2007
Keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycans are among the most abundant carbohydrate components of the cornea and are suggested to play an important role in maintaining corneal extracellular matrix structure. Keratan sulfate carbohydrate chains consist of repeating N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides with sulfation on the 6-O positions of N-acetylglucosamine and galactose. Despite its importance for ...
Shobana Shanmugam - - 2007
Food formulations suitable as dietary supplements to diabetic subjects based on wheat, decorticated finger millet, popped (aralu) and expanded (puri) rice each blended separately with legumes, non-fat dry milk, vegetable oils, spices and a few hypoglycemic ingredients were formulated. The formulations contained 13.0-18.3% protein, 11.3-11.8% fat, 59.9-67.5% starch and 13.2-18.0% ...
Williams Livy L - - 2007
The success of biological control is partly mediated by the longevity and reproductive success of beneficial insects. Availability of nectar and honeydew can improve the nutrition of parasitic insects, and thereby increase their longevity and realized fecundity. The egg parasitoid, Anaphes iole, showed strong gustatory perception of trehalulose, a carbohydrate ...
Duncan Mitch J - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Current methods of assessing routes taken during active transport rely on subjective recall of trip length and barriers encountered enroute or the utilization of objective measures (Geographic Information Systems -[GIS]) that may not represent actual travel patterns. This study examined the utility of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to measure ...
Bornet Francis R J - - 2007
Should future nutritional recommendations for the general population take into account the notion of glycaemic index (GI)? This question is all the more legitimate as the glycaemic response to foods seems to be a factor that affects satiety and could therefore affect food intake. The aim of this review was ...
Henry C Jeya K - - 2007
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term intervention of low-glycaemic-index (GI) v. high-GI breakfasts on energy and macronutrient intakes in children aged 8-11 years. Preadolescent children were assigned to one of two groups in a random cross-over design. Each group was given low-GI and ...
Aston L M - - 2008
To determine the glycaemic index (GI) of various staple carbohydrate-rich foods in the UK diet, and to consider the factors influencing the GI of foods. Subjects were served with 25 or 50 g portions of glucose on three occasions, followed by a selection of test foods providing an equal amount ...
Burton P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of freezing and toasting on the glycaemic response of white bread. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Ten healthy subjects (three male, seven female), aged 22-59 years, recruited from Oxford Brookes University and the local community. A homemade white bread and a commercial white bread were administered following four different ...
Lacy Brian E BE Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA. - - 2007
In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract ...
Henry C Jeya K - - 2007
There is currently an increased global interest in the published glycaemic index (GI) values of foods. The aim of the present work was to supplement a previous study on the glycaemic response of 140 foods available in the UK by studying a further forty-four foods. One hundred and twenty-two healthy ...
Stillman Martin J - - 2007
In the first of this two-part article, we reviewed essential gastrointestinal (GI) data necessary for choosing selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) versus nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as other NSAID-related GI issues. Although GI considerations are critical to appropriate NSAID selection, the worldwide withdrawal of rofecoxib because of adverse ...
Drescher Larissa S - - 2007
The recommendation to eat diverse types of foodstuffs is an internationally accepted recommendation for a healthy diet. The importance of dietary variety is based on several studies that have shown that diverse diets are accompanied by positive health outcomes. However, the definition and measurement of healthy food diversity are often ...
Storey D - - 2007
DESIGN: Study part 1 was executed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study and study part 2 as a longitudinal study. SUBJECTS: Forty-one healthy adult volunteers aged 18-24 years were recruited from the student population of the University of Salford. All subjects enrolled and completed study part 1 and 39 ...
Arsköld Emma - - 2007
Lactobacillus reuteri is known to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have the potential to be used as an alternative biothickener in the food industry. In this study, the effect of several environmental conditions on the growth and EPS production in the L. reuteri strain ATCC 55730 was determined. The expression of ...
Koizumi Makoto - - 2007
The 2'-0-(2-methoxy)ethyl (2'-MOE)-modified gapmer antisense oligonucleotide ISIS113715, which targets protein-tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B) mRNA, increases insulin sensitivity and normalizes plasma glucose levels in diabetic ob/ob and db/db mice. In the present study, the efficacy of the isosequential 2'-O,4'-C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA)-modified oligonucleotide ENA-1 was compared with that of ISIS113715 in ...
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